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#  Copyright (c) 1995-2001, Raphael Manfredi
#  Copyright (c) 2002-2014 by the Perl 5 Porters
#  Copyright (c) 2015-2016 cPanel Inc
#  Copyright (c) 2017 Reini Urban
#  You may redistribute only under the same terms as Perl 5, as specified
#  in the README file that comes with the distribution.

require XSLoader;
require Exporter;
package Storable;

our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
our @EXPORT = qw(store retrieve);
our @EXPORT_OK = qw(
	nstore store_fd nstore_fd fd_retrieve
	freeze nfreeze thaw
	lock_store lock_nstore lock_retrieve
        file_magic read_magic
        stack_depth stack_depth_hash

our ($canonical, $forgive_me);

our $VERSION = '3.11';

our $recursion_limit;
our $recursion_limit_hash;

do "Storable/";

$recursion_limit = 512
  unless defined $recursion_limit;
$recursion_limit_hash = 256
  unless defined $recursion_limit_hash;

    if (eval {
        local $SIG{__DIE__};
        local @INC = @INC;
        pop @INC if $INC[-1] eq '.';
        require Log::Agent;
    }) {
    # Use of Log::Agent is optional. If it hasn't imported these subs then
    # provide a fallback implementation.
    unless ($Storable::{logcroak} && *{$Storable::{logcroak}}{CODE}) {
        require Carp;
        *logcroak = sub {
    unless ($Storable::{logcarp} && *{$Storable::{logcarp}}{CODE}) {
	require Carp;
        *logcarp = sub {

# They might miss :flock in Fcntl

    if (eval { require Fcntl; 1 } && exists $Fcntl::EXPORT_TAGS{'flock'}) {
    } else {
        eval q{
	          sub LOCK_SH () { 1 }
		  sub LOCK_EX () { 2 }

sub CLONE {
    # clone context under threads

sub BLESS_OK     () { 2 }
sub TIE_OK       () { 4 }

# By default restricted hashes are downgraded on earlier perls.

$Storable::flags = FLAGS_COMPAT;
$Storable::downgrade_restricted = 1;
$Storable::accept_future_minor = 1;


# Determine whether locking is possible, but only when needed.

sub CAN_FLOCK; # TEMPLATE - replaced by

sub show_file_magic {
    print <<EOM;
# To recognize the data files of the Perl module Storable,
# the following lines need to be added to the local magic(5) file,
# usually either /usr/share/misc/magic or /etc/magic.
0	string	perl-store	perl Storable(v0.6) data
>4	byte	>0	(net-order %d)
>>4	byte	&01	(network-ordered)
>>4	byte	=3	(major 1)
>>4	byte	=2	(major 1)

0	string	pst0	perl Storable(v0.7) data
>4	byte	>0
>>4	byte	&01	(network-ordered)
>>4	byte	=5	(major 2)
>>4	byte	=4	(major 2)
>>5	byte	>0	(minor %d)

sub file_magic {
    require IO::File;

    my $file = shift;
    my $fh = IO::File->new;
    open($fh, "<", $file) || die "Can't open '$file': $!";
    defined(sysread($fh, my $buf, 32)) || die "Can't read from '$file': $!";

    $file = "./$file" unless $file;  # ensure TRUE value

    return read_magic($buf, $file);

sub read_magic {
    my($buf, $file) = @_;
    my %info;

    my $buflen = length($buf);
    my $magic;
    if ($buf =~ s/^(pst0|perl-store)//) {
	$magic = $1;
	$info{file} = $file || 1;
    else {
	return undef if $file;
	$magic = "";

    return undef unless length($buf);

    my $net_order;
    if ($magic eq "perl-store" && ord(substr($buf, 0, 1)) > 1) {
	$info{version} = -1;
	$net_order = 0;
    else {
	$buf =~ s/(.)//s;
	my $major = (ord $1) >> 1;
	return undef if $major > 4; # sanity (assuming we never go that high)
	$info{major} = $major;
	$net_order = (ord $1) & 0x01;
	if ($major > 1) {
	    return undef unless $buf =~ s/(.)//s;
	    my $minor = ord $1;
	    $info{minor} = $minor;
	    $info{version} = "$major.$minor";
	    $info{version_nv} = sprintf "%d.%03d", $major, $minor;
	else {
	    $info{version} = $major;
    $info{version_nv} ||= $info{version};
    $info{netorder} = $net_order;

    unless ($net_order) {
	return undef unless $buf =~ s/(.)//s;
	my $len = ord $1;
	return undef unless length($buf) >= $len;
	return undef unless $len == 4 || $len == 8;  # sanity
	@info{qw(byteorder intsize longsize ptrsize)}
	    = unpack "a${len}CCC", $buf;
	(substr $buf, 0, $len + 3) = '';
	if ($info{version_nv} >= 2.002) {
	    return undef unless $buf =~ s/(.)//s;
	    $info{nvsize} = ord $1;
    $info{hdrsize} = $buflen - length($buf);

    return \%info;

    sprintf "%d.%03d", BIN_MAJOR(), BIN_MINOR();

    sprintf "%d.%03d", BIN_MAJOR(), BIN_WRITE_MINOR();

# store
# Store target object hierarchy, identified by a reference to its root.
# The stored object tree may later be retrieved to memory via retrieve.
# Returns undef if an I/O error occurred, in which case the file is
# removed.
sub store {
    return _store(\&pstore, @_, 0);

# nstore
# Same as store, but in network order.
sub nstore {
    return _store(\&net_pstore, @_, 0);

# lock_store
# Same as store, but flock the file first (advisory locking).
sub lock_store {
    return _store(\&pstore, @_, 1);

# lock_nstore
# Same as nstore, but flock the file first (advisory locking).
sub lock_nstore {
    return _store(\&net_pstore, @_, 1);

# Internal store to file routine
sub _store {
    my $xsptr = shift;
    my $self = shift;
    my ($file, $use_locking) = @_;
    logcroak "not a reference" unless ref($self);
    logcroak "wrong argument number" unless @_ == 2;	# No @foo in arglist
    local *FILE;
    if ($use_locking) {
        open(FILE, ">>", $file) || logcroak "can't write into $file: $!";
        unless (&CAN_FLOCK) {
              "Storable::lock_store: fcntl/flock emulation broken on $^O";
            return undef;
        flock(FILE, LOCK_EX) ||
          logcroak "can't get exclusive lock on $file: $!";
        truncate FILE, 0;
        # Unlocking will happen when FILE is closed
    } else {
        open(FILE, ">", $file) || logcroak "can't create $file: $!";
    binmode FILE;	# Archaic systems...
    my $da = $@;	# Don't mess if called from exception handler
    my $ret;
    # Call C routine nstore or pstore, depending on network order
    eval { $ret = &$xsptr(*FILE, $self) };
    # close will return true on success, so the or short-circuits, the ()
    # expression is true, and for that case the block will only be entered
    # if $@ is true (ie eval failed)
    # if close fails, it returns false, $ret is altered, *that* is (also)
    # false, so the () expression is false, !() is true, and the block is
    # entered.
    if (!(close(FILE) or undef $ret) || $@) {
        unlink($file) or warn "Can't unlink $file: $!\n";
    if ($@) {
        $@ =~ s/\.?\n$/,/ unless ref $@;
        logcroak $@;
    $@ = $da;
    return $ret;

# store_fd
# Same as store, but perform on an already opened file descriptor instead.
# Returns undef if an I/O error occurred.
sub store_fd {
    return _store_fd(\&pstore, @_);

# nstore_fd
# Same as store_fd, but in network order.
sub nstore_fd {
    my ($self, $file) = @_;
    return _store_fd(\&net_pstore, @_);

# Internal store routine on opened file descriptor
sub _store_fd {
    my $xsptr = shift;
    my $self = shift;
    my ($file) = @_;
    logcroak "not a reference" unless ref($self);
    logcroak "too many arguments" unless @_ == 1;	# No @foo in arglist
    my $fd = fileno($file);
    logcroak "not a valid file descriptor" unless defined $fd;
    my $da = $@;		# Don't mess if called from exception handler
    my $ret;
    # Call C routine nstore or pstore, depending on network order
    eval { $ret = &$xsptr($file, $self) };
    logcroak $@ if $@ =~ s/\.?\n$/,/;
    local $\; print $file '';	# Autoflush the file if wanted
    $@ = $da;
    return $ret;

# freeze
# Store object and its hierarchy in memory and return a scalar
# containing the result.
sub freeze {
    _freeze(\&mstore, @_);

# nfreeze
# Same as freeze but in network order.
sub nfreeze {
    _freeze(\&net_mstore, @_);

# Internal freeze routine
sub _freeze {
    my $xsptr = shift;
    my $self = shift;
    logcroak "not a reference" unless ref($self);
    logcroak "too many arguments" unless @_ == 0;	# No @foo in arglist
    my $da = $@;	        # Don't mess if called from exception handler
    my $ret;
    # Call C routine mstore or net_mstore, depending on network order
    eval { $ret = &$xsptr($self) };
    if ($@) {
        $@ =~ s/\.?\n$/,/ unless ref $@;
        logcroak $@;
    $@ = $da;
    return $ret ? $ret : undef;

# retrieve
# Retrieve object hierarchy from disk, returning a reference to the root
# object of that tree.
# retrieve(file, flags)
# flags include by default BLESS_OK=2 | TIE_OK=4
# with flags=0 or the global $Storable::flags set to 0, no resulting object
# will be blessed nor tied.
sub retrieve {
    _retrieve(shift, 0, @_);

# lock_retrieve
# Same as retrieve, but with advisory locking.
sub lock_retrieve {
    _retrieve(shift, 1, @_);

# Internal retrieve routine
sub _retrieve {
    my ($file, $use_locking, $flags) = @_;
    $flags = $Storable::flags unless defined $flags;
    my $FILE;
    open($FILE, "<", $file) || logcroak "can't open $file: $!";
    binmode $FILE;			# Archaic systems...
    my $self;
    my $da = $@;			# Could be from exception handler
    if ($use_locking) {
        unless (&CAN_FLOCK) {
              "Storable::lock_store: fcntl/flock emulation broken on $^O";
            return undef;
        flock($FILE, LOCK_SH) || logcroak "can't get shared lock on $file: $!";
        # Unlocking will happen when FILE is closed
    eval { $self = pretrieve($FILE, $flags) };		# Call C routine
    if ($@) {
        $@ =~ s/\.?\n$/,/ unless ref $@;
        logcroak $@;
    $@ = $da;
    return $self;

# fd_retrieve
# Same as retrieve, but perform from an already opened file descriptor instead.
sub fd_retrieve {
    my ($file, $flags) = @_;
    $flags = $Storable::flags unless defined $flags;
    my $fd = fileno($file);
    logcroak "not a valid file descriptor" unless defined $fd;
    my $self;
    my $da = $@;				# Could be from exception handler
    eval { $self = pretrieve($file, $flags) };	# Call C routine
    if ($@) {
        $@ =~ s/\.?\n$/,/ unless ref $@;
        logcroak $@;
    $@ = $da;
    return $self;

sub retrieve_fd { &fd_retrieve }		# Backward compatibility

# thaw
# Recreate objects in memory from an existing frozen image created
# by freeze.  If the frozen image passed is undef, return undef.
# thaw(frozen_obj, flags)
# flags include by default BLESS_OK=2 | TIE_OK=4
# with flags=0 or the global $Storable::flags set to 0, no resulting object
# will be blessed nor tied.
sub thaw {
    my ($frozen, $flags) = @_;
    $flags = $Storable::flags unless defined $flags;
    return undef unless defined $frozen;
    my $self;
    my $da = $@;			        # Could be from exception handler
    eval { $self = mretrieve($frozen, $flags) };# Call C routine
    if ($@) {
        $@ =~ s/\.?\n$/,/ unless ref $@;
        logcroak $@;
    $@ = $da;
    return $self;

# _make_re($re, $flags)
# Internal function used to thaw a regular expression.

my $re_flags;
    if ($] < 5.010) {
        $re_flags = qr/\A[imsx]*\z/;
    elsif ($] < 5.014) {
        $re_flags = qr/\A[msixp]*\z/;
    elsif ($] < 5.022) {
        $re_flags = qr/\A[msixpdual]*\z/;
    else {
        $re_flags = qr/\A[msixpdualn]*\z/;

sub _make_re {
    my ($re, $flags) = @_;

    $flags =~ $re_flags
        or die "regexp flags invalid";

    my $qr = eval "qr/\$re/$flags";
    die $@ if $@;


if ($] < 5.012) {
    eval <<'EOS'
sub _regexp_pattern {
    my $re = "" . shift;
    $re =~ /\A\(\?([xism]*)(?:-[xism]*)?:(.*)\)\z/s
        or die "Cannot parse regexp /$re/";
    return ($2, $1);
      or die "Cannot define _regexp_pattern: $@";


=head1 NAME

Storable - persistence for Perl data structures


 use Storable;
 store \%table, 'file';
 $hashref = retrieve('file');

 use Storable qw(nstore store_fd nstore_fd freeze thaw dclone);

 # Network order
 nstore \%table, 'file';
 $hashref = retrieve('file');	# There is NO nretrieve()

 # Storing to and retrieving from an already opened file
 store_fd \@array, \*STDOUT;
 nstore_fd \%table, \*STDOUT;
 $aryref = fd_retrieve(\*SOCKET);
 $hashref = fd_retrieve(\*SOCKET);

 # Serializing to memory
 $serialized = freeze \%table;
 %table_clone = %{ thaw($serialized) };

 # Deep (recursive) cloning
 $cloneref = dclone($ref);

 # Advisory locking
 use Storable qw(lock_store lock_nstore lock_retrieve)
 lock_store \%table, 'file';
 lock_nstore \%table, 'file';
 $hashref = lock_retrieve('file');


The Storable package brings persistence to your Perl data structures
containing SCALAR, ARRAY, HASH or REF objects, i.e. anything that can be
conveniently stored to disk and retrieved at a later time.

It can be used in the regular procedural way by calling C<store> with
a reference to the object to be stored, along with the file name where
the image should be written.

The routine returns C<undef> for I/O problems or other internal error,
a true value otherwise. Serious errors are propagated as a C<die> exception.

To retrieve data stored to disk, use C<retrieve> with a file name.
The objects stored into that file are recreated into memory for you,
and a I<reference> to the root object is returned. In case an I/O error
occurs while reading, C<undef> is returned instead. Other serious
errors are propagated via C<die>.

Since storage is performed recursively, you might want to stuff references
to objects that share a lot of common data into a single array or hash
table, and then store that object. That way, when you retrieve back the
whole thing, the objects will continue to share what they originally shared.

At the cost of a slight header overhead, you may store to an already
opened file descriptor using the C<store_fd> routine, and retrieve
from a file via C<fd_retrieve>. Those names aren't imported by default,
so you will have to do that explicitly if you need those routines.
The file descriptor you supply must be already opened, for read
if you're going to retrieve and for write if you wish to store.

	store_fd(\%table, *STDOUT) || die "can't store to stdout\n";
	$hashref = fd_retrieve(*STDIN);

You can also store data in network order to allow easy sharing across
multiple platforms, or when storing on a socket known to be remotely
connected. The routines to call have an initial C<n> prefix for I<network>,
as in C<nstore> and C<nstore_fd>. At retrieval time, your data will be
correctly restored so you don't have to know whether you're restoring
from native or network ordered data.  Double values are stored stringified
to ensure portability as well, at the slight risk of loosing some precision
in the last decimals.

When using C<fd_retrieve>, objects are retrieved in sequence, one
object (i.e. one recursive tree) per associated C<store_fd>.

If you're more from the object-oriented camp, you can inherit from
Storable and directly store your objects by invoking C<store> as
a method. The fact that the root of the to-be-stored tree is a
blessed reference (i.e. an object) is special-cased so that the
retrieve does not provide a reference to that object but rather the
blessed object reference itself. (Otherwise, you'd get a reference
to that blessed object).


The Storable engine can also store data into a Perl scalar instead, to
later retrieve them. This is mainly used to freeze a complex structure in
some safe compact memory place (where it can possibly be sent to another
process via some IPC, since freezing the structure also serializes it in
effect). Later on, and maybe somewhere else, you can thaw the Perl scalar
out and recreate the original complex structure in memory.

Surprisingly, the routines to be called are named C<freeze> and C<thaw>.
If you wish to send out the frozen scalar to another machine, use
C<nfreeze> instead to get a portable image.

Note that freezing an object structure and immediately thawing it
actually achieves a deep cloning of that structure:

    dclone(.) = thaw(freeze(.))

Storable provides you with a C<dclone> interface which does not create
that intermediary scalar but instead freezes the structure in some
internal memory space and then immediately thaws it out.


The C<lock_store> and C<lock_nstore> routine are equivalent to
C<store> and C<nstore>, except that they get an exclusive lock on
the file before writing.  Likewise, C<lock_retrieve> does the same
as C<retrieve>, but also gets a shared lock on the file before reading.

As with any advisory locking scheme, the protection only works if you
systematically use C<lock_store> and C<lock_retrieve>.  If one side of
your application uses C<store> whilst the other uses C<lock_retrieve>,
you will get no protection at all.

The internal advisory locking is implemented using Perl's flock()
routine.  If your system does not support any form of flock(), or if
you share your files across NFS, you might wish to use other forms
of locking by using modules such as LockFile::Simple which lock a
file using a filesystem entry, instead of locking the file descriptor.

=head1 SPEED

The heart of Storable is written in C for decent speed. Extra low-level
optimizations have been made when manipulating perl internals, to
sacrifice encapsulation for the benefit of greater speed.


Normally, Storable stores elements of hashes in the order they are
stored internally by Perl, i.e. pseudo-randomly.  If you set
C<$Storable::canonical> to some C<TRUE> value, Storable will store
hashes with the elements sorted by their key.  This allows you to
compare data structures by comparing their frozen representations (or
even the compressed frozen representations), which can be useful for
creating lookup tables for complicated queries.

Canonical order does not imply network order; those are two orthogonal


Since Storable version 2.05, CODE references may be serialized with
the help of L<B::Deparse>. To enable this feature, set
C<$Storable::Deparse> to a true value. To enable deserialization,
C<$Storable::Eval> should be set to a true value. Be aware that
deserialization is done through C<eval>, which is dangerous if the
Storable file contains malicious data. You can set C<$Storable::Eval>
to a subroutine reference which would be used instead of C<eval>. See
below for an example using a L<Safe> compartment for deserialization
of CODE references.

If C<$Storable::Deparse> and/or C<$Storable::Eval> are set to false
values, then the value of C<$Storable::forgive_me> (see below) is
respected while serializing and deserializing.


This release of Storable can be used on a newer version of Perl to
serialize data which is not supported by earlier Perls.  By default,
Storable will attempt to do the right thing, by C<croak()>ing if it
encounters data that it cannot deserialize.  However, the defaults
can be changed as follows:

=over 4

=item utf8 data

Perl 5.6 added support for Unicode characters with code points > 255,
and Perl 5.8 has full support for Unicode characters in hash keys.
Perl internally encodes strings with these characters using utf8, and
Storable serializes them as utf8.  By default, if an older version of
Perl encounters a utf8 value it cannot represent, it will C<croak()>.
To change this behaviour so that Storable deserializes utf8 encoded
values as the string of bytes (effectively dropping the I<is_utf8> flag)
set C<$Storable::drop_utf8> to some C<TRUE> value.  This is a form of
data loss, because with C<$drop_utf8> true, it becomes impossible to tell
whether the original data was the Unicode string, or a series of bytes
that happen to be valid utf8.

=item restricted hashes

Perl 5.8 adds support for restricted hashes, which have keys
restricted to a given set, and can have values locked to be read only.
By default, when Storable encounters a restricted hash on a perl
that doesn't support them, it will deserialize it as a normal hash,
silently discarding any placeholder keys and leaving the keys and
all values unlocked.  To make Storable C<croak()> instead, set
C<$Storable::downgrade_restricted> to a C<FALSE> value.  To restore
the default set it back to some C<TRUE> value.

The cperl PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_TOP hash strategy has a known problem with
restricted hashes.

=item huge objects

On 64bit systems some data structures may exceed the 2G (i.e. I32_MAX)
limit. On 32bit systems also strings between I32 and U32 (2G-4G).
Since Storable 3.00 (not in perl5 core) we are able to store and
retrieve these objects, even if perl5 itself is not able to handle
them.  These are strings longer then 4G, arrays with more then 2G
elements and hashes with more then 2G elements. cperl forbids hashes
with more than 2G elements, but this fail in cperl then. perl5 itself
at least until 5.26 allows it, but cannot iterate over them.
Note that creating those objects might cause out of memory
exceptions by the operating system before perl has a chance to abort.

=item files from future versions of Storable

Earlier versions of Storable would immediately croak if they encountered
a file with a higher internal version number than the reading Storable
knew about.  Internal version numbers are increased each time new data
types (such as restricted hashes) are added to the vocabulary of the file
format.  This meant that a newer Storable module had no way of writing a
file readable by an older Storable, even if the writer didn't store newer
data types.

This version of Storable will defer croaking until it encounters a data
type in the file that it does not recognize.  This means that it will
continue to read files generated by newer Storable modules which are careful
in what they write out, making it easier to upgrade Storable modules in a
mixed environment.

The old behaviour of immediate croaking can be re-instated by setting
C<$Storable::accept_future_minor> to some C<FALSE> value.


All these variables have no effect on a newer Perl which supports the
relevant feature.


Storable uses the "exception" paradigm, in that it does not try to
workaround failures: if something bad happens, an exception is
generated from the caller's perspective (see L<Carp> and C<croak()>).
Use eval {} to trap those exceptions.

When Storable croaks, it tries to report the error via the C<logcroak()>
routine from the C<Log::Agent> package, if it is available.

Normal errors are reported by having store() or retrieve() return C<undef>.
Such errors are usually I/O errors (or truncated stream errors at retrieval).

When Storable throws the "Max. recursion depth with nested structures
exceeded" error we are already out of stack space. Unfortunately on
some earlier perl versions cleaning up a recursive data structure
recurses into the free calls, which will lead to stack overflows in
the cleanup. This data structure is not properly cleaned up then, it
will only be destroyed during global destruction.


=head2 Hooks

Any class may define hooks that will be called during the serialization
and deserialization process on objects that are instances of that class.
Those hooks can redefine the way serialization is performed (and therefore,
how the symmetrical deserialization should be conducted).

Since we said earlier:

    dclone(.) = thaw(freeze(.))

everything we say about hooks should also hold for deep cloning. However,
hooks get to know whether the operation is a mere serialization, or a cloning.

Therefore, when serializing hooks are involved,

    dclone(.) <> thaw(freeze(.))

Well, you could keep them in sync, but there's no guarantee it will always
hold on classes somebody else wrote.  Besides, there is little to gain in
doing so: a serializing hook could keep only one attribute of an object,
which is probably not what should happen during a deep cloning of that
same object.

Here is the hooking interface:

=over 4

=item C<STORABLE_freeze> I<obj>, I<cloning>

The serializing hook, called on the object during serialization.  It can be
inherited, or defined in the class itself, like any other method.

Arguments: I<obj> is the object to serialize, I<cloning> is a flag indicating
whether we're in a dclone() or a regular serialization via store() or freeze().

Returned value: A LIST C<($serialized, $ref1, $ref2, ...)> where $serialized
is the serialized form to be used, and the optional $ref1, $ref2, etc... are
extra references that you wish to let the Storable engine serialize.

At deserialization time, you will be given back the same LIST, but all the
extra references will be pointing into the deserialized structure.

The B<first time> the hook is hit in a serialization flow, you may have it
return an empty list.  That will signal the Storable engine to further
discard that hook for this class and to therefore revert to the default
serialization of the underlying Perl data.  The hook will again be normally
processed in the next serialization.

Unless you know better, serializing hook should always say:

    sub STORABLE_freeze {
        my ($self, $cloning) = @_;
        return if $cloning;         # Regular default serialization

in order to keep reasonable dclone() semantics.

=item C<STORABLE_thaw> I<obj>, I<cloning>, I<serialized>, ...

The deserializing hook called on the object during deserialization.
But wait: if we're deserializing, there's no object yet... right?

Wrong: the Storable engine creates an empty one for you.  If you know Eiffel,
you can view C<STORABLE_thaw> as an alternate creation routine.

This means the hook can be inherited like any other method, and that
I<obj> is your blessed reference for this particular instance.

The other arguments should look familiar if you know C<STORABLE_freeze>:
I<cloning> is true when we're part of a deep clone operation, I<serialized>
is the serialized string you returned to the engine in C<STORABLE_freeze>,
and there may be an optional list of references, in the same order you gave
them at serialization time, pointing to the deserialized objects (which
have been processed courtesy of the Storable engine).

When the Storable engine does not find any C<STORABLE_thaw> hook routine,
it tries to load the class by requiring the package dynamically (using
the blessed package name), and then re-attempts the lookup.  If at that
time the hook cannot be located, the engine croaks.  Note that this mechanism
will fail if you define several classes in the same file, but L<perlmod>
warned you.

It is up to you to use this information to populate I<obj> the way you want.

Returned value: none.

=item C<STORABLE_attach> I<class>, I<cloning>, I<serialized>

While C<STORABLE_freeze> and C<STORABLE_thaw> are useful for classes where
each instance is independent, this mechanism has difficulty (or is
incompatible) with objects that exist as common process-level or
system-level resources, such as singleton objects, database pools, caches
or memoized objects.

The alternative C<STORABLE_attach> method provides a solution for these
shared objects. Instead of C<STORABLE_freeze> --E<gt> C<STORABLE_thaw>,
you implement C<STORABLE_freeze> --E<gt> C<STORABLE_attach> instead.

Arguments: I<class> is the class we are attaching to, I<cloning> is a flag
indicating whether we're in a dclone() or a regular de-serialization via
thaw(), and I<serialized> is the stored string for the resource object.

Because these resource objects are considered to be owned by the entire
process/system, and not the "property" of whatever is being serialized,
no references underneath the object should be included in the serialized
string. Thus, in any class that implements C<STORABLE_attach>, the
C<STORABLE_freeze> method cannot return any references, and C<Storable>
will throw an error if C<STORABLE_freeze> tries to return references.

All information required to "attach" back to the shared resource object
B<must> be contained B<only> in the C<STORABLE_freeze> return string.
Otherwise, C<STORABLE_freeze> behaves as normal for C<STORABLE_attach>

Because C<STORABLE_attach> is passed the class (rather than an object),
it also returns the object directly, rather than modifying the passed

Returned value: object of type C<class>


=head2 Predicates

Predicates are not exportable.  They must be called by explicitly prefixing
them with the Storable package name.

=over 4

=item C<Storable::last_op_in_netorder>

The C<Storable::last_op_in_netorder()> predicate will tell you whether
network order was used in the last store or retrieve operation.  If you
don't know how to use this, just forget about it.

=item C<Storable::is_storing>

Returns true if within a store operation (via STORABLE_freeze hook).

=item C<Storable::is_retrieving>

Returns true if within a retrieve operation (via STORABLE_thaw hook).


=head2 Recursion

With hooks comes the ability to recurse back to the Storable engine.
Indeed, hooks are regular Perl code, and Storable is convenient when
it comes to serializing and deserializing things, so why not use it
to handle the serialization string?

There are a few things you need to know, however:

=over 4

=item *

Since Storable 3.05 we probe for the stack recursion limit for references,
arrays and hashes to a maximal depth of ~1200-35000, otherwise we might
fall into a stack-overflow.  On JSON::XS this limit is 512 btw.  With
references not immediately referencing each other there's no such
limit yet, so you might fall into such a stack-overflow segfault.

This probing and the checks performed have some limitations:


=item *

the stack size at build time might be different at run time, eg. the
stack size may have been modified with ulimit(1).  If it's larger at
run time Storable may fail the freeze() or thaw() unnecessarily.

=item *

the stack size might be different in a thread.

=item *

array and hash recursion limits are checked separately against the
same recursion depth, a frozen structure with a large sequence of
nested arrays within many nested hashes may exhaust the processor
stack without triggering Storable's recursion protection.


You can control the maximum array and hash recursion depths by
modifying C<$Storable::recursion_limit> and
C<$Storable::recursion_limit_hash> respectively.  Either can be set to
C<-1> to prevent any depth checks, though this isn't recommended.

=item *

You can create endless loops if the things you serialize via freeze()
(for instance) point back to the object we're trying to serialize in
the hook.

=item *

Shared references among objects will not stay shared: if we're serializing
the list of object [A, C] where both object A and C refer to the SAME object
B, and if there is a serializing hook in A that says freeze(B), then when
deserializing, we'll get [A', C'] where A' refers to B', but C' refers to D,
a deep clone of B'.  The topology was not preserved.

=item *

The maximal stack recursion limit for your system is returned by
C<stack_depth()> and C<stack_depth_hash()>. The hash limit is usually
half the size of the array and ref limit, as the Perl hash API is not optimal.


That's why C<STORABLE_freeze> lets you provide a list of references
to serialize.  The engine guarantees that those will be serialized in the
same context as the other objects, and therefore that shared objects will
stay shared.

In the above [A, C] example, the C<STORABLE_freeze> hook could return:

	("something", $self->{B})

and the B part would be serialized by the engine.  In C<STORABLE_thaw>, you
would get back the reference to the B' object, deserialized for you.

Therefore, recursion should normally be avoided, but is nonetheless supported.

=head2 Deep Cloning

There is a Clone module available on CPAN which implements deep cloning
natively, i.e. without freezing to memory and thawing the result.  It is
aimed to replace Storable's dclone() some day.  However, it does not currently
support Storable hooks to redefine the way deep cloning is performed.

=head1 Storable magic

Yes, there's a lot of that :-) But more precisely, in UNIX systems
there's a utility called C<file>, which recognizes data files based on
their contents (usually their first few bytes).  For this to work,
a certain file called F<magic> needs to taught about the I<signature>
of the data.  Where that configuration file lives depends on the UNIX
flavour; often it's something like F</usr/share/misc/magic> or
F</etc/magic>.  Your system administrator needs to do the updating of
the F<magic> file.  The necessary signature information is output to
STDOUT by invoking Storable::show_file_magic().  Note that the GNU
implementation of the C<file> utility, version 3.38 or later,
is expected to contain support for recognising Storable files
out-of-the-box, in addition to other kinds of Perl files.

You can also use the following functions to extract the file header
information from Storable images:


=item $info = Storable::file_magic( $filename )

If the given file is a Storable image return a hash describing it.  If
the file is readable, but not a Storable image return C<undef>.  If
the file does not exist or is unreadable then croak.

The hash returned has the following elements:


=item C<version>

This returns the file format version.  It is a string like "2.7".

Note that this version number is not the same as the version number of
the Storable module itself.  For instance Storable v0.7 create files
in format v2.0 and Storable v2.15 create files in format v2.7.  The
file format version number only increment when additional features
that would confuse older versions of the module are added.

Files older than v2.0 will have the one of the version numbers "-1",
"0" or "1".  No minor number was used at that time.

=item C<version_nv>

This returns the file format version as number.  It is a string like
"2.007".  This value is suitable for numeric comparisons.

The constant function C<Storable::BIN_VERSION_NV> returns a comparable
number that represents the highest file version number that this
version of Storable fully supports (but see discussion of
C<$Storable::accept_future_minor> above).  The constant
C<Storable::BIN_WRITE_VERSION_NV> function returns what file version
is written and might be less than C<Storable::BIN_VERSION_NV> in some

=item C<major>, C<minor>

This also returns the file format version.  If the version is "2.7"
then major would be 2 and minor would be 7.  The minor element is
missing for when major is less than 2.

=item C<hdrsize>

The is the number of bytes that the Storable header occupies.

=item C<netorder>

This is TRUE if the image store data in network order.  This means
that it was created with nstore() or similar.

=item C<byteorder>

This is only present when C<netorder> is FALSE.  It is the
$Config{byteorder} string of the perl that created this image.  It is
a string like "1234" (32 bit little endian) or "87654321" (64 bit big
endian).  This must match the current perl for the image to be
readable by Storable.

=item C<intsize>, C<longsize>, C<ptrsize>, C<nvsize>

These are only present when C<netorder> is FALSE. These are the sizes of
various C datatypes of the perl that created this image.  These must
match the current perl for the image to be readable by Storable.

The C<nvsize> element is only present for file format v2.2 and

=item C<file>

The name of the file.


=item $info = Storable::read_magic( $buffer )

=item $info = Storable::read_magic( $buffer, $must_be_file )

The $buffer should be a Storable image or the first few bytes of it.
If $buffer starts with a Storable header, then a hash describing the
image is returned, otherwise C<undef> is returned.

The hash has the same structure as the one returned by
Storable::file_magic().  The C<file> element is true if the image is a
file image.

If the $must_be_file argument is provided and is TRUE, then return
C<undef> unless the image looks like it belongs to a file dump.

The maximum size of a Storable header is currently 21 bytes.  If the
provided $buffer is only the first part of a Storable image it should
at least be this long to ensure that read_magic() will recognize it as



Here are some code samples showing a possible usage of Storable:

 use Storable qw(store retrieve freeze thaw dclone);

 %color = ('Blue' => 0.1, 'Red' => 0.8, 'Black' => 0, 'White' => 1);

 store(\%color, 'mycolors') or die "Can't store %a in mycolors!\n";

 $colref = retrieve('mycolors');
 die "Unable to retrieve from mycolors!\n" unless defined $colref;
 printf "Blue is still %lf\n", $colref->{'Blue'};

 $colref2 = dclone(\%color);

 $str = freeze(\%color);
 printf "Serialization of %%color is %d bytes long.\n", length($str);
 $colref3 = thaw($str);

which prints (on my machine):

 Blue is still 0.100000
 Serialization of %color is 102 bytes long.

Serialization of CODE references and deserialization in a safe

=for example begin

 use Storable qw(freeze thaw);
 use Safe;
 use strict;
 my $safe = new Safe;
        # because of opcodes used in "use strict":
 $safe->permit(qw(:default require));
 local $Storable::Deparse = 1;
 local $Storable::Eval = sub { $safe->reval($_[0]) };
 my $serialized = freeze(sub { 42 });
 my $code = thaw($serialized);
 $code->() == 42;

=for example end

=for example_testing
        is( $code->(), 42 );


B<Do not accept Storable documents from untrusted sources!>

Some features of Storable can lead to security vulnerabilities if you
accept Storable documents from untrusted sources with the default
flags. Most obviously, the optional (off by default) CODE reference
serialization feature allows transfer of code to the deserializing
process. Furthermore, any serialized object will cause Storable to
helpfully load the module corresponding to the class of the object in
the deserializing module.  For manipulated module names, this can load
almost arbitrary code.  Finally, the deserialized object's destructors
will be invoked when the objects get destroyed in the deserializing
process. Maliciously crafted Storable documents may put such objects
in the value of a hash key that is overridden by another key/value
pair in the same hash, thus causing immediate destructor execution.

To disable blessing objects while thawing/retrieving remove the flag
C<BLESS_OK> = 2 from C<$Storable::flags> or set the 2nd argument for
thaw/retrieve to 0.

To disable tieing data while thawing/retrieving remove the flag C<TIE_OK>
= 4 from C<$Storable::flags> or set the 2nd argument for thaw/retrieve
to 0.

With the default setting of C<$Storable::flags> = 6, creating or destroying
random objects, even renamed objects can be controlled by an attacker.
See CVE-2015-1592 and its metasploit module.

If your application requires accepting data from untrusted sources,
you are best off with a less powerful and more-likely safe
serialization format and implementation. If your data is sufficiently
simple, Cpanel::JSON::XS, Data::MessagePack or Serial are the best
choices and offers maximum interoperability, but note that Serial is
unsafe by default.

=head1 WARNING

If you're using references as keys within your hash tables, you're bound
to be disappointed when retrieving your data. Indeed, Perl stringifies
references used as hash table keys. If you later wish to access the
items via another reference stringification (i.e. using the same
reference that was used for the key originally to record the value into
the hash table), it will work because both references stringify to the
same string.

It won't work across a sequence of C<store> and C<retrieve> operations,
however, because the addresses in the retrieved objects, which are
part of the stringified references, will probably differ from the
original addresses. The topology of your structure is preserved,
but not hidden semantics like those.

On platforms where it matters, be sure to call C<binmode()> on the
descriptors that you pass to Storable functions.

Storing data canonically that contains large hashes can be
significantly slower than storing the same data normally, as
temporary arrays to hold the keys for each hash have to be allocated,
populated, sorted and freed.  Some tests have shown a halving of the
speed of storing -- the exact penalty will depend on the complexity of
your data.  There is no slowdown on retrieval.


Storable now has experimental support for storing regular expressions,
but there are significant limitations:


=item *

perl 5.8 or later is required.

=item *

regular expressions with code blocks, ie C</(?{ ... })/> or C</(??{
... })/> will throw an exception when thawed.

=item *

regular expression syntax and flags have changed over the history of
perl, so a regular expression that you freeze in one version of perl
may fail to thaw or behave differently in another version of perl.

=item *

depending on the version of perl, regular expressions can change in
behaviour depending on the context, but later perls will bake that
behaviour into the regexp.


Storable will throw an exception if a frozen regular expression cannot
be thawed.

=head1 BUGS

You can't store GLOB, FORMLINE, etc.... If you can define semantics
for those operations, feel free to enhance Storable so that it can
deal with them.

The store functions will C<croak> if they run into such references
unless you set C<$Storable::forgive_me> to some C<TRUE> value. In that
case, the fatal message is converted to a warning and some meaningless
string is stored instead.

Setting C<$Storable::canonical> may not yield frozen strings that
compare equal due to possible stringification of numbers. When the
string version of a scalar exists, it is the form stored; therefore,
if you happen to use your numbers as strings between two freezing
operations on the same data structures, you will get different

When storing doubles in network order, their value is stored as text.
However, you should also not expect non-numeric floating-point values
such as infinity and "not a number" to pass successfully through a
nstore()/retrieve() pair.

As Storable neither knows nor cares about character sets (although it
does know that characters may be more than eight bits wide), any difference
in the interpretation of character codes between a host and a target
system is your problem.  In particular, if host and target use different
code points to represent the characters used in the text representation
of floating-point numbers, you will not be able be able to exchange
floating-point data, even with nstore().

C<Storable::drop_utf8> is a blunt tool.  There is no facility either to
return B<all> strings as utf8 sequences, or to attempt to convert utf8
data back to 8 bit and C<croak()> if the conversion fails.

Prior to Storable 2.01, no distinction was made between signed and
unsigned integers on storing.  By default Storable prefers to store a
scalars string representation (if it has one) so this would only cause
problems when storing large unsigned integers that had never been converted
to string or floating point.  In other words values that had been generated
by integer operations such as logic ops and then not used in any string or
arithmetic context before storing.

=head2 64 bit data in perl 5.6.0 and 5.6.1

This section only applies to you if you have existing data written out
by Storable 2.02 or earlier on perl 5.6.0 or 5.6.1 on Unix or Linux which
has been configured with 64 bit integer support (not the default)
If you got a precompiled perl, rather than running Configure to build
your own perl from source, then it almost certainly does not affect you,
and you can stop reading now (unless you're curious). If you're using perl
on Windows it does not affect you.

Storable writes a file header which contains the sizes of various C
language types for the C compiler that built Storable (when not writing in
network order), and will refuse to load files written by a Storable not
on the same (or compatible) architecture.  This check and a check on
machine byteorder is needed because the size of various fields in the file
are given by the sizes of the C language types, and so files written on
different architectures are incompatible.  This is done for increased speed.
(When writing in network order, all fields are written out as standard
lengths, which allows full interworking, but takes longer to read and write)

Perl 5.6.x introduced the ability to optional configure the perl interpreter
to use C's C<long long> type to allow scalars to store 64 bit integers on 32
bit systems.  However, due to the way the Perl configuration system
generated the C configuration files on non-Windows platforms, and the way
Storable generates its header, nothing in the Storable file header reflected
whether the perl writing was using 32 or 64 bit integers, despite the fact
that Storable was storing some data differently in the file.  Hence Storable
running on perl with 64 bit integers will read the header from a file
written by a 32 bit perl, not realise that the data is actually in a subtly
incompatible format, and then go horribly wrong (possibly crashing) if it
encountered a stored integer.  This is a design failure.

Storable has now been changed to write out and read in a file header with
information about the size of integers.  It's impossible to detect whether
an old file being read in was written with 32 or 64 bit integers (they have
the same header) so it's impossible to automatically switch to a correct
backwards compatibility mode.  Hence this Storable defaults to the new,
correct behaviour.

What this means is that if you have data written by Storable 1.x running
on perl 5.6.0 or 5.6.1 configured with 64 bit integers on Unix or Linux
then by default this Storable will refuse to read it, giving the error
I<Byte order is not compatible>.  If you have such data then you
should set C<$Storable::interwork_56_64bit> to a true value to make this
Storable read and write files with the old header.  You should also
migrate your data, or any older perl you are communicating with, to this
current version of Storable.

If you don't have data written with specific configuration of perl described
above, then you do not and should not do anything.  Don't set the flag -
not only will Storable on an identically configured perl refuse to load them,
but Storable a differently configured perl will load them believing them
to be correct for it, and then may well fail or crash part way through
reading them.

=head1 CREDITS

Thank you to (in chronological order):

	Jarkko Hietaniemi <>
	Ulrich Pfeifer <>
	Benjamin A. Holzman <>
	Andrew Ford <>
	Gisle Aas <>
	Jeff Gresham <>
	Murray Nesbitt <>
	Marc Lehmann <>
	Justin Banks <>
	Jarkko Hietaniemi <> (AGAIN, as perl 5.7.0 Pumpkin!)
	Salvador Ortiz Garcia <>
	Dominic Dunlop <>
	Erik Haugan <>
	Benjamin A. Holzman <>
	Reini Urban <>
	Todd Rinaldo <>
	Aaron Crane <>

for their bug reports, suggestions and contributions.

Benjamin Holzman contributed the tied variable support, Andrew Ford
contributed the canonical order for hashes, and Gisle Aas fixed
a few misunderstandings of mine regarding the perl internals,
and optimized the emission of "tags" in the output streams by
simply counting the objects instead of tagging them (leading to
a binary incompatibility for the Storable image starting at version
0.6--older images are, of course, still properly understood).
Murray Nesbitt made Storable thread-safe.  Marc Lehmann added overloading
and references to tied items support.  Benjamin Holzman added a performance
improvement for overloaded classes; thanks to Grant Street Group for footing
the bill.
Reini Urban took over maintainance from p5p, and added security fixes
and huge object support.

=head1 AUTHOR

Storable was written by Raphael Manfredi
Maintenance is now done by cperl L<>

Please e-mail us with problems, bug fixes, comments and complaints,
although if you have compliments you should send them to Raphael.
Please don't e-mail Raphael with problems, as he no longer works on
Storable, and your message will be delayed while he forwards it to us.

=head1 SEE ALSO