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.\" Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Leon Bottou, Yann Le Cun, Patrick Haffner,
.\" Copyright (c) 2001 AT&T Corp., and Lizardtech, Inc.
.\" This is free documentation; you can redistribute it and/or
.\" modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
.\" published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
.\" the License, or (at your option) any later version.
.\" The GNU General Public License's references to "object code"
.\" and "executables" are to be interpreted as the output of any
.\" document formatting or typesetting system, including
.\" intermediate and printed output.
.\" This manual is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
.\" but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
.\" GNU General Public License for more details.
.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
.\" License along with this manual. Otherwise check the web site
.\" of the Free Software Foundation at
.TH BZZ 1 "10/11/2001" "DjVuLibre-3.5" "DjVuLibre-3.5"
.de SS
.SH \\0\\0\\0\\$*
bzz \- DjVu general purpose compression utility.

.SS Encoding:
.BI "bzz \-e" "[blocksize]" " " "inputfile" " " "outputfile"
.SS Decoding:
.BI "bzz \-d " "inputfile" " " "outputfile"

The first form of the command line (option 
.BR \-e )
compresses the data from file
.I inputfile 
and writes the compressed data into 
.IR outputfile .
The second form of the command line (option
.BR \-d )
decompressed file
.I inputfile
and writes the output to
.IR outputfile .

.B "\-d"
Decoding mode.
.BI "\-e" "[blocksize]"
Encoding mode.
The optional argument 
.I blocksize
specifies the size of the input file blocks processed by the Burrows-Wheeler
transform expressed in kilobytes.  The default block sizes is 2048
The maximal block size is 4096
Specifying a larger block size usually produces higher compression ratios
and increases the memory requirements of both the encoder and decoder.
It is useless to specify a block size that is larger than the
input file.

The Burrows-Wheeler transform is performed using a combination of the
Karp-Miller-Rosenberg and the Bentley-Sedgewick algorithms. This is comparable
to (Sadakane, DCC 98) with a slightly more flexible ranking scheme. Symbols
are then ordered according to a running estimate of their occurrence
frequencies.  The symbol ranks are then coded using a simple fixed tree and
the ZP binary adaptive coder (Bottou, DCC 98).

The Burrows-Wheeler transform is also used in the well known compressor
.BR bzip2 .
The originality of 
.B bzz
is the use of the ZP adaptive coder.
The adaptation noise can cost up to 5 percent in
file size, but this penalty is usually offset by the benefits of

The following table shows comparative results (in bits per character) 
on the Canterbury Corpus (
). The very good 
.B bzz
performance on the spreadsheet file 
.I excl
puts the weighted average ahead of much more sophisticated
compressors such as
.BR fsmx .
.ps -2

c s s s s s s s s s s s s s
l c c c c c c c c c c c c c
l n n n n n n n n n n n n n
l n n n n n n n n n n n n n
l n n n n n n n n n n n n n
l n n n n n n n n n n n n n
l nfB n nfB n nfB nfB nfB nfB nfB nfB nfB n nfB
lfB n nfB n nfB n n n n n n n nfB n
Compression performance
	text	fax	csrc	excl	sprc	tech	poem\
	html	lisp	man	play	Weighted	Average
\0compress\0	3.27	0.97	3.56	2.41	4.21	3.06	3.38	3.68	3.90	4.43	3.51	2.55	3.31
\0gzip \-9\0	2.85	0.82	2.24	1.63	2.67	2.71	3.23	2.59	2.65	3.31	3.12	2.08	2.53
\0bzip2 \-9\0	2.27	0.78	2.18	1.01	2.70	2.02	2.42	2.48	2.79	3.33	2.53	1.54	2.23
\0ppmd\0	2.31	0.99	2.11	1.08	2.68	2.19	2.48	2.38	2.43	3.00	2.53	1.65	2.20
\0fsmx\0	2.10	0.79	1.89	1.48	2.52	1.84	2.21	2.24	2.29	2.91	2.35	1.63	2.06
\0bzz\0	2.25	0.76	2.13	0.78	2.67	2.00	2.40	2.52	2.60	3.19	2.52	1.44	2.16

Note that DjVu contributors have several 
entries in this table.  Program
.B compress
was written some time ago by Joe Orost.
.B ppmd
is an improvement of the 
method invented by Paul Howard.

.B bzz 
was written by L\('eon Bottou <> and
was then improved by Andrei Erofeev <>, Bill Riemers
<> and many others.

.BR djvu (1),
.BR compress (1),
.BR gzip (1),
.BR bzip2 (1)