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 This is a high-level summary of the most important changes.
 For a full list of changes, see the git commit log; for example, and pick the appropriate
 release branch.

 Changes between 1.1.1f and 1.1.1g [21 Apr 2020]

  *) Fixed segmentation fault in SSL_check_chain()
     Server or client applications that call the SSL_check_chain() function
     during or after a TLS 1.3 handshake may crash due to a NULL pointer
     dereference as a result of incorrect handling of the
     "signature_algorithms_cert" TLS extension. The crash occurs if an invalid
     or unrecognised signature algorithm is received from the peer. This could
     be exploited by a malicious peer in a Denial of Service attack.
     [Benjamin Kaduk]

  *) Added AES consttime code for no-asm configurations
     an optional constant time support for AES was added
     when building openssl for no-asm.
     Enable with: ./config no-asm -DOPENSSL_AES_CONST_TIME
     Disable with: ./config no-asm -DOPENSSL_NO_AES_CONST_TIME
     At this time this feature is by default disabled.
     It will be enabled by default in 3.0.
     [Bernd Edlinger]

 Changes between 1.1.1e and 1.1.1f [31 Mar 2020]

  *) Revert the change of EOF detection while reading in libssl to avoid
     regressions in applications depending on the current way of reporting
     the EOF. As the existing method is not fully accurate the change to
     reporting the EOF via SSL_ERROR_SSL is kept on the current development
     branch and will be present in the 3.0 release.
     [Tomas Mraz]

  *) Revised BN_generate_prime_ex to not avoid factors 3..17863 in p-1
     when primes for RSA keys are computed.
     Since we previously always generated primes == 2 (mod 3) for RSA keys,
     the 2-prime and 3-prime RSA modules were easy to distinguish, since
     N = p*q = 1 (mod 3), but N = p*q*r = 2 (mod 3). Therefore fingerprinting
     2-prime vs. 3-prime RSA keys was possible by computing N mod 3.
     This avoids possible fingerprinting of newly generated RSA modules.
     [Bernd Edlinger]

 Changes between 1.1.1d and 1.1.1e [17 Mar 2020]
  *) Properly detect EOF while reading in libssl. Previously if we hit an EOF
     while reading in libssl then we would report an error back to the
     application (SSL_ERROR_SYSCALL) but errno would be 0. We now add
     an error to the stack (which means we instead return SSL_ERROR_SSL) and
     therefore give a hint as to what went wrong.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Check that ed25519 and ed448 are allowed by the security level. Previously
     signature algorithms not using an MD were not being checked that they were
     allowed by the security level.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Fixed SSL_get_servername() behaviour. The behaviour of SSL_get_servername()
     was not quite right. The behaviour was not consistent between resumption
     and normal handshakes, and also not quite consistent with historical
     behaviour. The behaviour in various scenarios has been clarified and
     it has been updated to make it match historical behaviour as closely as
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) [VMS only] The header files that the VMS compilers include automatically,
     the C++ compiler doesn't understand.  This is a shortcoming in the
     compiler, but can be worked around with __cplusplus guards.

     C++ applications that use OpenSSL libraries must be compiled using the
     qualifier '/NAMES=(AS_IS,SHORTENED)' to be able to use all the OpenSSL
     functions.  Otherwise, only functions with symbols of less than 31
     characters can be used, as the linker will not be able to successfully
     resolve symbols with longer names.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Corrected the documentation of the return values from the EVP_DigestSign*
     set of functions.  The documentation mentioned negative values for some
     errors, but this was never the case, so the mention of negative values
     was removed.

     Code that followed the documentation and thereby check with something
     like 'EVP_DigestSignInit(...) <= 0' will continue to work undisturbed.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fixed an an overflow bug in the x64_64 Montgomery squaring procedure
     used in exponentiation with 512-bit moduli. No EC algorithms are
     affected. Analysis suggests that attacks against 2-prime RSA1024,
     3-prime RSA1536, and DSA1024 as a result of this defect would be very
     difficult to perform and are not believed likely. Attacks against DH512
     are considered just feasible. However, for an attack the target would
     have to re-use the DH512 private key, which is not recommended anyway.
     Also applications directly using the low level API BN_mod_exp may be
     affected if they use BN_FLG_CONSTTIME.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Added a new method to gather entropy on VMS, based on SYS$GET_ENTROPY.
     The presence of this system service is determined at run-time.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added newline escaping functionality to a filename when using openssl dgst.
     This output format is to replicate the output format found in the '*sum'
     checksum programs. This aims to preserve backward compatibility.
     [Matt Eaton, Richard Levitte, and Paul Dale]

  *) Print all values for a PKCS#12 attribute with 'openssl pkcs12', not just
     the first value.
     [Jon Spillett]

 Changes between 1.1.1c and 1.1.1d [10 Sep 2019]

  *) Fixed a fork protection issue. OpenSSL 1.1.1 introduced a rewritten random
     number generator (RNG). This was intended to include protection in the
     event of a fork() system call in order to ensure that the parent and child
     processes did not share the same RNG state. However this protection was not
     being used in the default case.

     A partial mitigation for this issue is that the output from a high
     precision timer is mixed into the RNG state so the likelihood of a parent
     and child process sharing state is significantly reduced.

     If an application already calls OPENSSL_init_crypto() explicitly using
     OPENSSL_INIT_ATFORK then this problem does not occur at all.
     [Matthias St. Pierre]

  *) For built-in EC curves, ensure an EC_GROUP built from the curve name is
     used even when parsing explicit parameters, when loading a serialized key
     or calling `EC_GROUP_new_from_ecpkparameters()`/
     This prevents bypass of security hardening and performance gains,
     especially for curves with specialized EC_METHODs.
     By default, if a key encoded with explicit parameters is loaded and later
     serialized, the output is still encoded with explicit parameters, even if
     internally a "named" EC_GROUP is used for computation.
     [Nicola Tuveri]

  *) Compute ECC cofactors if not provided during EC_GROUP construction. Before
     this change, EC_GROUP_set_generator would accept order and/or cofactor as
     NULL. After this change, only the cofactor parameter can be NULL. It also
     does some minimal sanity checks on the passed order.
     [Billy Bob Brumley]

  *) Fixed a padding oracle in PKCS7_dataDecode and CMS_decrypt_set1_pkey.
     An attack is simple, if the first CMS_recipientInfo is valid but the
     second CMS_recipientInfo is chosen ciphertext. If the second
     recipientInfo decodes to PKCS #1 v1.5 form plaintext, the correct
     encryption key will be replaced by garbage, and the message cannot be
     decoded, but if the RSA decryption fails, the correct encryption key is
     used and the recipient will not notice the attack.
     As a work around for this potential attack the length of the decrypted
     key must be equal to the cipher default key length, in case the
     certifiate is not given and all recipientInfo are tried out.
     The old behaviour can be re-enabled in the CMS code by setting the
     [Bernd Edlinger]

  *) Early start up entropy quality from the DEVRANDOM seed source has been
     improved for older Linux systems.  The RAND subsystem will wait for
     /dev/random to be producing output before seeding from /dev/urandom.
     The seeded state is stored for future library initialisations using
     a system global shared memory segment.  The shared memory identifier
     can be configured by defining OPENSSL_RAND_SEED_DEVRANDOM_SHM_ID to
     the desired value.  The default identifier is 114.
     [Paul Dale]

  *) Correct the extended master secret constant on EBCDIC systems. Without this
     fix TLS connections between an EBCDIC system and a non-EBCDIC system that
     negotiate EMS will fail. Unfortunately this also means that TLS connections
     between EBCDIC systems with this fix, and EBCDIC systems without this
     fix will fail if they negotiate EMS.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Use Windows installation paths in the mingw builds

     Mingw isn't a POSIX environment per se, which means that Windows
     paths should be used for installation.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Changed DH_check to accept parameters with order q and 2q subgroups.
     With order 2q subgroups the bit 0 of the private key is not secret
     but DH_generate_key works around that by clearing bit 0 of the
     private key for those. This avoids leaking bit 0 of the private key.
     [Bernd Edlinger]

  *) Significantly reduce secure memory usage by the randomness pools.
     [Paul Dale]

  *) Revert the DEVRANDOM_WAIT feature for Linux systems

     The DEVRANDOM_WAIT feature added a select() call to wait for the
     /dev/random device to become readable before reading from the
     /dev/urandom device.

     It turned out that this change had negative side effects on
     performance which were not acceptable. After some discussion it
     was decided to revert this feature and leave it up to the OS
     resp. the platform maintainer to ensure a proper initialization
     during early boot time.
     [Matthias St. Pierre]

 Changes between 1.1.1b and 1.1.1c [28 May 2019]

  *) Add build tests for C++.  These are generated files that only do one
     thing, to include one public OpenSSL head file each.  This tests that
     the public header files can be usefully included in a C++ application.

     This test isn't enabled by default.  It can be enabled with the option
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Enable SHA3 pre-hashing for ECDSA and DSA.
     [Patrick Steuer]

  *) Change the default RSA, DSA and DH size to 2048 bit instead of 1024.
     This changes the size when using the genpkey app when no size is given. It
     fixes an omission in earlier changes that changed all RSA, DSA and DH
     generation apps to use 2048 bits by default.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Reorganize the manual pages to consistently have RETURN VALUES,
     EXAMPLES, SEE ALSO and HISTORY come in that order, and adjust
     util/fix-doc-nits accordingly.
     [Paul Yang, Joshua Lock]

  *) Add the missing accessor EVP_PKEY_get0_engine()
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Have apps like 's_client' and 's_server' output the signature scheme
     along with other cipher suite parameters when debugging.
     [Lorinczy Zsigmond]

  *) Make OPENSSL_config() error agnostic again.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Do the error handling in RSA decryption constant time.
     [Bernd Edlinger]

  *) Prevent over long nonces in ChaCha20-Poly1305.

     ChaCha20-Poly1305 is an AEAD cipher, and requires a unique nonce input
     for every encryption operation. RFC 7539 specifies that the nonce value
     (IV) should be 96 bits (12 bytes). OpenSSL allows a variable nonce length
     and front pads the nonce with 0 bytes if it is less than 12
     bytes. However it also incorrectly allows a nonce to be set of up to 16
     bytes. In this case only the last 12 bytes are significant and any
     additional leading bytes are ignored.

     It is a requirement of using this cipher that nonce values are
     unique. Messages encrypted using a reused nonce value are susceptible to
     serious confidentiality and integrity attacks. If an application changes
     the default nonce length to be longer than 12 bytes and then makes a
     change to the leading bytes of the nonce expecting the new value to be a
     new unique nonce then such an application could inadvertently encrypt
     messages with a reused nonce.

     Additionally the ignored bytes in a long nonce are not covered by the
     integrity guarantee of this cipher. Any application that relies on the
     integrity of these ignored leading bytes of a long nonce may be further
     affected. Any OpenSSL internal use of this cipher, including in SSL/TLS,
     is safe because no such use sets such a long nonce value. However user
     applications that use this cipher directly and set a non-default nonce
     length to be longer than 12 bytes may be vulnerable.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 16th of March 2019 by Joran Dirk
     Greef of Ronomon.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Add DEVRANDOM_WAIT feature for Linux systems

     On older Linux systems where the getrandom() system call is not available,
     OpenSSL normally uses the /dev/urandom device for seeding its CSPRNG.
     Contrary to getrandom(), the /dev/urandom device will not block during
     early boot when the kernel CSPRNG has not been seeded yet.

     To mitigate this known weakness, use select() to wait for /dev/random to
     become readable before reading from /dev/urandom.

  *) Ensure that SM2 only uses SM3 as digest algorithm
     [Paul Yang]

 Changes between 1.1.1a and 1.1.1b [26 Feb 2019]

  *) Added SCA hardening for modular field inversion in EC_GROUP through
     a new dedicated field_inv() pointer in EC_METHOD.
     This also addresses a leakage affecting conversions from projective
     to affine coordinates.
     [Billy Bob Brumley, Nicola Tuveri]

  *) Change the info callback signals for the start and end of a post-handshake
     message exchange in TLSv1.3. In 1.1.1/1.1.1a we used SSL_CB_HANDSHAKE_START
     and SSL_CB_HANDSHAKE_DONE. Experience has shown that many applications get
     confused by this and assume that a TLSv1.2 renegotiation has started. This
     can break KeyUpdate handling. Instead we no longer signal the start and end
     of a post handshake message exchange (although the messages themselves are
     still signalled). This could break some applications that were expecting
     the old signals. However without this KeyUpdate is not usable for many
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Fix a bug in the computation of the endpoint-pair shared secret used
     by DTLS over SCTP. This breaks interoperability with older versions
     of OpenSSL like OpenSSL 1.1.0 and OpenSSL 1.0.2. There is a runtime
     switch SSL_MODE_DTLS_SCTP_LABEL_LENGTH_BUG (off by default) enabling
     interoperability with such broken implementations. However, enabling
     this switch breaks interoperability with correct implementations.

  *) Fix a use after free bug in d2i_X509_PUBKEY when overwriting a
     re-used X509_PUBKEY object if the second PUBKEY is malformed.
     [Bernd Edlinger]

  *) Move strictness check from EVP_PKEY_asn1_new() to EVP_PKEY_asn1_add0().
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove the 'dist' target and add a tarball building script.  The
     'dist' target has fallen out of use, and it shouldn't be
     necessary to configure just to create a source distribution.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 1.1.1 and 1.1.1a [20 Nov 2018]

  *) Timing vulnerability in DSA signature generation

     The OpenSSL DSA signature algorithm has been shown to be vulnerable to a
     timing side channel attack. An attacker could use variations in the signing
     algorithm to recover the private key.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 16th October 2018 by Samuel Weiser.
     [Paul Dale]

  *) Timing vulnerability in ECDSA signature generation

     The OpenSSL ECDSA signature algorithm has been shown to be vulnerable to a
     timing side channel attack. An attacker could use variations in the signing
     algorithm to recover the private key.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 25th October 2018 by Samuel Weiser.
     [Paul Dale]

  *) Added EVP_PKEY_ECDH_KDF_X9_63 and ecdh_KDF_X9_63() as replacements for
     the EVP_PKEY_ECDH_KDF_X9_62 KDF type and ECDH_KDF_X9_62(). The old names
     are retained for backwards compatibility.
     [Antoine Salon]

  *) Fixed the issue that RAND_add()/RAND_seed() silently discards random input
     if its length exceeds 4096 bytes. The limit has been raised to a buffer size
     of two gigabytes and the error handling improved.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Dr. Falko Strenzke. It has been
     categorized as a normal bug, not a security issue, because the DRBG reseeds
     automatically and is fully functional even without additional randomness
     provided by the application.

 Changes between 1.1.0i and 1.1.1 [11 Sep 2018]

  *) Add a new ClientHello callback. Provides a callback interface that gives
     the application the ability to adjust the nascent SSL object at the
     earliest stage of ClientHello processing, immediately after extensions have
     been collected but before they have been processed. In particular, this
     callback can adjust the supported TLS versions in response to the contents
     of the ClientHello
     [Benjamin Kaduk]

  *) Add SM2 base algorithm support.
     [Jack Lloyd]

  *) s390x assembly pack: add (improved) hardware-support for the following
     cryptographic primitives: sha3, shake, aes-gcm, aes-ccm, aes-ctr, aes-ofb,
     aes-cfb/cfb8, aes-ecb.
     [Patrick Steuer]

  *) Make EVP_PKEY_asn1_new() a bit stricter about its input.  A NULL pem_str
     parameter is no longer accepted, as it leads to a corrupt table.  NULL
     pem_str is reserved for alias entries only.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Use the new ec_scalar_mul_ladder scaffold to implement a specialized ladder
     step for prime curves. The new implementation is based on formulae from
     differential addition-and-doubling in homogeneous projective coordinates
     from Izu-Takagi "A fast parallel elliptic curve multiplication resistant
     against side channel attacks" and Brier-Joye "Weierstrass Elliptic Curves
     and Side-Channel Attacks" Eq. (8) for y-coordinate recovery, modified
     to work in projective coordinates.
     [Billy Bob Brumley, Nicola Tuveri]

  *) Change generating and checking of primes so that the error rate of not
     being prime depends on the intended use based on the size of the input.
     For larger primes this will result in more rounds of Miller-Rabin.
     The maximal error rate for primes with more than 1080 bits is lowered
     to 2^-128.
     [Kurt Roeckx, Annie Yousar]

  *) Increase the number of Miller-Rabin rounds for DSA key generating to 64.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) The 'tsget' script is renamed to '', to avoid confusion when
     moving between systems, and to avoid confusion when a Windows build is
     done with mingw vs with MSVC.  For POSIX installs, there's still a
     symlink or copy named 'tsget' to avoid that confusion as well.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Revert blinding in ECDSA sign and instead make problematic addition
     length-invariant. Switch even to fixed-length Montgomery multiplication.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Use the new ec_scalar_mul_ladder scaffold to implement a specialized ladder
     step for binary curves. The new implementation is based on formulae from
     differential addition-and-doubling in mixed Lopez-Dahab projective
     coordinates, modified to independently blind the operands.
     [Billy Bob Brumley, Sohaib ul Hassan, Nicola Tuveri]

  *) Add a scaffold to optionally enhance the Montgomery ladder implementation
     for `ec_scalar_mul_ladder` (formerly `ec_mul_consttime`) allowing
     EC_METHODs to implement their own specialized "ladder step", to take
     advantage of more favorable coordinate systems or more efficient
     differential addition-and-doubling algorithms.
     [Billy Bob Brumley, Sohaib ul Hassan, Nicola Tuveri]

  *) Modified the random device based seed sources to keep the relevant
     file descriptors open rather than reopening them on each access.
     This allows such sources to operate in a chroot() jail without
     the associated device nodes being available. This behaviour can be
     controlled using RAND_keep_random_devices_open().
     [Paul Dale]

  *) Numerous side-channel attack mitigations have been applied. This may have
     performance impacts for some algorithms for the benefit of improved
     security. Specific changes are noted in this change log by their respective
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) AIX shared library support overhaul. Switch to AIX "natural" way of
     handling shared libraries, which means collecting shared objects of
     different versions and bitnesses in one common archive. This allows to
     mitigate conflict between 1.0 and 1.1 side-by-side installations. It
     doesn't affect the way 3rd party applications are linked, only how
     multi-version installation is managed.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Make ec_group_do_inverse_ord() more robust and available to other
     EC cryptosystems, so that irrespective of BN_FLG_CONSTTIME, SCA
     mitigations are applied to the fallback BN_mod_inverse().
     When using this function rather than BN_mod_inverse() directly, new
     EC cryptosystem implementations are then safer-by-default.
     [Billy Bob Brumley]

  *) Add coordinate blinding for EC_POINT and implement projective
     coordinate blinding for generic prime curves as a countermeasure to
     chosen point SCA attacks.
     [Sohaib ul Hassan, Nicola Tuveri, Billy Bob Brumley]

  *) Add blinding to ECDSA and DSA signatures to protect against side channel
     attacks discovered by Keegan Ryan (NCC Group).
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Enforce checking in the pkeyutl command line app to ensure that the input
     length does not exceed the maximum supported digest length when performing
     a sign, verify or verifyrecover operation.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) SSL_MODE_AUTO_RETRY is enabled by default. Applications that use blocking
     I/O in combination with something like select() or poll() will hang. This
     can be turned off again using SSL_CTX_clear_mode().
     Many applications do not properly handle non-application data records, and
     TLS 1.3 sends more of such records. Setting SSL_MODE_AUTO_RETRY works
     around the problems in those applications, but can also break some.
     It's recommended to read the manpages about SSL_read(), SSL_write(),
     SSL_get_error(), SSL_shutdown(), SSL_CTX_set_mode() and
     SSL_CTX_set_read_ahead() again.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) When unlocking a pass phrase protected PEM file or PKCS#8 container, we
     now allow empty (zero character) pass phrases.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Apply blinding to binary field modular inversion and remove patent
     pending (OPENSSL_SUN_GF2M_DIV) BN_GF2m_mod_div implementation.
     [Billy Bob Brumley]

  *) Deprecate ec2_mult.c and unify scalar multiplication code paths for
     binary and prime elliptic curves.
     [Billy Bob Brumley]

  *) Remove ECDSA nonce padding: EC_POINT_mul is now responsible for
     constant time fixed point multiplication.
     [Billy Bob Brumley]

  *) Revise elliptic curve scalar multiplication with timing attack
     defenses: ec_wNAF_mul redirects to a constant time implementation
     when computing fixed point and variable point multiplication (which
     in OpenSSL are mostly used with secret scalars in keygen, sign,
     ECDH derive operations).
     [Billy Bob Brumley, Nicola Tuveri, Cesar Pereida García,
      Sohaib ul Hassan]

     [Rich Salz]

  *) Updated DRBG / RAND to request nonce and additional low entropy
     randomness from the system.
     [Matthias St. Pierre]

  *) Updated 'openssl rehash' to use OpenSSL consistent default.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Moved the load of the ssl_conf module to libcrypto, which helps
     loading engines that libssl uses before libssl is initialised.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Added EVP_PKEY_sign() and EVP_PKEY_verify() for EdDSA
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Fixed X509_NAME_ENTRY_set to get multi-valued RDNs right in all cases.
     [Ingo Schwarze, Rich Salz]

  *) Added output of accepting IP address and port for 'openssl s_server'
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added a new API for TLSv1.3 ciphersuites:
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Memory allocation failures consistently add an error to the error
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Don't use OPENSSL_ENGINES and OPENSSL_CONF environment values
     in libcrypto when run as setuid/setgid.
     [Bernd Edlinger]

  *) Load any config file by default when libssl is used.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Added new public header file <openssl/rand_drbg.h> and documentation
     for the RAND_DRBG API. See manual page RAND_DRBG(7) for an overview.
     [Matthias St. Pierre]

  *) QNX support removed (cannot find contributors to get their approval
     for the license change).
     [Rich Salz]

  *) TLSv1.3 replay protection for early data has been implemented. See the
     SSL_read_early_data() man page for further details.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Separated TLSv1.3 ciphersuite configuration out from TLSv1.2 ciphersuite
     configuration. TLSv1.3 ciphersuites are not compatible with TLSv1.2 and
     below. Similarly TLSv1.2 ciphersuites are not compatible with TLSv1.3.
     In order to avoid issues where legacy TLSv1.2 ciphersuite configuration
     would otherwise inadvertently disable all TLSv1.3 ciphersuites the
     configuration has been separated out. See the ciphers man page or the
     SSL_CTX_set_ciphersuites() man page for more information.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) On POSIX (BSD, Linux, ...) systems the ocsp(1) command running
     in responder mode now supports the new "-multi" option, which
     spawns the specified number of child processes to handle OCSP
     requests.  The "-timeout" option now also limits the OCSP
     responder's patience to wait to receive the full client request
     on a newly accepted connection. Child processes are respawned
     as needed, and the CA index file is automatically reloaded
     when changed.  This makes it possible to run the "ocsp" responder
     as a long-running service, making the OpenSSL CA somewhat more
     feature-complete.  In this mode, most diagnostic messages logged
     after entering the event loop are logged via syslog(3) rather than
     written to stderr.
     [Viktor Dukhovni]

  *) Added support for X448 and Ed448. Heavily based on original work by
     Mike Hamburg.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Extend OSSL_STORE with capabilities to search and to narrow the set of
     objects loaded.  This adds the functions OSSL_STORE_expect() and
     OSSL_STORE_find() as well as needed tools to construct searches and
     get the search data out of them.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Support for TLSv1.3 added. Note that users upgrading from an earlier
     version of OpenSSL should review their configuration settings to ensure
     that they are still appropriate for TLSv1.3. For further information see:
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Grand redesign of the OpenSSL random generator

     The default RAND method now utilizes an AES-CTR DRBG according to
     NIST standard SP 800-90Ar1. The new random generator is essentially
     a port of the default random generator from the OpenSSL FIPS 2.0
     object module. It is a hybrid deterministic random bit generator
     using an AES-CTR bit stream and which seeds and reseeds itself
     automatically using trusted system entropy sources.

     Some of its new features are:
      o Support for multiple DRBG instances with seed chaining.
      o The default RAND method makes use of a DRBG.
      o There is a public and private DRBG instance.
      o The DRBG instances are fork-safe.
      o Keep all global DRBG instances on the secure heap if it is enabled.
      o The public and private DRBG instance are per thread for lock free
     [Paul Dale, Benjamin Kaduk, Kurt Roeckx, Rich Salz, Matthias St. Pierre]

  *) Changed Configure so it only says what it does and doesn't dump
     so much data.  Instead, ./ should be used as a script
     to display all sorts of configuration data.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added processing of "make variables" to Configure.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added SHA512/224 and SHA512/256 algorithm support.
     [Paul Dale]

  *) The last traces of Netware support, first removed in 1.1.0, have
     now been removed.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Get rid of Makefile.shared, and in the process, make the processing
     of certain files (rc.obj, or the .def/.map/.opt files produced from
     the ordinal files) more visible and hopefully easier to trace and
     debug (or make silent).
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make it possible to have environment variable assignments as
     arguments to config / Configure.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add multi-prime RSA (RFC 8017) support.
     [Paul Yang]

  *) Add SM3 implemented according to GB/T 32905-2016
     [ Jack Lloyd <>,
       Ronald Tse <>,
       Erick Borsboom <> ]

  *) Add 'Maximum Fragment Length' TLS extension negotiation and support
     as documented in RFC6066.
     Based on a patch from Tomasz Moń
     [Filipe Raimundo da Silva]

  *) Add SM4 implemented according to GB/T 32907-2016.
     [ Jack Lloyd <>,
       Ronald Tse <>,
       Erick Borsboom <> ]

  *) Reimplement -newreq-nodes and ERR_error_string_n; the
     original author does not agree with the license change.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Add ARIA AEAD TLS support.
     [Jon Spillett]

  *) Some macro definitions to support VS6 have been removed.  Visual
     Studio 6 has not worked since 1.1.0
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Add ERR_clear_last_mark(), to allow callers to clear the last mark
     without clearing the errors.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add "atfork" functions.  If building on a system that without
     pthreads, see doc/man3/OPENSSL_fork_prepare.pod for application
     requirements.  The RAND facility now uses/requires this.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Add SHA3.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) The UI API becomes a permanent and integral part of libcrypto, i.e.
     not possible to disable entirely.  However, it's still possible to
     disable the console reading UI method, UI_OpenSSL() (use UI_null()
     as a fallback).

     To disable, configure with 'no-ui-console'.  'no-ui' is still
     possible to use as an alias.  Check at compile time with the
     macro OPENSSL_NO_UI_CONSOLE.  The macro OPENSSL_NO_UI is still
     possible to check and is an alias for OPENSSL_NO_UI_CONSOLE.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add a STORE module, which implements a uniform and URI based reader of
     stores that can contain keys, certificates, CRLs and numerous other
     objects.  The main API is loosely based on a few stdio functions,
     and includes OSSL_STORE_open, OSSL_STORE_load, OSSL_STORE_eof,
     OSSL_STORE_error and OSSL_STORE_close.
     The implementation uses backends called "loaders" to implement arbitrary
     URI schemes.  There is one built in "loader" for the 'file' scheme.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add devcrypto engine.  This has been implemented against cryptodev-linux,
     then adjusted to work on FreeBSD 8.4 as well.
     Enable by configuring with 'enable-devcryptoeng'.  This is done by default
     on BSD implementations, as cryptodev.h is assumed to exist on all of them.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Module names can prefixed with OSSL_ or OPENSSL_.  This affects
     util/, which is adapted to allow those prefixes, leading to
     error code calls like this:


     With this change, we claim the namespaces OSSL and OPENSSL in a manner
     that can be encoded in C.  For the foreseeable future, this will only
     affect new modules.
     [Richard Levitte and Tim Hudson]

  *) Removed BSD cryptodev engine.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Add a build target 'build_all_generated', to build all generated files
     and only that.  This can be used to prepare everything that requires
     things like perl for a system that lacks perl and then move everything
     to that system and do the rest of the build there.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) In the UI interface, make it possible to duplicate the user data.  This
     can be used by engines that need to retain the data for a longer time
     than just the call where this user data is passed.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Ignore the '-named_curve auto' value for compatibility of applications
     with OpenSSL 1.0.2.
     [Tomas Mraz <>]

  *) Fragmented SSL/TLS alerts are no longer accepted. An alert message is 2
     bytes long. In theory it is permissible in SSLv3 - TLSv1.2 to fragment such
     alerts across multiple records (some of which could be empty). In practice
     it make no sense to send an empty alert record, or to fragment one. TLSv1.3
     prohibits this altogether and other libraries (BoringSSL, NSS) do not
     support this at all. Supporting it adds significant complexity to the
     record layer, and its removal is unlikely to cause interoperability
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Add the ASN.1 types INT32, UINT32, INT64, UINT64 and variants prefixed
     with Z.  These are meant to replace LONG and ZLONG and to be size safe.
     The use of LONG and ZLONG is discouraged and scheduled for deprecation
     in OpenSSL 1.2.0.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the 'z' and 'j' modifiers to BIO_printf() et al formatting string,
     'z' is to be used for [s]size_t, and 'j' - with [u]int64_t.
     [Richard Levitte, Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add EC_KEY_get0_engine(), which does for EC_KEY what RSA_get0_engine()
     does for RSA, etc.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Have 'config' recognise 64-bit mingw and choose 'mingw64' as the target
     platform rather than 'mingw'.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) The functions X509_STORE_add_cert and X509_STORE_add_crl return
     success if they are asked to add an object which already exists
     in the store. This change cascades to other functions which load
     certificates and CRLs.
     [Paul Dale]

  *) x86_64 assembly pack: annotate code with DWARF CFI directives to
     facilitate stack unwinding even from assembly subroutines.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Remove VAX C specific definitions of OPENSSL_EXPORT, OPENSSL_EXTERN.
     Also remove OPENSSL_GLOBAL entirely, as it became a no-op.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove the VMS-specific reimplementation of gmtime from crypto/o_times.c.
     VMS C's RTL has a fully up to date gmtime() and gmtime_r() since V7.1,
     which is the minimum version we support.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Certificate time validation (X509_cmp_time) enforces stricter
     compliance with RFC 5280. Fractional seconds and timezone offsets
     are no longer allowed.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Add support for ARIA
     [Paul Dale]

  *) s_client will now send the Server Name Indication (SNI) extension by
     default unless the new "-noservername" option is used. The server name is
     based on the host provided to the "-connect" option unless overridden by
     using "-servername".
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Add support for SipHash
     [Todd Short]

  *) OpenSSL now fails if it receives an unrecognised record type in TLS1.0
     or TLS1.1. Previously this only happened in SSLv3 and TLS1.2. This is to
     prevent issues where no progress is being made and the peer continually
     sends unrecognised record types, using up resources processing them.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) 'openssl passwd' can now produce SHA256 and SHA512 based output,
     using the algorithm defined in
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Heartbeat support has been removed; the ABI is changed for now.
     [Richard Levitte, Rich Salz]

  *) Support for SSL_OP_NO_ENCRYPT_THEN_MAC in SSL_CONF_cmd.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) The RSA "null" method, which was partially supported to avoid patent
     issues, has been replaced to always returns NULL.
     [Rich Salz]

 Changes between 1.1.0h and 1.1.0i [xx XXX xxxx]

  *) Client DoS due to large DH parameter

     During key agreement in a TLS handshake using a DH(E) based ciphersuite a
     malicious server can send a very large prime value to the client. This will
     cause the client to spend an unreasonably long period of time generating a
     key for this prime resulting in a hang until the client has finished. This
     could be exploited in a Denial Of Service attack.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 5th June 2018 by Guido Vranken
     [Guido Vranken]

  *) Cache timing vulnerability in RSA Key Generation

     The OpenSSL RSA Key generation algorithm has been shown to be vulnerable to
     a cache timing side channel attack. An attacker with sufficient access to
     mount cache timing attacks during the RSA key generation process could
     recover the private key.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 4th April 2018 by Alejandro Cabrera
     Aldaya, Billy Brumley, Cesar Pereida Garcia and Luis Manuel Alvarez Tapia.
     [Billy Brumley]

  *) Make EVP_PKEY_asn1_new() a bit stricter about its input.  A NULL pem_str
     parameter is no longer accepted, as it leads to a corrupt table.  NULL
     pem_str is reserved for alias entries only.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Revert blinding in ECDSA sign and instead make problematic addition
     length-invariant. Switch even to fixed-length Montgomery multiplication.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Change generating and checking of primes so that the error rate of not
     being prime depends on the intended use based on the size of the input.
     For larger primes this will result in more rounds of Miller-Rabin.
     The maximal error rate for primes with more than 1080 bits is lowered
     to 2^-128.
     [Kurt Roeckx, Annie Yousar]

  *) Increase the number of Miller-Rabin rounds for DSA key generating to 64.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Add blinding to ECDSA and DSA signatures to protect against side channel
     attacks discovered by Keegan Ryan (NCC Group).
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) When unlocking a pass phrase protected PEM file or PKCS#8 container, we
     now allow empty (zero character) pass phrases.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Certificate time validation (X509_cmp_time) enforces stricter
     compliance with RFC 5280. Fractional seconds and timezone offsets
     are no longer allowed.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Fixed a text canonicalisation bug in CMS

     Where a CMS detached signature is used with text content the text goes
     through a canonicalisation process first prior to signing or verifying a
     signature. This process strips trailing space at the end of lines, converts
     line terminators to CRLF and removes additional trailing line terminators
     at the end of a file. A bug in the canonicalisation process meant that
     some characters, such as form-feed, were incorrectly treated as whitespace
     and removed. This is contrary to the specification (RFC5485). This fix
     could mean that detached text data signed with an earlier version of
     OpenSSL 1.1.0 may fail to verify using the fixed version, or text data
     signed with a fixed OpenSSL may fail to verify with an earlier version of
     OpenSSL 1.1.0. A workaround is to only verify the canonicalised text data
     and use the "-binary" flag (for the "cms" command line application) or set
     the SMIME_BINARY/PKCS7_BINARY/CMS_BINARY flags (if using CMS_verify()).
     [Matt Caswell]

 Changes between 1.1.0g and 1.1.0h [27 Mar 2018]

  *) Constructed ASN.1 types with a recursive definition could exceed the stack

     Constructed ASN.1 types with a recursive definition (such as can be found
     in PKCS7) could eventually exceed the stack given malicious input with
     excessive recursion. This could result in a Denial Of Service attack. There
     are no such structures used within SSL/TLS that come from untrusted sources
     so this is considered safe.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 4th January 2018 by the OSS-fuzz
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Incorrect CRYPTO_memcmp on HP-UX PA-RISC

     Because of an implementation bug the PA-RISC CRYPTO_memcmp function is
     effectively reduced to only comparing the least significant bit of each
     byte. This allows an attacker to forge messages that would be considered as
     authenticated in an amount of tries lower than that guaranteed by the
     security claims of the scheme. The module can only be compiled by the
     HP-UX assembler, so that only HP-UX PA-RISC targets are affected.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 2nd March 2018 by Peter Waltenberg
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add a build target 'build_all_generated', to build all generated files
     and only that.  This can be used to prepare everything that requires
     things like perl for a system that lacks perl and then move everything
     to that system and do the rest of the build there.
     [Richard Levitte]


     OpenSSL 1.0.2 and below had the ability to disable renegotiation using the
     (undocumented) SSL3_FLAGS_NO_RENEGOTIATE_CIPHERS flag. Due to the opacity
     changes this is no longer possible in 1.1.0. Therefore the new
     SSL_OP_NO_RENEGOTIATION option from 1.1.1-dev has been backported to
     1.1.0 to provide equivalent functionality.

     Note that if an application built against 1.1.0h headers (or above) is run
     using an older version of 1.1.0 (prior to 1.1.0h) then the option will be
     accepted but nothing will happen, i.e. renegotiation will not be prevented.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Removed the OS390-Unix config target.  It relied on a script that doesn't
     [Rich Salz]

  *) rsaz_1024_mul_avx2 overflow bug on x86_64

     There is an overflow bug in the AVX2 Montgomery multiplication procedure
     used in exponentiation with 1024-bit moduli. No EC algorithms are affected.
     Analysis suggests that attacks against RSA and DSA as a result of this
     defect would be very difficult to perform and are not believed likely.
     Attacks against DH1024 are considered just feasible, because most of the
     work necessary to deduce information about a private key may be performed
     offline. The amount of resources required for such an attack would be
     significant. However, for an attack on TLS to be meaningful, the server
     would have to share the DH1024 private key among multiple clients, which is
     no longer an option since CVE-2016-0701.

     This only affects processors that support the AVX2 but not ADX extensions
     like Intel Haswell (4th generation).

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by David Benjamin (Google). The issue
     was originally found via the OSS-Fuzz project.
     [Andy Polyakov]

 Changes between 1.1.0f and 1.1.0g [2 Nov 2017]

  *) bn_sqrx8x_internal carry bug on x86_64

     There is a carry propagating bug in the x86_64 Montgomery squaring
     procedure. No EC algorithms are affected. Analysis suggests that attacks
     against RSA and DSA as a result of this defect would be very difficult to
     perform and are not believed likely. Attacks against DH are considered just
     feasible (although very difficult) because most of the work necessary to
     deduce information about a private key may be performed offline. The amount
     of resources required for such an attack would be very significant and
     likely only accessible to a limited number of attackers. An attacker would
     additionally need online access to an unpatched system using the target
     private key in a scenario with persistent DH parameters and a private
     key that is shared between multiple clients.

     This only affects processors that support the BMI1, BMI2 and ADX extensions
     like Intel Broadwell (5th generation) and later or AMD Ryzen.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by the OSS-Fuzz project.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Malformed X.509 IPAddressFamily could cause OOB read

     If an X.509 certificate has a malformed IPAddressFamily extension,
     OpenSSL could do a one-byte buffer overread. The most likely result
     would be an erroneous display of the certificate in text format.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by the OSS-Fuzz project.
     [Rich Salz]

 Changes between 1.1.0e and 1.1.0f [25 May 2017]

  *) Have 'config' recognise 64-bit mingw and choose 'mingw64' as the target
     platform rather than 'mingw'.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove the VMS-specific reimplementation of gmtime from crypto/o_times.c.
     VMS C's RTL has a fully up to date gmtime() and gmtime_r() since V7.1,
     which is the minimum version we support.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 1.1.0d and 1.1.0e [16 Feb 2017]

  *) Encrypt-Then-Mac renegotiation crash

     During a renegotiation handshake if the Encrypt-Then-Mac extension is
     negotiated where it was not in the original handshake (or vice-versa) then
     this can cause OpenSSL to crash (dependant on ciphersuite). Both clients
     and servers are affected.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Joe Orton (Red Hat).
     [Matt Caswell]

 Changes between 1.1.0c and 1.1.0d [26 Jan 2017]

  *) Truncated packet could crash via OOB read

     If one side of an SSL/TLS path is running on a 32-bit host and a specific
     cipher is being used, then a truncated packet can cause that host to
     perform an out-of-bounds read, usually resulting in a crash.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Robert Święcki of Google.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Bad (EC)DHE parameters cause a client crash

     If a malicious server supplies bad parameters for a DHE or ECDHE key
     exchange then this can result in the client attempting to dereference a
     NULL pointer leading to a client crash. This could be exploited in a Denial
     of Service attack.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Guido Vranken.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) BN_mod_exp may produce incorrect results on x86_64

     There is a carry propagating bug in the x86_64 Montgomery squaring
     procedure. No EC algorithms are affected. Analysis suggests that attacks
     against RSA and DSA as a result of this defect would be very difficult to
     perform and are not believed likely. Attacks against DH are considered just
     feasible (although very difficult) because most of the work necessary to
     deduce information about a private key may be performed offline. The amount
     of resources required for such an attack would be very significant and
     likely only accessible to a limited number of attackers. An attacker would
     additionally need online access to an unpatched system using the target
     private key in a scenario with persistent DH parameters and a private
     key that is shared between multiple clients. For example this can occur by
     default in OpenSSL DHE based SSL/TLS ciphersuites. Note: This issue is very
     similar to CVE-2015-3193 but must be treated as a separate problem.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by the OSS-Fuzz project.
     [Andy Polyakov]

 Changes between 1.1.0b and 1.1.0c [10 Nov 2016]

  *) ChaCha20/Poly1305 heap-buffer-overflow

     TLS connections using *-CHACHA20-POLY1305 ciphersuites are susceptible to
     a DoS attack by corrupting larger payloads. This can result in an OpenSSL
     crash. This issue is not considered to be exploitable beyond a DoS.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Robert Święcki (Google Security Team)
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) CMS Null dereference

     Applications parsing invalid CMS structures can crash with a NULL pointer
     dereference. This is caused by a bug in the handling of the ASN.1 CHOICE
     type in OpenSSL 1.1.0 which can result in a NULL value being passed to the
     structure callback if an attempt is made to free certain invalid encodings.
     Only CHOICE structures using a callback which do not handle NULL value are

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Tyler Nighswander of ForAllSecure.
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) Montgomery multiplication may produce incorrect results

     There is a carry propagating bug in the Broadwell-specific Montgomery
     multiplication procedure that handles input lengths divisible by, but
     longer than 256 bits. Analysis suggests that attacks against RSA, DSA
     and DH private keys are impossible. This is because the subroutine in
     question is not used in operations with the private key itself and an input
     of the attacker's direct choice. Otherwise the bug can manifest itself as
     transient authentication and key negotiation failures or reproducible
     erroneous outcome of public-key operations with specially crafted input.
     Among EC algorithms only Brainpool P-512 curves are affected and one
     presumably can attack ECDH key negotiation. Impact was not analyzed in
     detail, because pre-requisites for attack are considered unlikely. Namely
     multiple clients have to choose the curve in question and the server has to
     share the private key among them, neither of which is default behaviour.
     Even then only clients that chose the curve will be affected.

     This issue was publicly reported as transient failures and was not
     initially recognized as a security issue. Thanks to Richard Morgan for
     providing reproducible case.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Removed automatic addition of RPATH in shared libraries and executables,
     as this was a remainder from OpenSSL 1.0.x and isn't needed any more.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 1.1.0a and 1.1.0b [26 Sep 2016]

  *) Fix Use After Free for large message sizes

     The patch applied to address CVE-2016-6307 resulted in an issue where if a
     message larger than approx 16k is received then the underlying buffer to
     store the incoming message is reallocated and moved. Unfortunately a
     dangling pointer to the old location is left which results in an attempt to
     write to the previously freed location. This is likely to result in a
     crash, however it could potentially lead to execution of arbitrary code.

     This issue only affects OpenSSL 1.1.0a.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Robert Święcki.
     [Matt Caswell]

 Changes between 1.1.0 and 1.1.0a [22 Sep 2016]

  *) OCSP Status Request extension unbounded memory growth

     A malicious client can send an excessively large OCSP Status Request
     extension. If that client continually requests renegotiation, sending a
     large OCSP Status Request extension each time, then there will be unbounded
     memory growth on the server. This will eventually lead to a Denial Of
     Service attack through memory exhaustion. Servers with a default
     configuration are vulnerable even if they do not support OCSP. Builds using
     the "no-ocsp" build time option are not affected.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Shi Lei (Gear Team, Qihoo 360 Inc.)
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) SSL_peek() hang on empty record

     OpenSSL 1.1.0 SSL/TLS will hang during a call to SSL_peek() if the peer
     sends an empty record. This could be exploited by a malicious peer in a
     Denial Of Service attack.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Alex Gaynor.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Excessive allocation of memory in tls_get_message_header() and

     A (D)TLS message includes 3 bytes for its length in the header for the
     message. This would allow for messages up to 16Mb in length. Messages of
     this length are excessive and OpenSSL includes a check to ensure that a
     peer is sending reasonably sized messages in order to avoid too much memory
     being consumed to service a connection. A flaw in the logic of version
     1.1.0 means that memory for the message is allocated too early, prior to
     the excessive message length check. Due to way memory is allocated in
     OpenSSL this could mean an attacker could force up to 21Mb to be allocated
     to service a connection. This could lead to a Denial of Service through
     memory exhaustion. However, the excessive message length check still takes
     place, and this would cause the connection to immediately fail. Assuming
     that the application calls SSL_free() on the failed connection in a timely
     manner then the 21Mb of allocated memory will then be immediately freed
     again. Therefore the excessive memory allocation will be transitory in
     nature. This then means that there is only a security impact if:

     1) The application does not call SSL_free() in a timely manner in the event
     that the connection fails
     2) The application is working in a constrained environment where there is
     very little free memory
     3) The attacker initiates multiple connection attempts such that there are
     multiple connections in a state where memory has been allocated for the
     connection; SSL_free() has not yet been called; and there is insufficient
     memory to service the multiple requests.

     Except in the instance of (1) above any Denial Of Service is likely to be
     transitory because as soon as the connection fails the memory is
     subsequently freed again in the SSL_free() call. However there is an
     increased risk during this period of application crashes due to the lack of
     memory - which would then mean a more serious Denial of Service.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Shi Lei (Gear Team, Qihoo 360 Inc.)
     (CVE-2016-6307 and CVE-2016-6308)
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) solaris-x86-cc, i.e. 32-bit configuration with vendor compiler,
     had to be removed. Primary reason is that vendor assembler can't
     assemble our modules with -KPIC flag. As result it, assembly
     support, was not even available as option. But its lack means
     lack of side-channel resistant code, which is incompatible with
     security by todays standards. Fortunately gcc is readily available
     prepackaged option, which we firmly point at...
     [Andy Polyakov]

 Changes between 1.0.2h and 1.1.0  [25 Aug 2016]

  *) Windows command-line tool supports UTF-8 opt-in option for arguments
     and console input. Setting OPENSSL_WIN32_UTF8 environment variable
     (to any value) allows Windows user to access PKCS#12 file generated
     with Windows CryptoAPI and protected with non-ASCII password, as well
     as files generated under UTF-8 locale on Linux also protected with
     non-ASCII password.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) To mitigate the SWEET32 attack (CVE-2016-2183), 3DES cipher suites
     have been disabled by default and removed from DEFAULT, just like RC4.
     See the RC4 item below to re-enable both.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) The method for finding the storage location for the Windows RAND seed file
     has changed. First we check %RANDFILE%. If that is not set then we check
     the directories %HOME%, %USERPROFILE% and %SYSTEMROOT% in that order. If
     all else fails we fall back to C:\.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) The EVP_EncryptUpdate() function has had its return type changed from void
     to int. A return of 0 indicates and error while a return of 1 indicates
     [Matt Caswell]

     DH_FLAG_NO_EXP_CONSTTIME which previously provided the ability to switch
     off the constant time implementation for RSA, DSA and DH have been made
     no-ops and deprecated.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Windows RAND implementation was simplified to only get entropy by
     calling CryptGenRandom(). Various other RAND-related tickets
     were also closed.
     [Joseph Wylie Yandle, Rich Salz]

  *) The stack and lhash API's were renamed to start with OPENSSL_SK_
     and OPENSSL_LH_, respectively.  The old names are available
     with API compatibility.  They new names are now completely documented.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Unify TYPE_up_ref(obj) methods signature.
     SSL_CTX_up_ref(), SSL_up_ref(), X509_up_ref(), EVP_PKEY_up_ref(),
     X509_CRL_up_ref(), X509_OBJECT_up_ref_count() methods are now returning an
     int (instead of void) like all others TYPE_up_ref() methods.
     So now these methods also check the return value of CRYPTO_atomic_add(),
     and the validity of object reference counter.

  *) With Windows Visual Studio builds, the .pdb files are installed
     alongside the installed libraries and executables.  For a static
     library installation, ossl_static.pdb is the associate compiler
     generated .pdb file to be used when linking programs.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove openssl.spec.  Packaging files belong with the packagers.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Automatic Darwin/OSX configuration has had a refresh, it will now
     recognise x86_64 architectures automatically.  You can still decide
     to build for a different bitness with the environment variable
     KERNEL_BITS (can be 32 or 64), for example:

         KERNEL_BITS=32 ./config

     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change default algorithms in pkcs8 utility to use PKCS#5 v2.0,
     256 bit AES and HMAC with SHA256.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove support for MIPS o32 ABI on IRIX (and IRIX only).
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Triple-DES ciphers have been moved from HIGH to MEDIUM.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) To enable users to have their own config files and build file templates,
     Configure looks in the directory indicated by the environment variable
     OPENSSL_LOCAL_CONFIG_DIR as well as the in-source Configurations/
     directory.  On VMS, OPENSSL_LOCAL_CONFIG_DIR is expected to be a logical
     name and is used as is.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) The following datatypes were made opaque: X509_OBJECT, X509_STORE_CTX,
     X509_STORE, X509_LOOKUP, and X509_LOOKUP_METHOD.  The unused type
     X509_CERT_FILE_CTX was removed.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) "shared" builds are now the default. To create only static libraries use
     the "no-shared" Configure option.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Remove the no-aes, no-hmac, no-rsa, no-sha and no-md5 Configure options.
     All of these option have not worked for some while and are fundamental
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Make various cleanup routines no-ops and mark them as deprecated. Most
     global cleanup functions are no longer required because they are handled
     via auto-deinit (see OPENSSL_init_crypto and OPENSSL_init_ssl man pages).
     Explicitly de-initing can cause problems (e.g. where a library that uses
     OpenSSL de-inits, but an application is still using it). The affected
     functions are CONF_modules_free(), ENGINE_cleanup(), OBJ_cleanup(),
     EVP_cleanup(), BIO_sock_cleanup(), CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data(),
     RAND_cleanup(), SSL_COMP_free_compression_methods(), ERR_free_strings() and
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) --strict-warnings no longer enables runtime debugging options
     such as REF_DEBUG. Instead, debug options are automatically
     enabled with '--debug' builds.
     [Andy Polyakov, Emilia Käsper]

  *) Made DH and DH_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing DH objects
     have been moved out of the public header files. New functions for managing
     these have been added.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Made RSA and RSA_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing RSA
     objects have been moved out of the public header files. New
     functions for managing these have been added.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Made DSA and DSA_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing DSA objects
     have been moved out of the public header files. New functions for managing
     these have been added.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Made BIO and BIO_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing BIOs have been
     moved out of the public header files. New functions for managing these
     have been added.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Removed no-rijndael as a config option. Rijndael is an old name for AES.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Removed the mk1mf build scripts.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Headers are now wrapped, if necessary, with OPENSSL_NO_xxx, so
     it is always safe to #include a header now.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Removed the aged BC-32 config and all its supporting scripts
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Removed support for Ultrix, Netware, and OS/2.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Add support for HKDF.
     [Alessandro Ghedini]

  *) Add support for blake2b and blake2s
     [Bill Cox]

  *) Added support for "pipelining". Ciphers that have the
     EVP_CIPH_FLAG_PIPELINE flag set have a capability to process multiple
     encryptions/decryptions simultaneously. There are currently no built-in
     ciphers with this property but the expectation is that engines will be able
     to offer it to significantly improve throughput. Support has been extended
     into libssl so that multiple records for a single connection can be
     processed in one go (for >=TLS 1.1).
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Added the AFALG engine. This is an async capable engine which is able to
     offload work to the Linux kernel. In this initial version it only supports
     AES128-CBC. The kernel must be version 4.1.0 or greater.
     [Catriona Lucey]

  *) OpenSSL now uses a new threading API. It is no longer necessary to
     set locking callbacks to use OpenSSL in a multi-threaded environment. There
     are two supported threading models: pthreads and windows threads. It is
     also possible to configure OpenSSL at compile time for "no-threads". The
     old threading API should no longer be used. The functions have been
     replaced with "no-op" compatibility macros.
     [Alessandro Ghedini, Matt Caswell]

  *) Modify behavior of ALPN to invoke callback after SNI/servername
     callback, such that updates to the SSL_CTX affect ALPN.
     [Todd Short]

  *) Add SSL_CIPHER queries for authentication and key-exchange.
     [Todd Short]

  *) Changes to the DEFAULT cipherlist:
       - Prefer (EC)DHE handshakes over plain RSA.
       - Prefer AEAD ciphers over legacy ciphers.
       - Prefer ECDSA over RSA when both certificates are available.
       - Prefer TLSv1.2 ciphers/PRF.
       - Remove DSS, SEED, IDEA, CAMELLIA, and AES-CCM from the
         default cipherlist.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Change the ECC default curve list to be this, in order: x25519,
     secp256r1, secp521r1, secp384r1.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) RC4 based libssl ciphersuites are now classed as "weak" ciphers and are
     disabled by default. They can be re-enabled using the
     enable-weak-ssl-ciphers option to Configure.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) If the server has ALPN configured, but supports no protocols that the
     client advertises, send a fatal "no_application_protocol" alert.
     This behaviour is SHALL in RFC 7301, though it isn't universally
     implemented by other servers.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Add X25519 support.
     Add ASN.1 and EVP_PKEY methods for X25519. This includes support
     for public and private key encoding using the format documented in
     draft-ietf-curdle-pkix-02. The corresponding EVP_PKEY method supports
     key generation and key derivation.

     TLS support complies with draft-ietf-tls-rfc4492bis-08 and uses
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Deprecate SRP_VBASE_get_by_user.
     SRP_VBASE_get_by_user had inconsistent memory management behaviour.
     In order to fix an unavoidable memory leak (CVE-2016-0798),
     SRP_VBASE_get_by_user was changed to ignore the "fake user" SRP
     seed, even if the seed is configured.

     Users should use SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user instead. Note that in
     SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user, caller must free the returned value. Note
     also that even though configuring the SRP seed attempts to hide
     invalid usernames by continuing the handshake with fake
     credentials, this behaviour is not constant time and no strong
     guarantees are made that the handshake is indistinguishable from
     that of a valid user.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Configuration change; it's now possible to build dynamic engines
     without having to build shared libraries and vice versa.  This
     only applies to the engines in engines/, those in crypto/engine/
     will always be built into libcrypto (i.e. "static").

     Building dynamic engines is enabled by default; to disable, use
     the configuration option "disable-dynamic-engine".

     The only requirements for building dynamic engines are the
     presence of the DSO module and building with position independent
     code, so they will also automatically be disabled if configuring
     with "disable-dso" or "disable-pic".

     are also taken away from openssl/opensslconf.h, as they are
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Configuration change; if there is a known flag to compile
     position independent code, it will always be applied on the
     libcrypto and libssl object files, and never on the application
     object files.  This means other libraries that use routines from
     libcrypto / libssl can be made into shared libraries regardless
     of how OpenSSL was configured.

     If this isn't desirable, the configuration options "disable-pic"
     or "no-pic" can be used to disable the use of PIC.  This will
     also disable building shared libraries and dynamic engines.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Removed JPAKE code.  It was experimental and has no wide use.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) The INSTALL_PREFIX Makefile variable has been renamed to
     DESTDIR.  That makes for less confusion on what this variable
     is for.  Also, the configuration option --install_prefix is
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Heartbeat for TLS has been removed and is disabled by default
     for DTLS; configure with enable-heartbeats.  Code that uses the
     old #define's might need to be updated.
     [Emilia Käsper, Rich Salz]

  *) Rename REF_CHECK to REF_DEBUG.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) New "unified" build system

     The "unified" build system is aimed to be a common system for all
     platforms we support.  With it comes new support for VMS.

     This system builds supports building in a different directory tree
     than the source tree.  It produces one Makefile (for unix family
     or lookalikes), or one descrip.mms (for VMS).

     The source of information to make the Makefile / descrip.mms is
     small files called '', holding the necessary
     information for each directory with source to compile, and a
     template in Configurations, like unix-Makefile.tmpl or

     With this change, the library names were also renamed on Windows
     and on VMS.  They now have names that are closer to the standard
     on Unix, and include the major version number, and in certain
     cases, the architecture they are built for.  See "Notes on shared
     libraries" in INSTALL.

     We rely heavily on the perl module Text::Template.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added support for auto-initialisation and de-initialisation of the library.
     OpenSSL no longer requires explicit init or deinit routines to be called,
     except in certain circumstances. See the OPENSSL_init_crypto() and
     OPENSSL_init_ssl() man pages for further information.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) The arguments to the DTLSv1_listen function have changed. Specifically the
     "peer" argument is now expected to be a BIO_ADDR object.

  *) Rewrite of BIO networking library. The BIO library lacked consistent
     support of IPv6, and adding it required some more extensive
     modifications.  This introduces the BIO_ADDR and BIO_ADDRINFO types,
     which hold all types of addresses and chains of address information.
     It also introduces a new API, with functions like BIO_socket,
     BIO_connect, BIO_listen, BIO_lookup and a rewrite of BIO_accept.
     The source/sink BIOs BIO_s_connect, BIO_s_accept and BIO_s_datagram
     have been adapted accordingly.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) RSA_padding_check_PKCS1_type_1 now accepts inputs with and without
     the leading 0-byte.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) CRIME protection: disable compression by default, even if OpenSSL is
     compiled with zlib enabled. Applications can still enable compression
     by calling SSL_CTX_clear_options(ctx, SSL_OP_NO_COMPRESSION), or by
     using the SSL_CONF library to configure compression.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) The signature of the session callback configured with
     SSL_CTX_sess_set_get_cb was changed. The read-only input buffer
     was explicitly marked as 'const unsigned char*' instead of
     'unsigned char*'.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Always DPURIFY. Remove the use of uninitialized memory in the
     RNG, and other conditional uses of DPURIFY. This makes -DPURIFY a no-op.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Removed many obsolete configuration items, including
        MD2_CHAR, MD2_INT, MD2_LONG
        BF_PTR, BF_PTR2
     [Rich Salz, with advice from Andy Polyakov]

  *) Many BN internals have been moved to an internal header file.
     [Rich Salz with help from Andy Polyakov]

  *) Configuration and writing out the results from it has changed.
     Files such as Makefile include/openssl/opensslconf.h and are now
     produced through general templates, such as and
     crypto/ and some help from the perl module

     Also, the center of configuration information is no longer
     Makefile.  Instead, Configure produces a perl module in which holds most of the config data (in the hash
     table %config), the target data that comes from the target
     configuration in one of the Configurations/*.conf files (in
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) To clarify their intended purposes, the Configure options
     --prefix and --openssldir change their semantics, and become more
     straightforward and less interdependent.

     --prefix shall be used exclusively to give the location INSTALLTOP
     where programs, scripts, libraries, include files and manuals are
     going to be installed.  The default is now /usr/local.

     --openssldir shall be used exclusively to give the default
     location OPENSSLDIR where certificates, private keys, CRLs are
     managed.  This is also where the default openssl.cnf gets
     If the directory given with this option is a relative path, the
     values of both the --prefix value and the --openssldir value will
     be combined to become OPENSSLDIR.
     The default for --openssldir is INSTALLTOP/ssl.

     Anyone who uses --openssldir to specify where OpenSSL is to be
     installed MUST change to use --prefix instead.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) The GOST engine was out of date and therefore it has been removed. An up
     to date GOST engine is now being maintained in an external repository.
     See: Libssl still retains
     support for GOST ciphersuites (these are only activated if a GOST engine
     is present).
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) EGD is no longer supported by default; use enable-egd when
     [Ben Kaduk and Rich Salz]

  *) The distribution now has files, which are used to
     create Makefile's when Configure is run.  *Configure must be run
     before trying to build now.*
     [Rich Salz]

  *) The return value for SSL_CIPHER_description() for error conditions
     has changed.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Support for RFC6698/RFC7671 DANE TLSA peer authentication.

     Obtaining and performing DNSSEC validation of TLSA records is
     the application's responsibility.  The application provides
     the TLSA records of its choice to OpenSSL, and these are then
     used to authenticate the peer.

     The TLSA records need not even come from DNS.  They can, for
     example, be used to implement local end-entity certificate or
     trust-anchor "pinning", where the "pin" data takes the form
     of TLSA records, which can augment or replace verification
     based on the usual WebPKI public certification authorities.
     [Viktor Dukhovni]

  *) Revert default OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED setting.  Instead OpenSSL
     continues to support deprecated interfaces in default builds.
     However, applications are strongly advised to compile their
     source files with -DOPENSSL_API_COMPAT=0x10100000L, which hides
     the declarations of all interfaces deprecated in 0.9.8, 1.0.0
     or the 1.1.0 releases.

     In environments in which all applications have been ported to
     not use any deprecated interfaces OpenSSL's Configure script
     should be used with the --api=1.1.0 option to entirely remove
     support for the deprecated features from the library and
     unconditionally disable them in the installed headers.
     Essentially the same effect can be achieved with the "no-deprecated"
     argument to Configure, except that this will always restrict
     the build to just the latest API, rather than a fixed API

     As applications are ported to future revisions of the API,
     they should update their compile-time OPENSSL_API_COMPAT define
     accordingly, but in most cases should be able to continue to
     compile with later releases.

     The OPENSSL_API_COMPAT versions for 1.0.0, and 0.9.8 are
     0x10000000L and 0x00908000L, respectively.  However those
     versions did not support the OPENSSL_API_COMPAT feature, and
     so applications are not typically tested for explicit support
     of just the undeprecated features of either release.
     [Viktor Dukhovni]

  *) Add support for setting the minimum and maximum supported protocol.
     It can bet set via the SSL_set_min_proto_version() and
     SSL_set_max_proto_version(), or via the SSL_CONF's MinProtocol and
     MaxProtocol.  It's recommended to use the new APIs to disable
     protocols instead of disabling individual protocols using
     SSL_set_options() or SSL_CONF's Protocol.  This change also
     removes support for disabling TLS 1.2 in the OpenSSL TLS
     client at compile time by defining OPENSSL_NO_TLS1_2_CLIENT.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Support for ChaCha20 and Poly1305 added to libcrypto and libssl.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) New EC_KEY_METHOD, this replaces the older ECDSA_METHOD and ECDH_METHOD
     and integrates ECDSA and ECDH functionality into EC. Implementations can
     now redirect key generation and no longer need to convert to or from
     ECDSA_SIG format.

     Note: the ecdsa.h and ecdh.h headers are now no longer needed and just
     include the ec.h header file instead.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove support for all 40 and 56 bit ciphers.  This includes all the export
     ciphers who are no longer supported and drops support the ephemeral RSA key
     exchange. The LOW ciphers currently doesn't have any ciphers in it.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

     opaque.  For HMAC_CTX, the following constructors and destructors
     were added:

        HMAC_CTX *HMAC_CTX_new(void);
        void HMAC_CTX_free(HMAC_CTX *ctx);

     For EVP_MD and EVP_CIPHER, complete APIs to create, fill and
     destroy such methods has been added.  See EVP_MD_meth_new(3) and
     EVP_CIPHER_meth_new(3) for documentation.

     Additional changes:
     1) EVP_MD_CTX_cleanup(), EVP_CIPHER_CTX_cleanup() and
        HMAC_CTX_cleanup() were removed.  HMAC_CTX_reset() and
        EVP_MD_CTX_reset() should be called instead to reinitialise
        an already created structure.
     2) For consistency with the majority of our object creators and
        destructors, EVP_MD_CTX_(create|destroy) were renamed to
        EVP_MD_CTX_(new|free).  The old names are retained as macros
        for deprecated builds.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added ASYNC support. Libcrypto now includes the async sub-library to enable
     cryptographic operations to be performed asynchronously as long as an
     asynchronous capable engine is used. See the ASYNC_start_job() man page for
     further details. Libssl has also had this capability integrated with the
     introduction of the new mode SSL_MODE_ASYNC and associated error
     SSL_ERROR_WANT_ASYNC. See the SSL_CTX_set_mode() and SSL_get_error() man
     pages. This work was developed in partnership with Intel Corp.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) SSL_{CTX_}set_ecdh_auto() has been removed and ECDH is support is
     always enabled now.  If you want to disable the support you should
     exclude it using the list of supported ciphers. This also means that the
     "-no_ecdhe" option has been removed from s_server.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) SSL_{CTX}_set_tmp_ecdh() which can set 1 EC curve now internally calls
     SSL_{CTX_}set1_curves() which can set a list.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Remove support for SSL_{CTX_}set_tmp_ecdh_callback().  You should set the
     curve you want to support using SSL_{CTX_}set1_curves().
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) State machine rewrite. The state machine code has been significantly
     refactored in order to remove much duplication of code and solve issues
     with the old code (see ssl/statem/README for further details). This change
     does have some associated API changes. Notably the SSL_state() function
     has been removed and replaced by SSL_get_state which now returns an
     "OSSL_HANDSHAKE_STATE" instead of an int. SSL_set_state() has been removed
     altogether. The previous handshake states defined in ssl.h and ssl3.h have
     also been removed.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) All instances of the string "ssleay" in the public API were replaced
     with OpenSSL (case-matching; e.g., OPENSSL_VERSION for #define's)
     Some error codes related to internal RSA_eay API's were renamed.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) The demo files in crypto/threads were moved to demo/threads.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Removed obsolete engines: 4758cca, aep, atalla, cswift, nuron, gmp,
     sureware and ubsec.
     [Matt Caswell, Rich Salz]

  *) New ASN.1 embed macro.

     New ASN.1 macro ASN1_EMBED. This is the same as ASN1_SIMPLE except the
     structure is not allocated: it is part of the parent. That is instead of

     FOO *x;

     it must be:

     FOO x;

     This reduces memory fragmentation and make it impossible to accidentally
     set a mandatory field to NULL.

     This currently only works for some fields specifically a SEQUENCE, CHOICE,
     or ASN1_STRING type which is part of a parent SEQUENCE. Since it is
     equivalent to ASN1_SIMPLE it cannot be tagged, OPTIONAL, SET OF or
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove EVP_CHECK_DES_KEY, a compile-time option that never compiled.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Removed DES and RC4 ciphersuites from DEFAULT. Also removed RC2 although
     in 1.0.2 EXPORT was already removed and the only RC2 ciphersuite is also
     an EXPORT one. COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT has been updated accordingly to add
     DES and RC4 ciphersuites.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Rewrite EVP_DecodeUpdate (base64 decoding) to fix several bugs.
     This changes the decoding behaviour for some invalid messages,
     though the change is mostly in the more lenient direction, and
     legacy behaviour is preserved as much as possible.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Fix no-stdio build.
    [ David Woodhouse <> and also
      Ivan Nestlerode <> ]

  *) New testing framework
     The testing framework has been largely rewritten and is now using
     perl and the perl modules Test::Harness and an extended variant of
     Test::More called OpenSSL::Test to do its work.  All test scripts in
     test/ have been rewritten into test recipes, and all direct calls to
     executables in test/Makefile have become individual recipes using the
     simplified testing OpenSSL::Test::Simple.

     For documentation on our testing modules, do:

        perldoc test/testlib/OpenSSL/Test/
        perldoc test/testlib/OpenSSL/

     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Revamped memory debug; only -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG and -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_ABORT
     are used; the latter aborts on memory leaks (usually checked on exit).
     Some undocumented "set malloc, etc., hooks" functions were removed
     and others were changed.  All are now documented.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) In DSA_generate_parameters_ex, if the provided seed is too short,
     return an error
     [Rich Salz and Ismo Puustinen <>]

  *) Rewrite PSK to support ECDHE_PSK, DHE_PSK and RSA_PSK. Add ciphersuites
     from RFC4279, RFC4785, RFC5487, RFC5489.

     Thanks to Christian J. Dietrich and Giuseppe D'Angelo for the
     original RSA_PSK patch.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Dropped support for the SSL3_FLAGS_DELAY_CLIENT_FINISHED flag. This SSLeay
     era flag was never set throughout the codebase (only read). Also removed
     SSL3_FLAGS_POP_BUFFER which was only used if
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Changed the default name options in the "ca", "crl", "req" and "x509"
     to be "oneline" instead of "compat".
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove SSL_OP_TLS_BLOCK_PADDING_BUG. This is SSLeay legacy, we're
     not aware of clients that still exhibit this bug, and the workaround
     hasn't been working properly for a while.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) The return type of BIO_number_read() and BIO_number_written() as well as
     the corresponding num_read and num_write members in the BIO structure has
     changed from unsigned long to uint64_t. On platforms where an unsigned
     long is 32 bits (e.g. Windows) these counters could overflow if >4Gb is
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Given the pervasive nature of TLS extensions it is inadvisable to run
     OpenSSL without support for them. It also means that maintaining
     the OPENSSL_NO_TLSEXT option within the code is very invasive (and probably
     not well tested). Therefore the OPENSSL_NO_TLSEXT option has been removed.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Removed support for the two export grade static DH ciphersuites
     EXP-DH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA and EXP-DH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA. These two ciphersuites
     were newly added (along with a number of other static DH ciphersuites) to
     1.0.2. However the two export ones have *never* worked since they were
     introduced. It seems strange in any case to be adding new export
     ciphersuites, and given "logjam" it also does not seem correct to fix them.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Version negotiation has been rewritten. In particular SSLv23_method(),
     SSLv23_client_method() and SSLv23_server_method() have been deprecated,
     and turned into macros which simply call the new preferred function names
     TLS_method(), TLS_client_method() and TLS_server_method(). All new code
     should use the new names instead. Also as part of this change the ssl23.h
     header file has been removed.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Support for Kerberos ciphersuites in TLS (RFC2712) has been removed. This
     code and the associated standard is no longer considered fit-for-purpose.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) RT2547 was closed.  When generating a private key, try to make the
     output file readable only by the owner.  This behavior change might
     be noticeable when interacting with other software.

  *) Documented all exdata functions.  Added CRYPTO_free_ex_index.
     Added a test.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Added HTTP GET support to the ocsp command.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Changed default digest for the dgst and enc commands from MD5 to
     [Rich Salz]

  *) RAND_pseudo_bytes has been deprecated. Users should use RAND_bytes instead.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Added support for TLS extended master secret from
     draft-ietf-tls-session-hash-03.txt. Thanks for Alfredo Pironti for an
     initial patch which was a great help during development.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) All libssl internal structures have been removed from the public header
     files, and the OPENSSL_NO_SSL_INTERN option has been removed (since it is
     now redundant). Users should not attempt to access internal structures
     directly. Instead they should use the provided API functions.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) config has been changed so that by default OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED is used.
     Access to deprecated functions can be re-enabled by running config with
     "enable-deprecated". In addition applications wishing to use deprecated
     functions must define OPENSSL_USE_DEPRECATED. Note that this new behaviour
     will, by default, disable some transitive includes that previously existed
     in the header files (e.g. ec.h will no longer, by default, include bn.h)
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Added support for OCB mode. OpenSSL has been granted a patent license
     compatible with the OpenSSL license for use of OCB. Details are available
     at Support
     for OCB can be removed by calling config with no-ocb.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) SSLv2 support has been removed.  It still supports receiving a SSLv2
     compatible client hello.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Increased the minimal RSA keysize from 256 to 512 bits [Rich Salz],
     done while fixing the error code for the key-too-small case.
     [Annie Yousar <>]

  *) has been removed; use instead.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Removed old DES API.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Remove various unsupported platforms:
        Sony NEWS4
        BEOS and BEOS_R5
        Sinix/ReliantUNIX RM400
        16-bit platforms such as WIN16
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Clean up OPENSSL_NO_xxx #define's
        Use setbuf() and remove OPENSSL_NO_SETVBUF_IONBF
        Rename OPENSSL_SYSNAME_xxx to OPENSSL_SYS_xxx
        OPENSSL_NO_EC{DH,DSA} merged into OPENSSL_NO_EC
        Remove MS_STATIC; it's a relic from platforms <32 bits.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Cleaned up dead code
        Remove all but one '#ifdef undef' which is to be looked at.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Clean up calling of xxx_free routines.
        Just like free(), fix most of the xxx_free routines to accept
        NULL.  Remove the non-null checks from callers.  Save much code.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Add secure heap for storage of private keys (when possible).
     Add BIO_s_secmem(), CBIGNUM, etc.
     Contributed by Akamai Technologies under our Corporate CLA.
     [Rich Salz]

  *) Experimental support for a new, fast, unbiased prime candidate generator,
     bn_probable_prime_dh_coprime(). Not currently used by any prime generator.
     [Felix Laurie von Massenbach <>]

  *) New output format NSS in the sess_id command line tool. This allows
     exporting the session id and the master key in NSS keylog format.
     [Martin Kaiser <>]

  *) Harmonize version and its documentation. -f flag is used to display
     compilation flags.
     [mancha <>]

  *) Fix eckey_priv_encode so it immediately returns an error upon a failure
     in i2d_ECPrivateKey.  Thanks to Ted Unangst for feedback on this issue.
     [mancha <>]

  *) Fix some double frees. These are not thought to be exploitable.
     [mancha <>]

  *) A missing bounds check in the handling of the TLS heartbeat extension
     can be used to reveal up to 64k of memory to a connected client or

     Thanks for Neel Mehta of Google Security for discovering this bug and to
     Adam Langley <> and Bodo Moeller <> for
     preparing the fix (CVE-2014-0160)
     [Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for the attack described in the paper "Recovering OpenSSL
     ECDSA Nonces Using the FLUSH+RELOAD Cache Side-channel Attack"
     by Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger. Details can be obtained from:

     Thanks to Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger for discovering this
     flaw and to Yuval Yarom for supplying a fix (CVE-2014-0076)
     [Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger]

  *) Use algorithm specific chains in SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file():
     this fixes a limitation in previous versions of OpenSSL.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Experimental encrypt-then-mac support.

     Experimental support for encrypt then mac from

     To enable it set the appropriate extension number (0x42 for the test
     server) using e.g. -DTLSEXT_TYPE_encrypt_then_mac=0x42

     For non-compliant peers (i.e. just about everything) this should have no


     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add EVP support for key wrapping algorithms, to avoid problems with
     existing code the flag EVP_CIPHER_CTX_WRAP_ALLOW has to be set in
     the EVP_CIPHER_CTX or an error is returned. Add AES and DES3 wrap
     algorithms and include tests cases.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extend CMS code to support RSA-PSS signatures and RSA-OAEP for
     enveloped data.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extended RSA OAEP support via EVP_PKEY API. Options to specify digest,
     MGF1 digest and OAEP label.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make openssl verify return errors.
     [Chris Palmer <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) New function ASN1_TIME_diff to calculate the difference between two
     ASN1_TIME structures or one structure and the current time.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update fips_test_suite to support multiple command line options. New
     test to induce all self test errors in sequence and check expected
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add FIPS_{rsa,dsa,ecdsa}_{sign,verify} functions which digest and
     sign or verify all in one operation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add fips_algvs: a multicall fips utility incorporating all the algorithm
     test programs and fips_test_suite. Includes functionality to parse
     the minimal script output of directly.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add authorisation parameter to FIPS_module_mode_set().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add FIPS selftest for ECDH algorithm using P-224 and B-233 curves.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Use separate DRBG fields for internal and external flags. New function
     FIPS_drbg_health_check() to perform on demand health checking. Add
     generation tests to fips_test_suite with reduced health check interval to
     demonstrate periodic health checking. Add "nodh" option to
     fips_test_suite to skip very slow DH test.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function FIPS_get_cipherbynid() to lookup FIPS supported ciphers
     based on NID.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) More extensive health check for DRBG checking many more failure modes.
     New function FIPS_selftest_drbg_all() to handle every possible DRBG
     combination: call this in fips_test_suite.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for canonical generation of DSA parameter 'g'. See
     FIPS 186-3 A.2.3.

  *) Add support for HMAC DRBG from SP800-90. Update DRBG algorithm test and
     POST to handle HMAC cases.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add functions FIPS_module_version() and FIPS_module_version_text()
     to return numerical and string versions of the FIPS module number.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Rename FIPS_mode_set and FIPS_mode to FIPS_module_mode_set and
     FIPS_module_mode. FIPS_mode and FIPS_mode_set will be implemented
     outside the validated module in the FIPS capable OpenSSL.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Minor change to DRBG entropy callback semantics. In some cases
     there is no multiple of the block length between min_len and
     max_len. Allow the callback to return more than max_len bytes
     of entropy but discard any extra: it is the callback's responsibility
     to ensure that the extra data discarded does not impact the
     requested amount of entropy.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add PRNG security strength checks to RSA, DSA and ECDSA using
     information in FIPS186-3, SP800-57 and SP800-131A.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) CCM support via EVP. Interface is very similar to GCM case except we
     must supply all data in one chunk (i.e. no update, final) and the
     message length must be supplied if AAD is used. Add algorithm test
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial version of POST overhaul. Add POST callback to allow the status
     of POST to be monitored and/or failures induced. Modify fips_test_suite
     to use callback. Always run all selftests even if one fails.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) XTS support including algorithm test driver in the fips_gcmtest program.
     Note: this does increase the maximum key length from 32 to 64 bytes but
     there should be no binary compatibility issues as existing applications
     will never use XTS mode.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extensive reorganisation of FIPS PRNG behaviour. Remove all dependencies
     to OpenSSL RAND code and replace with a tiny FIPS RAND API which also
     performs algorithm blocking for unapproved PRNG types. Also do not
     set PRNG type in FIPS_mode_set(): leave this to the application.
     Add default OpenSSL DRBG handling: sets up FIPS PRNG and seeds with
     the standard OpenSSL PRNG: set additional data to a date time vector.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Rename old X9.31 PRNG functions of the form FIPS_rand* to FIPS_x931*.
     This shouldn't present any incompatibility problems because applications
     shouldn't be using these directly and any that are will need to rethink
     anyway as the X9.31 PRNG is now deprecated by FIPS 140-2
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extensive self tests and health checking required by SP800-90 DRBG.
     Remove strength parameter from FIPS_drbg_instantiate and always
     instantiate at maximum supported strength.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add ECDH code to fips module and fips_ecdhvs for primitives only testing.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New algorithm test program fips_dhvs to handle DH primitives only testing.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function DH_compute_key_padded() to compute a DH key and pad with
     leading zeroes if needed: this complies with SP800-56A et al.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial implementation of SP800-90 DRBGs for Hash and CTR. Not used by
     anything, incomplete, subject to change and largely untested at present.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify fipscanisteronly build option to only build the necessary object
     files by filtering FIPS_EX_OBJ through a perl script in crypto/Makefile.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add experimental option FIPSSYMS to give all symbols in
     fipscanister.o and FIPS or fips prefix. This will avoid
     conflicts with future versions of OpenSSL. Add perl script
     util/ to preprocess assembly language source files
     and rename any affected symbols.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add selftest checks and algorithm block of non-fips algorithms in
     FIPS mode. Remove DES2 from selftests.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add ECDSA code to fips module. Add tiny fips_ecdsa_check to just
     return internal method without any ENGINE dependencies. Add new
     tiny fips sign and verify functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New build option no-ec2m to disable characteristic 2 code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New build option "fipscanisteronly". This only builds fipscanister.o
     and (currently) associated fips utilities. Uses the file Makefile.fips
     instead of as the prototype.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add some FIPS mode restrictions to GCM. Add internal IV generator.
     Update fips_gcmtest to use IV generator.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial, experimental EVP support for AES-GCM. AAD can be input by
     setting output buffer to NULL. The *Final function must be
     called although it will not retrieve any additional data. The tag
     can be set or retrieved with a ctrl. The IV length is by default 12
     bytes (96 bits) but can be set to an alternative value. If the IV
     length exceeds the maximum IV length (currently 16 bytes) it cannot be
     set before the key.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New flag in ciphers: EVP_CIPH_FLAG_CUSTOM_CIPHER. This means the
     underlying do_cipher function handles all cipher semantics itself
     including padding and finalisation. This is useful if (for example)
     an ENGINE cipher handles block padding itself. The behaviour of
     do_cipher is subtly changed if this flag is set: the return value
     is the number of characters written to the output buffer (zero is
     no longer an error code) or a negative error code. Also if the
     input buffer is NULL and length 0 finalisation should be performed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) If a candidate issuer certificate is already part of the constructed
     path ignore it: new debug notification X509_V_ERR_PATH_LOOP for this case.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Improve forward-security support: add functions

       void SSL_CTX_set_not_resumable_session_callback(SSL_CTX *ctx, int (*cb)(SSL *ssl, int is_forward_secure))
       void SSL_set_not_resumable_session_callback(SSL *ssl, int (*cb)(SSL *ssl, int is_forward_secure))

     for use by SSL/TLS servers; the callback function will be called whenever a
     new session is created, and gets to decide whether the session may be
     cached to make it resumable (return 0) or not (return 1).  (As by the
     SSL/TLS protocol specifications, the session_id sent by the server will be
     empty to indicate that the session is not resumable; also, the server will
     not generate RFC 4507 (RFC 5077) session tickets.)

     A simple reasonable callback implementation is to return is_forward_secure.
     This parameter will be set to 1 or 0 depending on the ciphersuite selected
     by the SSL/TLS server library, indicating whether it can provide forward
     [Emilia Käsper <> (Google)]

  *) New -verify_name option in command line utilities to set verification
     parameters by name.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial CMAC implementation. WARNING: EXPERIMENTAL, API MAY CHANGE.
     Add CMAC pkey methods.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Experimental renegotiation in s_server -www mode. If the client
     browses /reneg connection is renegotiated. If /renegcert it is
     renegotiated requesting a certificate.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add an "external" session cache for debugging purposes to s_server. This
     should help trace issues which normally are only apparent in deployed
     multi-process servers.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extensive audit of libcrypto with DEBUG_UNUSED. Fix many cases where
     return value is ignored. NB. The functions RAND_add(), RAND_seed(),
     BIO_set_cipher() and some obscure PEM functions were changed so they
     can now return an error. The RAND changes required a change to the
     RAND_METHOD structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New macro __owur for "OpenSSL Warn Unused Result". This makes use of
     a gcc attribute to warn if the result of a function is ignored. This
     is enable if DEBUG_UNUSED is set. Add to several functions in evp.h
     whose return value is often ignored.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New -noct, -requestct, -requirect and -ctlogfile options for s_client.
     These allow SCTs (signed certificate timestamps) to be requested and
     validated when establishing a connection.
     [Rob Percival <>]

 Changes between 1.0.2g and 1.0.2h [3 May 2016]

  *) Prevent padding oracle in AES-NI CBC MAC check

     A MITM attacker can use a padding oracle attack to decrypt traffic
     when the connection uses an AES CBC cipher and the server support

     This issue was introduced as part of the fix for Lucky 13 padding
     attack (CVE-2013-0169). The padding check was rewritten to be in
     constant time by making sure that always the same bytes are read and
     compared against either the MAC or padding bytes. But it no longer
     checked that there was enough data to have both the MAC and padding

     This issue was reported by Juraj Somorovsky using TLS-Attacker.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Fix EVP_EncodeUpdate overflow

     An overflow can occur in the EVP_EncodeUpdate() function which is used for
     Base64 encoding of binary data. If an attacker is able to supply very large
     amounts of input data then a length check can overflow resulting in a heap

     Internally to OpenSSL the EVP_EncodeUpdate() function is primarily used by
     the PEM_write_bio* family of functions. These are mainly used within the
     OpenSSL command line applications, so any application which processes data
     from an untrusted source and outputs it as a PEM file should be considered
     vulnerable to this issue. User applications that call these APIs directly
     with large amounts of untrusted data may also be vulnerable.

     This issue was reported by Guido Vranken.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Fix EVP_EncryptUpdate overflow

     An overflow can occur in the EVP_EncryptUpdate() function. If an attacker
     is able to supply very large amounts of input data after a previous call to
     EVP_EncryptUpdate() with a partial block then a length check can overflow
     resulting in a heap corruption. Following an analysis of all OpenSSL
     internal usage of the EVP_EncryptUpdate() function all usage is one of two
     forms. The first form is where the EVP_EncryptUpdate() call is known to be
     the first called function after an EVP_EncryptInit(), and therefore that
     specific call must be safe. The second form is where the length passed to
     EVP_EncryptUpdate() can be seen from the code to be some small value and
     therefore there is no possibility of an overflow. Since all instances are
     one of these two forms, it is believed that there can be no overflows in
     internal code due to this problem. It should be noted that
     EVP_DecryptUpdate() can call EVP_EncryptUpdate() in certain code paths.
     Also EVP_CipherUpdate() is a synonym for EVP_EncryptUpdate(). All instances
     of these calls have also been analysed too and it is believed there are no
     instances in internal usage where an overflow could occur.

     This issue was reported by Guido Vranken.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Prevent ASN.1 BIO excessive memory allocation

     When ASN.1 data is read from a BIO using functions such as d2i_CMS_bio()
     a short invalid encoding can cause allocation of large amounts of memory
     potentially consuming excessive resources or exhausting memory.

     Any application parsing untrusted data through d2i BIO functions is
     affected. The memory based functions such as d2i_X509() are *not* affected.
     Since the memory based functions are used by the TLS library, TLS
     applications are not affected.

     This issue was reported by Brian Carpenter.
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) EBCDIC overread

     ASN1 Strings that are over 1024 bytes can cause an overread in applications
     using the X509_NAME_oneline() function on EBCDIC systems. This could result
     in arbitrary stack data being returned in the buffer.

     This issue was reported by Guido Vranken.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Modify behavior of ALPN to invoke callback after SNI/servername
     callback, such that updates to the SSL_CTX affect ALPN.
     [Todd Short]

  *) Remove LOW from the DEFAULT cipher list.  This removes singles DES from the
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Only remove the SSLv2 methods with the no-ssl2-method option. When the
     methods are enabled and ssl2 is disabled the methods return NULL.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

 Changes between 1.0.2f and 1.0.2g [1 Mar 2016]

  * Disable weak ciphers in SSLv3 and up in default builds of OpenSSL.
    Builds that are not configured with "enable-weak-ssl-ciphers" will not
    provide any "EXPORT" or "LOW" strength ciphers.
    [Viktor Dukhovni]

  * Disable SSLv2 default build, default negotiation and weak ciphers.  SSLv2
    is by default disabled at build-time.  Builds that are not configured with
    "enable-ssl2" will not support SSLv2.  Even if "enable-ssl2" is used,
    users who want to negotiate SSLv2 via the version-flexible SSLv23_method()
    will need to explicitly call either of:

        SSL_CTX_clear_options(ctx, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2);
        SSL_clear_options(ssl, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2);

    as appropriate.  Even if either of those is used, or the application
    explicitly uses the version-specific SSLv2_method() or its client and
    server variants, SSLv2 ciphers vulnerable to exhaustive search key
    recovery have been removed.  Specifically, the SSLv2 40-bit EXPORT
    ciphers, and SSLv2 56-bit DES are no longer available.
    [Viktor Dukhovni]

  *) Fix a double-free in DSA code

     A double free bug was discovered when OpenSSL parses malformed DSA private
     keys and could lead to a DoS attack or memory corruption for applications
     that receive DSA private keys from untrusted sources.  This scenario is
     considered rare.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Adam Langley(Google/BoringSSL) using
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) Disable SRP fake user seed to address a server memory leak.

     Add a new method SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user that handles the seed properly.

     SRP_VBASE_get_by_user had inconsistent memory management behaviour.
     In order to fix an unavoidable memory leak, SRP_VBASE_get_by_user
     was changed to ignore the "fake user" SRP seed, even if the seed
     is configured.

     Users should use SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user instead. Note that in
     SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user, caller must free the returned value. Note
     also that even though configuring the SRP seed attempts to hide
     invalid usernames by continuing the handshake with fake
     credentials, this behaviour is not constant time and no strong
     guarantees are made that the handshake is indistinguishable from
     that of a valid user.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Fix BN_hex2bn/BN_dec2bn NULL pointer deref/heap corruption

     In the BN_hex2bn function the number of hex digits is calculated using an
     int value |i|. Later |bn_expand| is called with a value of |i * 4|. For
     large values of |i| this can result in |bn_expand| not allocating any
     memory because |i * 4| is negative. This can leave the internal BIGNUM data
     field as NULL leading to a subsequent NULL ptr deref. For very large values
     of |i|, the calculation |i * 4| could be a positive value smaller than |i|.
     In this case memory is allocated to the internal BIGNUM data field, but it
     is insufficiently sized leading to heap corruption. A similar issue exists
     in BN_dec2bn. This could have security consequences if BN_hex2bn/BN_dec2bn
     is ever called by user applications with very large untrusted hex/dec data.
     This is anticipated to be a rare occurrence.

     All OpenSSL internal usage of these functions use data that is not expected
     to be untrusted, e.g. config file data or application command line
     arguments. If user developed applications generate config file data based
     on untrusted data then it is possible that this could also lead to security
     consequences. This is also anticipated to be rare.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Guido Vranken.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Fix memory issues in BIO_*printf functions

     The internal |fmtstr| function used in processing a "%s" format string in
     the BIO_*printf functions could overflow while calculating the length of a
     string and cause an OOB read when printing very long strings.

     Additionally the internal |doapr_outch| function can attempt to write to an
     OOB memory location (at an offset from the NULL pointer) in the event of a
     memory allocation failure. In 1.0.2 and below this could be caused where
     the size of a buffer to be allocated is greater than INT_MAX. E.g. this
     could be in processing a very long "%s" format string. Memory leaks can
     also occur.

     The first issue may mask the second issue dependent on compiler behaviour.
     These problems could enable attacks where large amounts of untrusted data
     is passed to the BIO_*printf functions. If applications use these functions
     in this way then they could be vulnerable. OpenSSL itself uses these
     functions when printing out human-readable dumps of ASN.1 data. Therefore
     applications that print this data could be vulnerable if the data is from
     untrusted sources. OpenSSL command line applications could also be
     vulnerable where they print out ASN.1 data, or if untrusted data is passed
     as command line arguments.

     Libssl is not considered directly vulnerable. Additionally certificates etc
     received via remote connections via libssl are also unlikely to be able to
     trigger these issues because of message size limits enforced within libssl.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL Guido Vranken.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Side channel attack on modular exponentiation

     A side-channel attack was found which makes use of cache-bank conflicts on
     the Intel Sandy-Bridge microarchitecture which could lead to the recovery
     of RSA keys.  The ability to exploit this issue is limited as it relies on
     an attacker who has control of code in a thread running on the same
     hyper-threaded core as the victim thread which is performing decryptions.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Yuval Yarom, The University of
     Adelaide and NICTA, Daniel Genkin, Technion and Tel Aviv University, and
     Nadia Heninger, University of Pennsylvania with more information at
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Change the req app to generate a 2048-bit RSA/DSA key by default,
     if no keysize is specified with default_bits. This fixes an
     omission in an earlier change that changed all RSA/DSA key generation
     apps to use 2048 bits by default.
     [Emilia Käsper]

 Changes between 1.0.2e and 1.0.2f [28 Jan 2016]
  *) DH small subgroups

     Historically OpenSSL only ever generated DH parameters based on "safe"
     primes. More recently (in version 1.0.2) support was provided for
     generating X9.42 style parameter files such as those required for RFC 5114
     support. The primes used in such files may not be "safe". Where an
     application is using DH configured with parameters based on primes that are
     not "safe" then an attacker could use this fact to find a peer's private
     DH exponent. This attack requires that the attacker complete multiple
     handshakes in which the peer uses the same private DH exponent. For example
     this could be used to discover a TLS server's private DH exponent if it's
     reusing the private DH exponent or it's using a static DH ciphersuite.

     OpenSSL provides the option SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE for ephemeral DH (DHE) in
     TLS. It is not on by default. If the option is not set then the server
     reuses the same private DH exponent for the life of the server process and
     would be vulnerable to this attack. It is believed that many popular
     applications do set this option and would therefore not be at risk.

     The fix for this issue adds an additional check where a "q" parameter is
     available (as is the case in X9.42 based parameters). This detects the
     only known attack, and is the only possible defense for static DH
     ciphersuites. This could have some performance impact.

     Additionally the SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE option has been switched on by
     default and cannot be disabled. This could have some performance impact.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Antonio Sanso (Adobe).
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) SSLv2 doesn't block disabled ciphers

     A malicious client can negotiate SSLv2 ciphers that have been disabled on
     the server and complete SSLv2 handshakes even if all SSLv2 ciphers have
     been disabled, provided that the SSLv2 protocol was not also disabled via

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 26th December 2015 by Nimrod Aviram
     and Sebastian Schinzel.
     [Viktor Dukhovni]

 Changes between 1.0.2d and 1.0.2e [3 Dec 2015]

  *) BN_mod_exp may produce incorrect results on x86_64

     There is a carry propagating bug in the x86_64 Montgomery squaring
     procedure. No EC algorithms are affected. Analysis suggests that attacks
     against RSA and DSA as a result of this defect would be very difficult to
     perform and are not believed likely. Attacks against DH are considered just
     feasible (although very difficult) because most of the work necessary to
     deduce information about a private key may be performed offline. The amount
     of resources required for such an attack would be very significant and
     likely only accessible to a limited number of attackers. An attacker would
     additionally need online access to an unpatched system using the target
     private key in a scenario with persistent DH parameters and a private
     key that is shared between multiple clients. For example this can occur by
     default in OpenSSL DHE based SSL/TLS ciphersuites.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Hanno Böck.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Certificate verify crash with missing PSS parameter

     The signature verification routines will crash with a NULL pointer
     dereference if presented with an ASN.1 signature using the RSA PSS
     algorithm and absent mask generation function parameter. Since these
     routines are used to verify certificate signature algorithms this can be
     used to crash any certificate verification operation and exploited in a
     DoS attack. Any application which performs certificate verification is
     vulnerable including OpenSSL clients and servers which enable client

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Loïc Jonas Etienne (Qnective AG).
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) X509_ATTRIBUTE memory leak

     When presented with a malformed X509_ATTRIBUTE structure OpenSSL will leak
     memory. This structure is used by the PKCS#7 and CMS routines so any
     application which reads PKCS#7 or CMS data from untrusted sources is
     affected. SSL/TLS is not affected.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Adam Langley (Google/BoringSSL) using
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) Rewrite EVP_DecodeUpdate (base64 decoding) to fix several bugs.
     This changes the decoding behaviour for some invalid messages,
     though the change is mostly in the more lenient direction, and
     legacy behaviour is preserved as much as possible.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) In DSA_generate_parameters_ex, if the provided seed is too short,
     return an error
     [Rich Salz and Ismo Puustinen <>]

 Changes between 1.0.2c and 1.0.2d [9 Jul 2015]

  *) Alternate chains certificate forgery

     During certificate verification, OpenSSL will attempt to find an
     alternative certificate chain if the first attempt to build such a chain
     fails. An error in the implementation of this logic can mean that an
     attacker could cause certain checks on untrusted certificates to be
     bypassed, such as the CA flag, enabling them to use a valid leaf
     certificate to act as a CA and "issue" an invalid certificate.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Adam Langley/David Benjamin
     [Matt Caswell]

 Changes between 1.0.2b and 1.0.2c [12 Jun 2015]

  *) Fix HMAC ABI incompatibility. The previous version introduced an ABI
     incompatibility in the handling of HMAC. The previous ABI has now been
     [Matt Caswell]

 Changes between 1.0.2a and 1.0.2b [11 Jun 2015]

  *) Malformed ECParameters causes infinite loop

     When processing an ECParameters structure OpenSSL enters an infinite loop
     if the curve specified is over a specially malformed binary polynomial

     This can be used to perform denial of service against any
     system which processes public keys, certificate requests or
     certificates.  This includes TLS clients and TLS servers with
     client authentication enabled.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Joseph Barr-Pixton.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Exploitable out-of-bounds read in X509_cmp_time

     X509_cmp_time does not properly check the length of the ASN1_TIME
     string and can read a few bytes out of bounds. In addition,
     X509_cmp_time accepts an arbitrary number of fractional seconds in the
     time string.

     An attacker can use this to craft malformed certificates and CRLs of
     various sizes and potentially cause a segmentation fault, resulting in
     a DoS on applications that verify certificates or CRLs. TLS clients
     that verify CRLs are affected. TLS clients and servers with client
     authentication enabled may be affected if they use custom verification

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Robert Swiecki (Google), and
     independently by Hanno Böck.
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) PKCS7 crash with missing EnvelopedContent

     The PKCS#7 parsing code does not handle missing inner EncryptedContent
     correctly. An attacker can craft malformed ASN.1-encoded PKCS#7 blobs
     with missing content and trigger a NULL pointer dereference on parsing.

     Applications that decrypt PKCS#7 data or otherwise parse PKCS#7
     structures from untrusted sources are affected. OpenSSL clients and
     servers are not affected.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Michal Zalewski (Google).
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) CMS verify infinite loop with unknown hash function

     When verifying a signedData message the CMS code can enter an infinite loop
     if presented with an unknown hash function OID. This can be used to perform
     denial of service against any system which verifies signedData messages using
     the CMS code.
     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Johannes Bauer.
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) Race condition handling NewSessionTicket

     If a NewSessionTicket is received by a multi-threaded client when attempting to
     reuse a previous ticket then a race condition can occur potentially leading to
     a double free of the ticket data.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Only support 256-bit or stronger elliptic curves with the
     'ecdh_auto' setting (server) or by default (client). Of supported
     curves, prefer P-256 (both).
     [Emilia Kasper]

 Changes between 1.0.2 and 1.0.2a [19 Mar 2015]

  *) ClientHello sigalgs DoS fix

     If a client connects to an OpenSSL 1.0.2 server and renegotiates with an
     invalid signature algorithms extension a NULL pointer dereference will
     occur. This can be exploited in a DoS attack against the server.

     This issue was was reported to OpenSSL by David Ramos of Stanford
     [Stephen Henson and Matt Caswell]

  *) Multiblock corrupted pointer fix

     OpenSSL 1.0.2 introduced the "multiblock" performance improvement. This
     feature only applies on 64 bit x86 architecture platforms that support AES
     NI instructions. A defect in the implementation of "multiblock" can cause
     OpenSSL's internal write buffer to become incorrectly set to NULL when
     using non-blocking IO. Typically, when the user application is using a
     socket BIO for writing, this will only result in a failed connection.
     However if some other BIO is used then it is likely that a segmentation
     fault will be triggered, thus enabling a potential DoS attack.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Daniel Danner and Rainer Mueller.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Segmentation fault in DTLSv1_listen fix

     The DTLSv1_listen function is intended to be stateless and processes the
     initial ClientHello from many peers. It is common for user code to loop
     over the call to DTLSv1_listen until a valid ClientHello is received with
     an associated cookie. A defect in the implementation of DTLSv1_listen means
     that state is preserved in the SSL object from one invocation to the next
     that can lead to a segmentation fault. Errors processing the initial
     ClientHello can trigger this scenario. An example of such an error could be
     that a DTLS1.0 only client is attempting to connect to a DTLS1.2 only

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Per Allansson.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Segmentation fault in ASN1_TYPE_cmp fix

     The function ASN1_TYPE_cmp will crash with an invalid read if an attempt is
     made to compare ASN.1 boolean types. Since ASN1_TYPE_cmp is used to check
     certificate signature algorithm consistency this can be used to crash any
     certificate verification operation and exploited in a DoS attack. Any
     application which performs certificate verification is vulnerable including
     OpenSSL clients and servers which enable client authentication.
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) Segmentation fault for invalid PSS parameters fix

     The signature verification routines will crash with a NULL pointer
     dereference if presented with an ASN.1 signature using the RSA PSS
     algorithm and invalid parameters. Since these routines are used to verify
     certificate signature algorithms this can be used to crash any
     certificate verification operation and exploited in a DoS attack. Any
     application which performs certificate verification is vulnerable including
     OpenSSL clients and servers which enable client authentication.

     This issue was was reported to OpenSSL by Brian Carpenter.
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) ASN.1 structure reuse memory corruption fix

     Reusing a structure in ASN.1 parsing may allow an attacker to cause
     memory corruption via an invalid write. Such reuse is and has been
     strongly discouraged and is believed to be rare.

     Applications that parse structures containing CHOICE or ANY DEFINED BY
     components may be affected. Certificate parsing (d2i_X509 and related
     functions) are however not affected. OpenSSL clients and servers are
     not affected.
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) PKCS7 NULL pointer dereferences fix

     The PKCS#7 parsing code does not handle missing outer ContentInfo
     correctly. An attacker can craft malformed ASN.1-encoded PKCS#7 blobs with
     missing content and trigger a NULL pointer dereference on parsing.

     Applications that verify PKCS#7 signatures, decrypt PKCS#7 data or
     otherwise parse PKCS#7 structures from untrusted sources are
     affected. OpenSSL clients and servers are not affected.

     This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Michal Zalewski (Google).
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) DoS via reachable assert in SSLv2 servers fix

     A malicious client can trigger an OPENSSL_assert (i.e., an abort) in
     servers that both support SSLv2 and enable export cipher suites by sending
     a specially crafted SSLv2 CLIENT-MASTER-KEY message.

     This issue was discovered by Sean Burford (Google) and Emilia Käsper
     (OpenSSL development team).
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) Empty CKE with client auth and DHE fix

     If client auth is used then a server can seg fault in the event of a DHE
     ciphersuite being selected and a zero length ClientKeyExchange message
     being sent by the client. This could be exploited in a DoS attack.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Handshake with unseeded PRNG fix

     Under certain conditions an OpenSSL 1.0.2 client can complete a handshake
     with an unseeded PRNG. The conditions are:
     - The client is on a platform where the PRNG has not been seeded
     automatically, and the user has not seeded manually
     - A protocol specific client method version has been used (i.e. not
     - A ciphersuite is used that does not require additional random data from
     the PRNG beyond the initial ClientHello client random (e.g. PSK-RC4-SHA).

     If the handshake succeeds then the client random that has been used will
     have been generated from a PRNG with insufficient entropy and therefore the
     output may be predictable.

     For example using the following command with an unseeded openssl will
     succeed on an unpatched platform:

     openssl s_client -psk 1a2b3c4d -tls1_2 -cipher PSK-RC4-SHA
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Use After Free following d2i_ECPrivatekey error fix

     A malformed EC private key file consumed via the d2i_ECPrivateKey function
     could cause a use after free condition. This, in turn, could cause a double
     free in several private key parsing functions (such as d2i_PrivateKey
     or EVP_PKCS82PKEY) and could lead to a DoS attack or memory corruption
     for applications that receive EC private keys from untrusted
     sources. This scenario is considered rare.

     This issue was discovered by the BoringSSL project and fixed in their
     commit 517073cd4b.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) X509_to_X509_REQ NULL pointer deref fix

     The function X509_to_X509_REQ will crash with a NULL pointer dereference if
     the certificate key is invalid. This function is rarely used in practice.

     This issue was discovered by Brian Carpenter.
     [Stephen Henson]

  *) Removed the export ciphers from the DEFAULT ciphers
     [Kurt Roeckx]

 Changes between 1.0.1l and 1.0.2 [22 Jan 2015]

  *) Facilitate "universal" ARM builds targeting range of ARM ISAs, e.g.
     ARMv5 through ARMv8, as opposite to "locking" it to single one.
     So far those who have to target multiple platforms would compromise
     and argue that binary targeting say ARMv5 would still execute on
     ARMv8. "Universal" build resolves this compromise by providing
     near-optimal performance even on newer platforms.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Accelerated NIST P-256 elliptic curve implementation for x86_64
     (other platforms pending).
     [Shay Gueron & Vlad Krasnov (Intel Corp), Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add support for the SignedCertificateTimestampList certificate and
     OCSP response extensions from RFC6962.
     [Rob Stradling]

  *) Fix ec_GFp_simple_points_make_affine (thus, EC_POINTs_mul etc.)
     for corner cases. (Certain input points at infinity could lead to
     bogus results, with non-infinity inputs mapped to infinity too.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Initial support for PowerISA 2.0.7, first implemented in POWER8.
     This covers AES, SHA256/512 and GHASH. "Initial" means that most
     common cases are optimized and there still is room for further
     improvements. Vector Permutation AES for Altivec is also added.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add support for little-endian ppc64 Linux target.
     [Marcelo Cerri (IBM)]

  *) Initial support for AMRv8 ISA crypto extensions. This covers AES,
     SHA1, SHA256 and GHASH. "Initial" means that most common cases
     are optimized and there still is room for further improvements.
     Both 32- and 64-bit modes are supported.
     [Andy Polyakov, Ard Biesheuvel (Linaro)]

  *) Improved ARMv7 NEON support.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Support for SPARC Architecture 2011 crypto extensions, first
     implemented in SPARC T4. This covers AES, DES, Camellia, SHA1,
     SHA256/512, MD5, GHASH and modular exponentiation.
     [Andy Polyakov, David Miller]

  *) Accelerated modular exponentiation for Intel processors, a.k.a.
     [Shay Gueron & Vlad Krasnov (Intel Corp)]

  *) Support for new and upcoming Intel processors, including AVX2,
     BMI and SHA ISA extensions. This includes additional "stitched"
     implementations, AESNI-SHA256 and GCM, and multi-buffer support
     for TLS encrypt.

     This work was sponsored by Intel Corp.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Support for DTLS 1.2. This adds two sets of DTLS methods: DTLS_*_method()
     supports both DTLS 1.2 and 1.0 and should use whatever version the peer
     supports and DTLSv1_2_*_method() which supports DTLS 1.2 only.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Use algorithm specific chains in SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file():
     this fixes a limitation in previous versions of OpenSSL.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extended RSA OAEP support via EVP_PKEY API. Options to specify digest,
     MGF1 digest and OAEP label.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add EVP support for key wrapping algorithms, to avoid problems with
     existing code the flag EVP_CIPHER_CTX_WRAP_ALLOW has to be set in
     the EVP_CIPHER_CTX or an error is returned. Add AES and DES3 wrap
     algorithms and include tests cases.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add functions to allocate and set the fields of an ECDSA_METHOD
     [Douglas E. Engert, Steve Henson]

  *) New functions OPENSSL_gmtime_diff and ASN1_TIME_diff to find the
     difference in days and seconds between two tm or ASN1_TIME structures.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add -rev test option to s_server to just reverse order of characters
     received by client and send back to server. Also prints an abbreviated
     summary of the connection parameters.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New option -brief for s_client and s_server to print out a brief summary
     of connection parameters.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add callbacks for arbitrary TLS extensions.
     [Trevor Perrin <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) New option -crl_download in several openssl utilities to download CRLs
     from CRLDP extension in certificates.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New options -CRL and -CRLform for s_client and s_server for CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function X509_CRL_diff to generate a delta CRL from the difference
     of two full CRLs. Add support to "crl" utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions to set lookup_crls function and to retrieve
     X509_STORE from X509_STORE_CTX.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Print out deprecated issuer and subject unique ID fields in
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extend OCSP I/O functions so they can be used for simple general purpose
     HTTP as well as OCSP. New wrapper function which can be used to download
     CRLs using the OCSP API.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Delegate command line handling in s_client/s_server to SSL_CONF APIs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) SSL_CONF* functions. These provide a common framework for application
     configuration using configuration files or command lines.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) SSL/TLS tracing code. This parses out SSL/TLS records using the
     message callback and prints the results. Needs compile time option
     "enable-ssl-trace". New options to s_client and s_server to enable
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New ctrl and macro to retrieve supported points extensions.
     Print out extension in s_server and s_client.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions to retrieve certificate signature and signature
     OID NID.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add functions to retrieve and manipulate the raw cipherlist sent by a
     client to OpenSSL.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New Suite B modes for TLS code. These use and enforce the requirements
     of RFC6460: restrict ciphersuites, only permit Suite B algorithms and
     only use Suite B curves. The Suite B modes can be set by using the
     strings "SUITEB128", "SUITEB192" or "SUITEB128ONLY" for the cipherstring.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New chain verification flags for Suite B levels of security. Check
     algorithms are acceptable when flags are set in X509_verify_cert.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make tls1_check_chain return a set of flags indicating checks passed
     by a certificate chain. Add additional tests to handle client
     certificates: checks for matching certificate type and issuer name
     [Steve Henson]

  *) If an attempt is made to use a signature algorithm not in the peer
     preference list abort the handshake. If client has no suitable
     signature algorithms in response to a certificate request do not
     use the certificate.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) If server EC tmp key is not in client preference list abort handshake.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for certificate stores in CERT structure. This makes it
     possible to have different stores per SSL structure or one store in
     the parent SSL_CTX. Include distinct stores for certificate chain
     verification and chain building. New ctrl SSL_CTRL_BUILD_CERT_CHAIN
     to build and store a certificate chain in CERT structure: returning
     an error if the chain cannot be built: this will allow applications
     to test if a chain is correctly configured.

     Note: if the CERT based stores are not set then the parent SSL_CTX
     store is used to retain compatibility with existing behaviour.

     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function ssl_set_client_disabled to set a ciphersuite disabled
     mask based on the current session, check mask when sending client
     hello and checking the requested ciphersuite.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New ctrls to retrieve and set certificate types in a certificate
     request message. Print out received values in s_client. If certificate
     types is not set with custom values set sensible values based on
     supported signature algorithms.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for distinct client and server supported signature algorithms.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add certificate callback. If set this is called whenever a certificate
     is required by client or server. An application can decide which
     certificate chain to present based on arbitrary criteria: for example
     supported signature algorithms. Add very simple example to s_server.
     This fixes many of the problems and restrictions of the existing client
     certificate callback: for example you can now clear an existing
     certificate and specify the whole chain.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new "valid_flags" field to CERT_PKEY structure which determines what
     the certificate can be used for (if anything). Set valid_flags field
     in new tls1_check_chain function. Simplify ssl_set_cert_masks which used
     to have similar checks in it.

     Add new "cert_flags" field to CERT structure and include a "strict mode".
     This enforces some TLS certificate requirements (such as only permitting
     certificate signature algorithms contained in the supported algorithms
     extension) which some implementations ignore: this option should be used
     with caution as it could cause interoperability issues.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update and tidy signature algorithm extension processing. Work out
     shared signature algorithms based on preferences and peer algorithms
     and print them out in s_client and s_server. Abort handshake if no
     shared signature algorithms.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new functions to allow customised supported signature algorithms
     for SSL and SSL_CTX structures. Add options to s_client and s_server
     to support them.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function SSL_certs_clear() to delete all references to certificates
     from an SSL structure. Before this once a certificate had been added
     it couldn't be removed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Integrate hostname, email address and IP address checking with certificate
     verification. New verify options supporting checking in openssl utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes and wildcard matching support to hostname and email checking
     functions. Add manual page.
     [Florian Weimer (Red Hat Product Security Team)]

  *) New functions to check a hostname email or IP address against a
     certificate. Add options x509 utility to print results of checks against
     a certificate.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix OCSP checking.
     [Rob Stradling <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) Initial experimental support for explicitly trusted non-root CAs.
     OpenSSL still tries to build a complete chain to a root but if an
     intermediate CA has a trust setting included that is used. The first
     setting is used: whether to trust (e.g., -addtrust option to the x509
     utility) or reject.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add -trusted_first option which attempts to find certificates in the
     trusted store even if an untrusted chain is also supplied.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) MIPS assembly pack updates: support for MIPS32r2 and SmartMIPS ASE,
     platform support for Linux and Android.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Support for linux-x32, ILP32 environment in x86_64 framework.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Experimental multi-implementation support for FIPS capable OpenSSL.
     When in FIPS mode the approved implementations are used as normal,
     when not in FIPS mode the internal unapproved versions are used instead.
     This means that the FIPS capable OpenSSL isn't forced to use the
     (often lower performance) FIPS implementations outside FIPS mode.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Transparently support X9.42 DH parameters when calling
     PEM_read_bio_DHparameters. This means existing applications can handle
     the new parameter format automatically.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial experimental support for X9.42 DH parameter format: mainly
     to support use of 'q' parameter for RFC5114 parameters.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add DH parameters from RFC5114 including test data to dhtest.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for automatic EC temporary key parameter selection. If enabled
     the most preferred EC parameters are automatically used instead of
     hardcoded fixed parameters. Now a server just has to call:
     SSL_CTX_set_ecdh_auto(ctx, 1) and the server will automatically
     support ECDH and use the most appropriate parameters.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance and tidy EC curve and point format TLS extension code. Use
     static structures instead of allocation if default values are used.
     New ctrls to set curves we wish to support and to retrieve shared curves.
     Print out shared curves in s_server. New options to s_server and s_client
     to set list of supported curves.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New ctrls to retrieve supported signature algorithms and
     supported curve values as an array of NIDs. Extend openssl utility
     to print out received values.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new APIs EC_curve_nist2nid and EC_curve_nid2nist which convert
     between NIDs and the more common NIST names such as "P-256". Enhance
     ecparam utility and ECC method to recognise the NIST names for curves.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance SSL/TLS certificate chain handling to support different
     chains for each certificate instead of one chain in the parent SSL_CTX.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for fixed DH ciphersuite client authentication: where both
     server and client use DH certificates with common parameters.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for fixed DH ciphersuites: those requiring DH server
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function i2d_re_X509_tbs for re-encoding the TBS portion of
     the certificate.
     Note: Related 1.0.2-beta specific macros X509_get_cert_info,
     X509_CINF_set_modified, X509_CINF_get_issuer, X509_CINF_get_extensions and
     X509_CINF_get_signature were reverted post internal team review.

 Changes between 1.0.1k and 1.0.1l [15 Jan 2015]

  *) Build fixes for the Windows and OpenVMS platforms
     [Matt Caswell and Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 1.0.1j and 1.0.1k [8 Jan 2015]

  *) Fix DTLS segmentation fault in dtls1_get_record. A carefully crafted DTLS
     message can cause a segmentation fault in OpenSSL due to a NULL pointer
     dereference. This could lead to a Denial Of Service attack. Thanks to
     Markus Stenberg of Cisco Systems, Inc. for reporting this issue.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix DTLS memory leak in dtls1_buffer_record. A memory leak can occur in the
     dtls1_buffer_record function under certain conditions. In particular this
     could occur if an attacker sent repeated DTLS records with the same
     sequence number but for the next epoch. The memory leak could be exploited
     by an attacker in a Denial of Service attack through memory exhaustion.
     Thanks to Chris Mueller for reporting this issue.
     [Matt Caswell]

  *) Fix issue where no-ssl3 configuration sets method to NULL. When openssl is
     built with the no-ssl3 option and a SSL v3 ClientHello is received the ssl
     method would be set to NULL which could later result in a NULL pointer
     dereference. Thanks to Frank Schmirler for reporting this issue.
     [Kurt Roeckx]

  *) Abort handshake if server key exchange message is omitted for ephemeral
     ECDH ciphersuites.

     Thanks to Karthikeyan Bhargavan of the PROSECCO team at INRIA for
     reporting this issue.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove non-export ephemeral RSA code on client and server. This code
     violated the TLS standard by allowing the use of temporary RSA keys in
     non-export ciphersuites and could be used by a server to effectively
     downgrade the RSA key length used to a value smaller than the server
     certificate. Thanks for Karthikeyan Bhargavan of the PROSECCO team at
     INRIA or reporting this issue.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixed issue where DH client certificates are accepted without verification.
     An OpenSSL server will accept a DH certificate for client authentication
     without the certificate verify message. This effectively allows a client to
     authenticate without the use of a private key. This only affects servers
     which trust a client certificate authority which issues certificates
     containing DH keys: these are extremely rare and hardly ever encountered.
     Thanks for Karthikeyan Bhargavan of the PROSECCO team at INRIA or reporting
     this issue.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Ensure that the session ID context of an SSL is updated when its
     SSL_CTX is updated via SSL_set_SSL_CTX.

     The session ID context is typically set from the parent SSL_CTX,
     and can vary with the CTX.
     [Adam Langley]

  *) Fix various certificate fingerprint issues.

     By using non-DER or invalid encodings outside the signed portion of a
     certificate the fingerprint can be changed without breaking the signature.
     Although no details of the signed portion of the certificate can be changed
     this can cause problems with some applications: e.g. those using the
     certificate fingerprint for blacklists.

     1. Reject signatures with non zero unused bits.

     If the BIT STRING containing the signature has non zero unused bits reject
     the signature. All current signature algorithms require zero unused bits.

     2. Check certificate algorithm consistency.

     Check the AlgorithmIdentifier inside TBS matches the one in the
     certificate signature. NB: this will result in signature failure
     errors for some broken certificates.

     Thanks to Konrad Kraszewski from Google for reporting this issue.

     3. Check DSA/ECDSA signatures use DER.

     Re-encode DSA/ECDSA signatures and compare with the original received
     signature. Return an error if there is a mismatch.

     This will reject various cases including garbage after signature
     (thanks to Antti Karjalainen and Tuomo Untinen from the Codenomicon CROSS
     program for discovering this case) and use of BER or invalid ASN.1 INTEGERs
     (negative or with leading zeroes).

     Further analysis was conducted and fixes were developed by Stephen Henson
     of the OpenSSL core team.

     [Steve Henson]

   *) Correct Bignum squaring. Bignum squaring (BN_sqr) may produce incorrect
      results on some platforms, including x86_64. This bug occurs at random
      with a very low probability, and is not known to be exploitable in any
      way, though its exact impact is difficult to determine. Thanks to Pieter
      Wuille (Blockstream) who reported this issue and also suggested an initial
      fix. Further analysis was conducted by the OpenSSL development team and
      Adam Langley of Google. The final fix was developed by Andy Polyakov of
      the OpenSSL core team.
      [Andy Polyakov]

   *) Do not resume sessions on the server if the negotiated protocol
      version does not match the session's version. Resuming with a different
      version, while not strictly forbidden by the RFC, is of questionable
      sanity and breaks all known clients.
      [David Benjamin, Emilia Käsper]

   *) Tighten handling of the ChangeCipherSpec (CCS) message: reject
      early CCS messages during renegotiation. (Note that because
      renegotiation is encrypted, this early CCS was not exploitable.)
      [Emilia Käsper]

   *) Tighten client-side session ticket handling during renegotiation:
      ensure that the client only accepts a session ticket if the server sends
      the extension anew in the ServerHello. Previously, a TLS client would
      reuse the old extension state and thus accept a session ticket if one was
      announced in the initial ServerHello.

      Similarly, ensure that the client requires a session ticket if one
      was advertised in the ServerHello. Previously, a TLS client would
      ignore a missing NewSessionTicket message.
      [Emilia Käsper]

 Changes between 1.0.1i and 1.0.1j [15 Oct 2014]

  *) SRTP Memory Leak.

     A flaw in the DTLS SRTP extension parsing code allows an attacker, who
     sends a carefully crafted handshake message, to cause OpenSSL to fail
     to free up to 64k of memory causing a memory leak. This could be
     exploited in a Denial Of Service attack. This issue affects OpenSSL
     1.0.1 server implementations for both SSL/TLS and DTLS regardless of
     whether SRTP is used or configured. Implementations of OpenSSL that
     have been compiled with OPENSSL_NO_SRTP defined are not affected.

     The fix was developed by the OpenSSL team.
     [OpenSSL team]

  *) Session Ticket Memory Leak.

     When an OpenSSL SSL/TLS/DTLS server receives a session ticket the
     integrity of that ticket is first verified. In the event of a session
     ticket integrity check failing, OpenSSL will fail to free memory
     causing a memory leak. By sending a large number of invalid session
     tickets an attacker could exploit this issue in a Denial Of Service
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Build option no-ssl3 is incomplete.

     When OpenSSL is configured with "no-ssl3" as a build option, servers
     could accept and complete a SSL 3.0 handshake, and clients could be
     configured to send them.
     [Akamai and the OpenSSL team]

  *) Add support for TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV.
     Client applications doing fallback retries should call
     [Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add additional DigestInfo checks.

     Re-encode DigestInto in DER and check against the original when
     verifying RSA signature: this will reject any improperly encoded
     DigestInfo structures.

     Note: this is a precautionary measure and no attacks are currently known.

     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.1h and 1.0.1i [6 Aug 2014]

  *) Fix SRP buffer overrun vulnerability. Invalid parameters passed to the
     SRP code can be overrun an internal buffer. Add sanity check that
     g, A, B < N to SRP code.

     Thanks to Sean Devlin and Watson Ladd of Cryptography Services, NCC
     Group for discovering this issue.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) A flaw in the OpenSSL SSL/TLS server code causes the server to negotiate
     TLS 1.0 instead of higher protocol versions when the ClientHello message
     is badly fragmented. This allows a man-in-the-middle attacker to force a
     downgrade to TLS 1.0 even if both the server and the client support a
     higher protocol version, by modifying the client's TLS records.

     Thanks to David Benjamin and Adam Langley (Google) for discovering and
     researching this issue.
     [David Benjamin]

  *) OpenSSL DTLS clients enabling anonymous (EC)DH ciphersuites are subject
     to a denial of service attack. A malicious server can crash the client
     with a null pointer dereference (read) by specifying an anonymous (EC)DH
     ciphersuite and sending carefully crafted handshake messages.

     Thanks to Felix Gröbert (Google) for discovering and researching this
     [Emilia Käsper]

  *) By sending carefully crafted DTLS packets an attacker could cause openssl
     to leak memory. This can be exploited through a Denial of Service attack.
     Thanks to Adam Langley for discovering and researching this issue.
     [Adam Langley]

  *) An attacker can force openssl to consume large amounts of memory whilst
     processing DTLS handshake messages. This can be exploited through a
     Denial of Service attack.
     Thanks to Adam Langley for discovering and researching this issue.
     [Adam Langley]

  *) An attacker can force an error condition which causes openssl to crash
     whilst processing DTLS packets due to memory being freed twice. This
     can be exploited through a Denial of Service attack.
     Thanks to Adam Langley and Wan-Teh Chang for discovering and researching
     this issue.
     [Adam Langley]

  *) If a multithreaded client connects to a malicious server using a resumed
     session and the server sends an ec point format extension it could write
     up to 255 bytes to freed memory.

     Thanks to Gabor Tyukasz (LogMeIn Inc) for discovering and researching this
     [Gabor Tyukasz]

  *) A malicious server can crash an OpenSSL client with a null pointer
     dereference (read) by specifying an SRP ciphersuite even though it was not
     properly negotiated with the client. This can be exploited through a
     Denial of Service attack.

     Thanks to Joonas Kuorilehto and Riku Hietamäki (Codenomicon) for
     discovering and researching this issue.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) A flaw in OBJ_obj2txt may cause pretty printing functions such as
     X509_name_oneline, X509_name_print_ex et al. to leak some information
     from the stack. Applications may be affected if they echo pretty printing
     output to the attacker.

     Thanks to Ivan Fratric (Google) for discovering this issue.
     [Emilia Käsper, and Steve Henson]

  *) Fix ec_GFp_simple_points_make_affine (thus, EC_POINTs_mul etc.)
     for corner cases. (Certain input points at infinity could lead to
     bogus results, with non-infinity inputs mapped to infinity too.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 1.0.1g and 1.0.1h [5 Jun 2014]

  *) Fix for SSL/TLS MITM flaw. An attacker using a carefully crafted
     handshake can force the use of weak keying material in OpenSSL
     SSL/TLS clients and servers.

     Thanks to KIKUCHI Masashi (Lepidum Co. Ltd.) for discovering and
     researching this issue. (CVE-2014-0224)
     [KIKUCHI Masashi, Steve Henson]

  *) Fix DTLS recursion flaw. By sending an invalid DTLS handshake to an
     OpenSSL DTLS client the code can be made to recurse eventually crashing
     in a DoS attack.

     Thanks to Imre Rad (Search-Lab Ltd.) for discovering this issue.
     [Imre Rad, Steve Henson]

  *) Fix DTLS invalid fragment vulnerability. A buffer overrun attack can
     be triggered by sending invalid DTLS fragments to an OpenSSL DTLS
     client or server. This is potentially exploitable to run arbitrary
     code on a vulnerable client or server.

     Thanks to Jüri Aedla for reporting this issue. (CVE-2014-0195)
     [Jüri Aedla, Steve Henson]

  *) Fix bug in TLS code where clients enable anonymous ECDH ciphersuites
     are subject to a denial of service attack.

     Thanks to Felix Gröbert and Ivan Fratric at Google for discovering
     this issue. (CVE-2014-3470)
     [Felix Gröbert, Ivan Fratric, Steve Henson]

  *) Harmonize version and its documentation. -f flag is used to display
     compilation flags.
     [mancha <>]

  *) Fix eckey_priv_encode so it immediately returns an error upon a failure
     in i2d_ECPrivateKey.
     [mancha <>]

  *) Fix some double frees. These are not thought to be exploitable.
     [mancha <>]

 Changes between 1.0.1f and 1.0.1g [7 Apr 2014]

  *) A missing bounds check in the handling of the TLS heartbeat extension
     can be used to reveal up to 64k of memory to a connected client or

     Thanks for Neel Mehta of Google Security for discovering this bug and to
     Adam Langley <> and Bodo Moeller <> for
     preparing the fix (CVE-2014-0160)
     [Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for the attack described in the paper "Recovering OpenSSL
     ECDSA Nonces Using the FLUSH+RELOAD Cache Side-channel Attack"
     by Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger. Details can be obtained from:

     Thanks to Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger for discovering this
     flaw and to Yuval Yarom for supplying a fix (CVE-2014-0076)
     [Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger]

  *) TLS pad extension: draft-agl-tls-padding-03

     Workaround for the "TLS hang bug" (see FAQ and PR#2771): if the
     TLS client Hello record length value would otherwise be > 255 and
     less that 512 pad with a dummy extension containing zeroes so it
     is at least 512 bytes long.

     [Adam Langley, Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.1e and 1.0.1f [6 Jan 2014]

  *) Fix for TLS record tampering bug. A carefully crafted invalid
     handshake could crash OpenSSL with a NULL pointer exception.
     Thanks to Anton Johansson for reporting this issues.

  *) Keep original DTLS digest and encryption contexts in retransmission
     structures so we can use the previous session parameters if they need
     to be resent. (CVE-2013-6450)
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add option SSL_OP_SAFARI_ECDHE_ECDSA_BUG (part of SSL_OP_ALL) which
     avoids preferring ECDHE-ECDSA ciphers when the client appears to be
     Safari on OS X.  Safari on OS X 10.8..10.8.3 advertises support for
     several ECDHE-ECDSA ciphers, but fails to negotiate them.  The bug
     is fixed in OS X 10.8.4, but Apple have ruled out both hot fixing
     10.8..10.8.3 and forcing users to upgrade to 10.8.4 or newer.
     [Rob Stradling, Adam Langley]

 Changes between 1.0.1d and 1.0.1e [11 Feb 2013]

  *) Correct fix for CVE-2013-0169. The original didn't work on AES-NI
     supporting platforms or when small records were transferred.
     [Andy Polyakov, Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.1c and 1.0.1d [5 Feb 2013]

  *) Make the decoding of SSLv3, TLS and DTLS CBC records constant time.

     This addresses the flaw in CBC record processing discovered by
     Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson. Details of this attack can be found

     Thanks go to Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson of the Information
     Security Group at Royal Holloway, University of London
     ( for discovering this flaw and Adam Langley and
     Emilia Käsper for the initial patch.
     [Emilia Käsper, Adam Langley, Ben Laurie, Andy Polyakov, Steve Henson]

  *) Fix flaw in AESNI handling of TLS 1.2 and 1.1 records for CBC mode
     ciphersuites which can be exploited in a denial of service attack.
     Thanks go to and to Adam Langley <> for discovering
     and detecting this bug and to Wolfgang Ettlinger
     <> for independently discovering this issue.
     [Adam Langley]

  *) Return an error when checking OCSP signatures when key is NULL.
     This fixes a DoS attack. (CVE-2013-0166)
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make openssl verify return errors.
     [Chris Palmer <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) Call OCSP Stapling callback after ciphersuite has been chosen, so
     the right response is stapled. Also change SSL_get_certificate()
     so it returns the certificate actually sent.
     [Rob Stradling <>]

  *) Fix possible deadlock when decoding public keys.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Don't use TLS 1.0 record version number in initial client hello
     if renegotiating.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.1b and 1.0.1c [10 May 2012]

  *) Sanity check record length before skipping explicit IV in TLS
     1.2, 1.1 and DTLS to fix DoS attack.

     Thanks to Codenomicon for discovering this issue using Fuzz-o-Matic
     fuzzing as a service testing platform.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initialise tkeylen properly when encrypting CMS messages.
     Thanks to Solar Designer of Openwall for reporting this issue.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In FIPS mode don't try to use composite ciphers as they are not
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.1a and 1.0.1b [26 Apr 2012]

  *) OpenSSL 1.0.0 sets SSL_OP_ALL to 0x80000FFFL and OpenSSL 1.0.1 and
     1.0.1a set SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1 to 0x00000400L which would unfortunately
     mean any application compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.0 headers setting
     SSL_OP_ALL would also set SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1, unintentionally disabling
     TLS 1.1 also. Fix this by changing the value of SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1 to
     0x10000000L Any application which was previously compiled against
     OpenSSL 1.0.1 or 1.0.1a headers and which cares about SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1
     will need to be recompiled as a result. Letting be results in
     inability to disable specifically TLS 1.1 and in client context,
     in unlike event, limit maximum offered version to TLS 1.0 [see below].
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In order to ensure interoperability SSL_OP_NO_protocolX does not
     disable just protocol X, but all protocols above X *if* there are
     protocols *below* X still enabled. In more practical terms it means
     that if application wants to disable TLS1.0 in favor of TLS1.1 and
     above, it's not sufficient to pass SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1, one has to pass
     SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1|SSL_OP_NO_SSLv3|SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2. This applies to
     client side.
     [Andy Polyakov]

 Changes between 1.0.1 and 1.0.1a [19 Apr 2012]

  *) Check for potentially exploitable overflows in asn1_d2i_read_bio
     BUF_mem_grow and BUF_mem_grow_clean. Refuse attempts to shrink buffer
     in CRYPTO_realloc_clean.

     Thanks to Tavis Ormandy, Google Security Team, for discovering this
     issue and to Adam Langley <> for fixing it.
     [Adam Langley (Google), Tavis Ormandy, Google Security Team]

  *) Don't allow TLS 1.2 SHA-256 ciphersuites in TLS 1.0, 1.1 connections.
     [Adam Langley]

  *) Workarounds for some broken servers that "hang" if a client hello
     record length exceeds 255 bytes.

     1. Do not use record version number > TLS 1.0 in initial client
        hello: some (but not all) hanging servers will now work.
     2. If we set OPENSSL_MAX_TLS1_2_CIPHER_LENGTH this will truncate
        the number of ciphers sent in the client hello. This should be
        set to an even number, such as 50, for example by passing:
        -DOPENSSL_MAX_TLS1_2_CIPHER_LENGTH=50 to config or Configure.
        Most broken servers should now work.
     3. If all else fails setting OPENSSL_NO_TLS1_2_CLIENT will disable
        TLS 1.2 client support entirely.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix SEGV in Vector Permutation AES module observed in OpenSSH.
     [Andy Polyakov]

 Changes between 1.0.0h and 1.0.1  [14 Mar 2012]

  *) Add compatibility with old MDC2 signatures which use an ASN1 OCTET
     STRING form instead of a DigestInfo.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) The format used for MDC2 RSA signatures is inconsistent between EVP
     and the RSA_sign/RSA_verify functions. This was made more apparent when
     OpenSSL used RSA_sign/RSA_verify for some RSA signatures in particular
     those which went through EVP_PKEY_METHOD in 1.0.0 and later. Detect
     the correct format in RSA_verify so both forms transparently work.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Some servers which support TLS 1.0 can choke if we initially indicate
     support for TLS 1.2 and later renegotiate using TLS 1.0 in the RSA
     encrypted premaster secret. As a workaround use the maximum permitted
     client version in client hello, this should keep such servers happy
     and still work with previous versions of OpenSSL.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for TLS/DTLS heartbeats.
     [Robin Seggelmann <>]

  *) Add support for SCTP.
     [Robin Seggelmann <>]

  *) Improved PRNG seeding for VOS.
     [Paul Green <>]

  *) Extensive assembler packs updates, most notably:

        - x86[_64]:     AES-NI, PCLMULQDQ, RDRAND support;
        - x86[_64]:     SSSE3 support (SHA1, vector-permutation AES);
        - x86_64:       bit-sliced AES implementation;
        - ARM:          NEON support, contemporary platforms optimizations;
        - s390x:        z196 support;
        - *:            GHASH and GF(2^m) multiplication implementations;

     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Make TLS-SRP code conformant with RFC 5054 API cleanup
     (removal of unnecessary code)
     [Peter Sylvester <>]

  *) Add TLS key material exporter from RFC 5705.
     [Eric Rescorla]

  *) Add DTLS-SRTP negotiation from RFC 5764.
     [Eric Rescorla]

  *) Add Next Protocol Negotiation, Can be
     disabled with a no-npn flag to config or Configure. Code donated
     by Google.
     [Adam Langley <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) Add optional 64-bit optimized implementations of elliptic curves NIST-P224,
     NIST-P256, NIST-P521, with constant-time single point multiplication on
     typical inputs. Compiler support for the nonstandard type __uint128_t is
     required to use this (present in gcc 4.4 and later, for 64-bit builds).
     Code made available under Apache License version 2.0.

     Specify "enable-ec_nistp_64_gcc_128" on the Configure (or config) command
     line to include this in your build of OpenSSL, and run "make depend" (or
     "make update"). This enables the following EC_METHODs:


     EC_GROUP_new_by_curve_name() will automatically use these (while
     EC_GROUP_new_curve_GFp() currently prefers the more flexible
     [Emilia Käsper, Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller (Google)]

  *) Use type ossl_ssize_t instead of ssize_t which isn't available on
     all platforms. Move ssize_t definition from e_os.h to the public
     header file e_os2.h as it now appears in public header file cms.h
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New -sigopt option to the ca, req and x509 utilities. Additional
     signature parameters can be passed using this option and in
     particular PSS.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add RSA PSS signing function. This will generate and set the
     appropriate AlgorithmIdentifiers for PSS based on those in the
     corresponding EVP_MD_CTX structure. No application support yet.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for companion algorithm specific ASN1 signing routines.
     New function ASN1_item_sign_ctx() signs a pre-initialised
     EVP_MD_CTX structure and sets AlgorithmIdentifiers based on
     the appropriate parameters.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new algorithm specific ASN1 verification initialisation function
     to EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD: this is not in EVP_PKEY_METHOD since the ASN1
     handling will be the same no matter what EVP_PKEY_METHOD is used.
     Add a PSS handler to support verification of PSS signatures: checked
     against a number of sample certificates.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add signature printing for PSS. Add PSS OIDs.
     [Steve Henson, Martin Kaiser <>]

  *) Add algorithm specific signature printing. An individual ASN1 method
     can now print out signatures instead of the standard hex dump.

     More complex signatures (e.g. PSS) can print out more meaningful
     information. Include DSA version that prints out the signature
     parameters r, s.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Password based recipient info support for CMS library: implementing
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Split password based encryption into PBES2 and PBKDF2 functions. This
     neatly separates the code into cipher and PBE sections and is required
     for some algorithms that split PBES2 into separate pieces (such as
     password based CMS).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Session-handling fixes:
     - Fix handling of connections that are resuming with a session ID,
       but also support Session Tickets.
     - Fix a bug that suppressed issuing of a new ticket if the client
       presented a ticket with an expired session.
     - Try to set the ticket lifetime hint to something reasonable.
     - Make tickets shorter by excluding irrelevant information.
     - On the client side, don't ignore renewed tickets.
     [Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller (Google)]

  *) Fix PSK session representation.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add RC4-MD5 and AESNI-SHA1 "stitched" implementations.

     This work was sponsored by Intel.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add GCM support to TLS library. Some custom code is needed to split
     the IV between the fixed (from PRF) and explicit (from TLS record)
     portions. This adds all GCM ciphersuites supported by RFC5288 and
     RFC5289. Generalise some AES* cipherstrings to include GCM and
     add a special AESGCM string for GCM only.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Expand range of ctrls for AES GCM. Permit setting invocation
     field on decrypt and retrieval of invocation field only on encrypt.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add HMAC ECC ciphersuites from RFC5289. Include SHA384 PRF support.
     As required by RFC5289 these ciphersuites cannot be used if for
     versions of TLS earlier than 1.2.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) For FIPS capable OpenSSL interpret a NULL default public key method
     as unset and return the appropriate default but do *not* set the default.
     This means we can return the appropriate method in applications that
     switch between FIPS and non-FIPS modes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Redirect HMAC and CMAC operations to FIPS module in FIPS mode. If an
     ENGINE is used then we cannot handle that in the FIPS module so we
     keep original code iff non-FIPS operations are allowed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add -attime option to openssl utilities.
     [Peter Eckersley <>, Ben Laurie and Steve Henson]

  *) Redirect DSA and DH operations to FIPS module in FIPS mode.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Redirect ECDSA and ECDH operations to FIPS module in FIPS mode. Also use
     FIPS EC methods unconditionally for now.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New build option no-ec2m to disable characteristic 2 code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Backport libcrypto audit of return value checking from 1.1.0-dev; not
     all cases can be covered as some introduce binary incompatibilities.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Redirect RSA operations to FIPS module including keygen,
     encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify. Block use of non FIPS RSA methods.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add similar low level API blocking to ciphers.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Low level digest APIs are not approved in FIPS mode: any attempt
     to use these will cause a fatal error. Applications that *really* want
     to use them can use the private_* version instead.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Redirect cipher operations to FIPS module for FIPS builds.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Redirect digest operations to FIPS module for FIPS builds.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update build system to add "fips" flag which will link in fipscanister.o
     for static and shared library builds embedding a signature if needed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Output TLS supported curves in preference order instead of numerical
     order. This is currently hardcoded for the highest order curves first.
     This should be configurable so applications can judge speed vs strength.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add TLS v1.2 server support for client authentication.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for FIPS mode in ssl library: disable SSLv3, non-FIPS ciphers
     and enable MD5.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Functions FIPS_mode_set() and FIPS_mode() which call the underlying
     FIPS modules versions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add TLS v1.2 client side support for client authentication. Keep cache
     of handshake records longer as we don't know the hash algorithm to use
     until after the certificate request message is received.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial TLS v1.2 client support. Add a default signature algorithms
     extension including all the algorithms we support. Parse new signature
     format in client key exchange. Relax some ECC signing restrictions for
     TLS v1.2 as indicated in RFC5246.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add server support for TLS v1.2 signature algorithms extension. Switch
     to new signature format when needed using client digest preference.
     All server ciphersuites should now work correctly in TLS v1.2. No client
     support yet and no support for client certificates.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial TLS v1.2 support. Add new SHA256 digest to ssl code, switch
     to SHA256 for PRF when using TLS v1.2 and later. Add new SHA256 based
     ciphersuites. At present only RSA key exchange ciphersuites work with
     TLS v1.2. Add new option for TLS v1.2 replacing the old and obsolete
     SSL_OP_PKCS1_CHECK flags with SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_2. New TLSv1.2 methods
     and version checking.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New option OPENSSL_NO_SSL_INTERN. If an application can be compiled
     with this defined it will not be affected by any changes to ssl internal
     structures. Add several utility functions to allow openssl application
     to work with OPENSSL_NO_SSL_INTERN defined.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) A long standing patch to add support for SRP from EdelWeb (Peter
     Sylvester and Christophe Renou) was integrated.
     [Christophe Renou <>, Peter Sylvester
     <>, Tom Wu <>, and
     Ben Laurie]

  *) Add functions to copy EVP_PKEY_METHOD and retrieve flags and id.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Permit abbreviated handshakes when renegotiating using the function
     [Robin Seggelmann <>]

  *) Add call to ENGINE_register_all_complete() to
     ENGINE_load_builtin_engines(), so some implementations get used
     automatically instead of needing explicit application support.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for TLS key exporter as described in RFC5705.
     [Robin Seggelmann <>, Steve Henson]

  *) Initial TLSv1.1 support. Since TLSv1.1 is very similar to TLS v1.0 only
     a few changes are required:

       Add SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1 flag.
       Add TLSv1_1 methods.
       Update version checking logic to handle version 1.1.
       Add explicit IV handling (ported from DTLS code).
       Add command line options to s_client/s_server.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.0g and 1.0.0h [12 Mar 2012]

  *) Fix MMA (Bleichenbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 RSA padding) weakness
     in CMS and PKCS7 code. When RSA decryption fails use a random key for
     content decryption and always return the same error. Note: this attack
     needs on average 2^20 messages so it only affects automated senders. The
     old behaviour can be re-enabled in the CMS code by setting the
     CMS_DEBUG_DECRYPT flag: this is useful for debugging and testing where
     an MMA defence is not necessary.
     Thanks to Ivan Nestlerode <> for discovering
     this issue. (CVE-2012-0884)
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix CVE-2011-4619: make sure we really are receiving a
     client hello before rejecting multiple SGC restarts. Thanks to
     Ivan Nestlerode <> for discovering this bug.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.0f and 1.0.0g [18 Jan 2012]

  *) Fix for DTLS DoS issue introduced by fix for CVE-2011-4109.
     Thanks to Antonio Martin, Enterprise Secure Access Research and
     Development, Cisco Systems, Inc. for discovering this bug and
     preparing a fix. (CVE-2012-0050)
     [Antonio Martin]

 Changes between 1.0.0e and 1.0.0f [4 Jan 2012]

  *) Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson have discovered an extension
     of the Vaudenay padding oracle attack on CBC mode encryption
     which enables an efficient plaintext recovery attack against
     the OpenSSL implementation of DTLS. Their attack exploits timing
     differences arising during decryption processing. A research
     paper describing this attack can be found at:
     Thanks go to Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson of the Information
     Security Group at Royal Holloway, University of London
     ( for discovering this flaw and to Robin Seggelmann
     <> and Michael Tuexen <>
     for preparing the fix. (CVE-2011-4108)
     [Robin Seggelmann, Michael Tuexen]

  *) Clear bytes used for block padding of SSL 3.0 records.
     [Adam Langley (Google)]

  *) Only allow one SGC handshake restart for SSL/TLS. Thanks to George
     Kadianakis <> for discovering this issue and
     Adam Langley for preparing the fix. (CVE-2011-4619)
     [Adam Langley (Google)]

  *) Check parameters are not NULL in GOST ENGINE. (CVE-2012-0027)
     [Andrey Kulikov <>]

  *) Prevent malformed RFC3779 data triggering an assertion failure.
     Thanks to Andrew Chi, BBN Technologies, for discovering the flaw
     and Rob Austein <> for fixing it. (CVE-2011-4577)
     [Rob Austein <>]

  *) Improved PRNG seeding for VOS.
     [Paul Green <>]

  *) Fix ssl_ciph.c set-up race.
     [Adam Langley (Google)]

  *) Fix spurious failures in ecdsatest.c.
     [Emilia Käsper (Google)]

  *) Fix the BIO_f_buffer() implementation (which was mixing different
     interpretations of the '..._len' fields).
     [Adam Langley (Google)]

  *) Fix handling of BN_BLINDING: now BN_BLINDING_invert_ex (rather than
     BN_BLINDING_invert_ex) calls BN_BLINDING_update, ensuring that concurrent
     threads won't reuse the same blinding coefficients.

     This also avoids the need to obtain the CRYPTO_LOCK_RSA_BLINDING
     lock to call BN_BLINDING_invert_ex, and avoids one use of
     BN_BLINDING_update for each BN_BLINDING structure (previously,
     the last update always remained unused).
     [Emilia Käsper (Google)]

  *) In ssl3_clear, preserve s3->init_extra along with s3->rbuf.
     [Bob Buckholz (Google)]

 Changes between 1.0.0d and 1.0.0e [6 Sep 2011]

  *) Fix bug where CRLs with nextUpdate in the past are sometimes accepted
     by initialising X509_STORE_CTX properly. (CVE-2011-3207)
     [Kaspar Brand <>]

  *) Fix SSL memory handling for (EC)DH ciphersuites, in particular
     for multi-threaded use of ECDH. (CVE-2011-3210)
     [Adam Langley (Google)]

  *) Fix x509_name_ex_d2i memory leak on bad inputs.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Remove hard coded ecdsaWithSHA1 signature tests in ssl code and check
     signature public key algorithm by using OID xref utilities instead.
     Before this you could only use some ECC ciphersuites with SHA1 only.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add protection against ECDSA timing attacks as mentioned in the paper
     by Billy Bob Brumley and Nicola Tuveri, see:

     [Billy Bob Brumley and Nicola Tuveri]

 Changes between 1.0.0c and 1.0.0d [8 Feb 2011]

  *) Fix parsing of OCSP stapling ClientHello extension. CVE-2011-0014
     [Neel Mehta, Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller (Google)]

  *) Fix bug in string printing code: if *any* escaping is enabled we must
     escape the escape character (backslash) or the resulting string is
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.0b and 1.0.0c  [2 Dec 2010]

  *) Disable code workaround for ancient and obsolete Netscape browsers
     and servers: an attacker can use it in a ciphersuite downgrade attack.
     Thanks to Martin Rex for discovering this bug. CVE-2010-4180
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixed J-PAKE implementation error, originally discovered by
     Sebastien Martini, further info and confirmation from Stefan
     Arentz and Feng Hao. Note that this fix is a security fix. CVE-2010-4252
     [Ben Laurie]

 Changes between 1.0.0a and 1.0.0b  [16 Nov 2010]

  *) Fix extension code to avoid race conditions which can result in a buffer
     overrun vulnerability: resumed sessions must not be modified as they can
     be shared by multiple threads. CVE-2010-3864
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix WIN32 build system to correctly link an ENGINE directory into
     a DLL.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 1.0.0 and 1.0.0a  [01 Jun 2010]

  *) Check return value of int_rsa_verify in pkey_rsa_verifyrecover
     [Steve Henson, Peter-Michael Hager <>]

 Changes between 0.9.8n and 1.0.0  [29 Mar 2010]

  *) Add "missing" function EVP_CIPHER_CTX_copy(). This copies a cipher
     context. The operation can be customised via the ctrl mechanism in
     case ENGINEs want to include additional functionality.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Tolerate yet another broken PKCS#8 key format: private key value negative.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new -subject_hash_old and -issuer_hash_old options to x509 utility to
     output hashes compatible with older versions of OpenSSL.
     [Willy Weisz <>]

  *) Fix compression algorithm handling: if resuming a session use the
     compression algorithm of the resumed session instead of determining
     it from client hello again. Don't allow server to change algorithm.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add load_crls() function to apps tidying load_certs() too. Add option
     to verify utility to allow additional CRLs to be included.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update OCSP request code to permit adding custom headers to the request:
     some responders need this.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) The function EVP_PKEY_sign() returns <=0 on error: check return code
     [Julia Lawall <>]

  *) Update verify callback code in apps/s_cb.c and apps/verify.c, it
     needlessly dereferenced structures, used obsolete functions and
     didn't handle all updated verify codes correctly.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Disable MD2 in the default configuration.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In BIO_pop() and BIO_push() use the ctrl argument (which was NULL) to
     indicate the initial BIO being pushed or popped. This makes it possible
     to determine whether the BIO is the one explicitly called or as a result
     of the ctrl being passed down the chain. Fix BIO_pop() and SSL BIOs so
     it handles reference counts correctly and doesn't zero out the I/O bio
     when it is not being explicitly popped. WARNING: applications which
     included workarounds for the old buggy behaviour will need to be modified
     or they could free up already freed BIOs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extend the uni2asc/asc2uni => OPENSSL_uni2asc/OPENSSL_asc2uni
     renaming to all platforms (within the 0.9.8 branch, this was
     done conditionally on Netware platforms to avoid a name clash).
     [Guenter <>]

  *) Add ECDHE and PSK support to DTLS.
     [Michael Tuexen <>]

  *) Add CHECKED_STACK_OF macro to safestack.h, otherwise safestack can't
     be used on C++.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add "missing" function EVP_MD_flags() (without this the only way to
     retrieve a digest flags is by accessing the structure directly. Update
     EVP_MD_do_all*() and EVP_CIPHER_do_all*() to include the name a digest
     or cipher is registered as in the "from" argument. Print out all
     registered digests in the dgst usage message instead of manually
     attempting to work them out.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) If no SSLv2 ciphers are used don't use an SSLv2 compatible client hello:
     this allows the use of compression and extensions. Change default cipher
     string to remove SSLv2 ciphersuites. This effectively avoids ancient SSLv2
     by default unless an application cipher string requests it.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Alter match criteria in PKCS12_parse(). It used to try to use local
     key ids to find matching certificates and keys but some PKCS#12 files
     don't follow the (somewhat unwritten) rules and this strategy fails.
     Now just gather all certificates together and the first private key
     then look for the first certificate that matches the key.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support use of registered digest and cipher names for dgst and cipher
     commands instead of having to add each one as a special case. So now
     you can do:

        openssl sha256 foo

     as well as:

        openssl dgst -sha256 foo

     and this works for ENGINE based algorithms too.

     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update Gost ENGINE to support parameter files.
     [Victor B. Wagner <>]

  *) Support GeneralizedTime in ca utility.
     [Oliver Martin <>, Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance the hash format used for certificate directory links. The new
     form uses the canonical encoding (meaning equivalent names will work
     even if they aren't identical) and uses SHA1 instead of MD5. This form
     is incompatible with the older format and as a result c_rehash should
     be used to rebuild symbolic links.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make PKCS#8 the default write format for private keys, replacing the
     traditional format. This form is standardised, more secure and doesn't
     include an implicit MD5 dependency.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a $gcc_devteam_warn option to Configure. The idea is that any code
     committed to OpenSSL should pass this lot as a minimum.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add session ticket override functionality for use by EAP-FAST.
     [Jouni Malinen <>]

  *) Modify HMAC functions to return a value. Since these can be implemented
     in an ENGINE errors can occur.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Type-checked OBJ_bsearch_ex.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Type-checked OBJ_bsearch. Also some constification necessitated
     by type-checking.  Still to come: TXT_DB, bsearch(?),
     OBJ_bsearch_ex, qsort, CRYPTO_EX_DATA, ASN1_VALUE, ASN1_STRING,
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) New function OPENSSL_gmtime_adj() to add a specific number of days and
     seconds to a tm structure directly, instead of going through OS
     specific date routines. This avoids any issues with OS routines such
     as the year 2038 bug. New *_adj() functions for ASN1 time structures
     and X509_time_adj_ex() to cover the extended range. The existing
     X509_time_adj() is still usable and will no longer have any date issues.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Delta CRL support. New use deltas option which will attempt to locate
     and search any appropriate delta CRLs available.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for CRLs partitioned by reason code. Reorganise CRL processing
     code and add additional score elements. Validate alternate CRL paths
     as part of the CRL checking and indicate a new error "CRL path validation
     error" in this case. Applications wanting additional details can use
     the verify callback and check the new "parent" field. If this is not
     NULL CRL path validation is taking place. Existing applications won't
     see this because it requires extended CRL support which is off by

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for freshest CRL extension.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial indirect CRL support. Currently only supported in the CRLs
     passed directly and not via lookup. Process certificate issuer
     CRL entry extension and lookup CRL entries by bother issuer name
     and serial number. Check and process CRL issuer entry in IDP extension.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for distinct certificate and CRL paths. The CRL issuer
     certificate is validated separately in this case. Only enabled if
     an extended CRL support flag is set: this flag will enable additional
     CRL functionality in future.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for policy mappings extension.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to pathlength constraint, self issued certificate handling,
     policy processing to align with RFC3280 and PKITS tests.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for name constraints certificate extension. DN, email, DNS
     and URI types are currently supported.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) To cater for systems that provide a pointer-based thread ID rather
     than numeric, deprecate the current numeric thread ID mechanism and
     replace it with a structure and associated callback type. This
     mechanism allows a numeric "hash" to be extracted from a thread ID in
     either case, and on platforms where pointers are larger than 'long',
     mixing is done to help ensure the numeric 'hash' is usable even if it
     can't be guaranteed unique. The default mechanism is to use "&errno"
     as a pointer-based thread ID to distinguish between threads.

     Applications that want to provide their own thread IDs should now use
     CRYPTO_THREADID_set_callback() to register a callback that will call
     either CRYPTO_THREADID_set_numeric() or CRYPTO_THREADID_set_pointer().

     Note that ERR_remove_state() is now deprecated, because it is tied
     to the assumption that thread IDs are numeric.  ERR_remove_state(0)
     to free the current thread's error state should be replaced by

     (This new approach replaces the functions CRYPTO_set_idptr_callback(),
     CRYPTO_get_idptr_callback(), and CRYPTO_thread_idptr() that existed in
     OpenSSL 0.9.9-dev between June 2006 and August 2008. Also, if an
     application was previously providing a numeric thread callback that
     was inappropriate for distinguishing threads, then uniqueness might
     have been obtained with &errno that happened immediately in the
     intermediate development versions of OpenSSL; this is no longer the
     case, the numeric thread callback will now override the automatic use
     of &errno.)
     [Geoff Thorpe, with help from Bodo Moeller]

  *) Initial support for different CRL issuing certificates. This covers a
     simple case where the self issued certificates in the chain exist and
     the real CRL issuer is higher in the existing chain.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Removed effectively defunct crypto/store from the build.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Revamp of STACK to provide stronger type-checking. Still to come:
     TXT_DB, bsearch(?), OBJ_bsearch, qsort, CRYPTO_EX_DATA, ASN1_VALUE,
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add a new SSL_MODE_RELEASE_BUFFERS mode flag to release unused buffer
     RAM on SSL connections.  This option can save about 34k per idle SSL.
     [Nick Mathewson]

  *) Revamp of LHASH to provide stronger type-checking. Still to come:
     STACK, TXT_DB, bsearch, qsort.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Initial support for Cryptographic Message Syntax (aka CMS) based
     on RFC3850, RFC3851 and RFC3852. New cms directory and cms utility,
     support for data, signedData, compressedData, digestedData and
     encryptedData, envelopedData types included. Scripts to check against
     RFC4134 examples draft and interop and consistency checks of many
     content types and variants.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add options to enc utility to support use of zlib compression BIO.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extend mk1mf to support importing of options and assembly language
     files from Configure script, currently only included in VC-WIN32.
     The assembly language rules can now optionally generate the source
     files from the associated perl scripts.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement remaining functionality needed to support GOST ciphersuites.
     Interop testing has been performed using CryptoPro implementations.
     [Victor B. Wagner <>]

  *) s390x assembler pack.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) ARMv4 assembler pack. ARMv4 refers to v4 and later ISA, not CPU
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Implement Opaque PRF Input TLS extension as specified in
     draft-rescorla-tls-opaque-prf-input-00.txt.  Since this is not an
     official specification yet and no extension type assignment by
     IANA exists, this extension (for now) will have to be explicitly
     enabled when building OpenSSL by providing the extension number
     to use.  For example, specify an option


     to the "config" or "Configure" script to enable the extension,
     assuming extension number 0x9527 (which is a completely arbitrary
     and unofficial assignment based on the MD5 hash of the Internet
     Draft).  Note that by doing so, you potentially lose
     interoperability with other TLS implementations since these might
     be using the same extension number for other purposes.

     SSL_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input(ssl, src, len) is used to set the
     opaque PRF input value to use in the handshake.  This will create
     an internal copy of the length-'len' string at 'src', and will
     return non-zero for success.

     To get more control and flexibility, provide a callback function
     by using

          SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input_callback(ctx, cb)
          SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input_callback_arg(ctx, arg)


          int (*cb)(SSL *, void *peerinput, size_t len, void *arg);
          void *arg;

     Callback function 'cb' will be called in handshakes, and is
     expected to use SSL_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input() as appropriate.
     Argument 'arg' is for application purposes (the value as given to
     SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input_callback_arg() will directly
     be provided to the callback function).  The callback function
     has to return non-zero to report success: usually 1 to use opaque
     PRF input just if possible, or 2 to enforce use of the opaque PRF
     input.  In the latter case, the library will abort the handshake
     if opaque PRF input is not successfully negotiated.

     Arguments 'peerinput' and 'len' given to the callback function
     will always be NULL and 0 in the case of a client.  A server will
     see the client's opaque PRF input through these variables if
     available (NULL and 0 otherwise).  Note that if the server
     provides an opaque PRF input, the length must be the same as the
     length of the client's opaque PRF input.

     Note that the callback function will only be called when creating
     a new session (session resumption can resume whatever was
     previously negotiated), and will not be called in SSL 2.0
     handshakes; thus, SSL_CTX_set_options(ctx, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2) or
     SSL_set_options(ssl, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2) is especially recommended
     for applications that need to enforce opaque PRF input.

     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Update ssl code to support digests other than SHA1+MD5 for handshake

     [Victor B. Wagner <>]

  *) Add RFC4507 support to OpenSSL. This includes the corrections in
     RFC4507bis. The encrypted ticket format is an encrypted encoded
     SSL_SESSION structure, that way new session features are automatically

     If a client application caches session in an SSL_SESSION structure
     support is transparent because tickets are now stored in the encoded

     The SSL_CTX structure automatically generates keys for ticket
     protection in servers so again support should be possible
     with no application modification.

     If a client or server wishes to disable RFC4507 support then the option
     SSL_OP_NO_TICKET can be set.

     Add a TLS extension debugging callback to allow the contents of any client
     or server extensions to be examined.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Final changes to avoid use of pointer pointer casts in OpenSSL.
     OpenSSL should now compile cleanly on gcc 4.2
     [Peter Hartley <>, Steve Henson]

  *) Update SSL library to use new EVP_PKEY MAC API. Include generic MAC
     support including streaming MAC support: this is required for GOST
     ciphersuite support.
     [Victor B. Wagner <>, Steve Henson]

  *) Add option -stream to use PKCS#7 streaming in smime utility. New
     function i2d_PKCS7_bio_stream() and PEM_write_PKCS7_bio_stream()
     to output in BER and PEM format.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Experimental support for use of HMAC via EVP_PKEY interface. This
     allows HMAC to be handled via the EVP_DigestSign*() interface. The
     EVP_PKEY "key" in this case is the HMAC key, potentially allowing
     ENGINE support for HMAC keys which are unextractable. New -mac and
     -macopt options to dgst utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New option -sigopt to dgst utility. Update dgst to use
     EVP_Digest{Sign,Verify}*. These two changes make it possible to use
     alternative signing parameters such as X9.31 or PSS in the dgst
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change ssl_cipher_apply_rule(), the internal function that does
     the work each time a ciphersuite string requests enabling
     ("foo+bar"), moving ("+foo+bar"), disabling ("-foo+bar", or
     removing ("!foo+bar") a class of ciphersuites: Now it maintains
     the order of disabled ciphersuites such that those ciphersuites
     that most recently went from enabled to disabled not only stay
     in order with respect to each other, but also have higher priority
     than other disabled ciphersuites the next time ciphersuites are
     enabled again.

     This means that you can now say, e.g., "PSK:-PSK:HIGH" to enable
     the same ciphersuites as with "HIGH" alone, but in a specific
     order where the PSK ciphersuites come first (since they are the
     most recently disabled ciphersuites when "HIGH" is parsed).

     Also, change ssl_create_cipher_list() (using this new
     functionality) such that between otherwise identical
     ciphersuites, ephemeral ECDH is preferred over ephemeral DH in
     the default order.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change ssl_create_cipher_list() so that it automatically
     arranges the ciphersuites in reasonable order before starting
     to process the rule string.  Thus, the definition for "DEFAULT"
     (SSL_DEFAULT_CIPHER_LIST) now is just "ALL:!aNULL:!eNULL", but
     remains equivalent to "AES:ALL:!aNULL:!eNULL:+aECDH:+kRSA:+RC4:@STRENGTH".
     This makes it much easier to arrive at a reasonable default order
     in applications for which anonymous ciphers are OK (meaning
     that you can't actually use DEFAULT).
     [Bodo Moeller; suggested by Victor Duchovni]

  *) Split the SSL/TLS algorithm mask (as used for ciphersuite string
     processing) into multiple integers instead of setting
     "SSL_MKEY_MASK" bits, "SSL_AUTH_MASK" bits, "SSL_ENC_MASK",
     "SSL_MAC_MASK", and "SSL_SSL_MASK" bits all in a single integer.
     (These masks as well as the individual bit definitions are hidden
     away into the non-exported interface ssl/ssl_locl.h, so this
     change to the definition of the SSL_CIPHER structure shouldn't
     affect applications.)  This give us more bits for each of these
     categories, so there is no longer a need to coagulate AES128 and
     AES256 into a single algorithm bit, and to coagulate Camellia128
     and Camellia256 into a single algorithm bit, which has led to all
     kinds of kludges.

     Thus, among other things, the kludge introduced in 0.9.7m and
     0.9.8e for masking out AES256 independently of AES128 or masking
     out Camellia256 independently of AES256 is not needed here in 0.9.9.

     With the change, we also introduce new ciphersuite aliases that
     so far were missing: "AES128", "AES256", "CAMELLIA128", and
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add support for dsa-with-SHA224 and dsa-with-SHA256.
     Use the leftmost N bytes of the signature input if the input is
     larger than the prime q (with N being the size in bytes of q).
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Very *very* experimental PKCS#7 streaming encoder support. Nothing uses
     it yet and it is largely untested.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for the ecdsa-with-SHA224/256/384/512 signature types.
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Initial incomplete changes to avoid need for function casts in OpenSSL
     some compilers (gcc 4.2 and later) reject their use. Safestack is
     reimplemented.  Update ASN1 to avoid use of legacy functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Win32/64 targets are linked with Winsock2.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add an X509_CRL_METHOD structure to allow CRL processing to be redirected
     to external functions. This can be used to increase CRL handling
     efficiency especially when CRLs are very large by (for example) storing
     the CRL revoked certificates in a database.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Overhaul of by_dir code. Add support for dynamic loading of CRLs so
     new CRLs added to a directory can be used. New command line option
     -verify_return_error to s_client and s_server. This causes real errors
     to be returned by the verify callback instead of carrying on no matter
     what. This reflects the way a "real world" verify callback would behave.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) GOST engine, supporting several GOST algorithms and public key formats.
     Kindly donated by Cryptocom.

  *) Partial support for Issuing Distribution Point CRL extension. CRLs
     partitioned by DP are handled but no indirect CRL or reason partitioning
     (yet). Complete overhaul of CRL handling: now the most suitable CRL is
     selected via a scoring technique which handles IDP and AKID in CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New X509_STORE_CTX callbacks lookup_crls() and lookup_certs() which
     will ultimately be used for all verify operations: this will remove the
     X509_STORE dependency on certificate verification and allow alternative
     lookup methods.  X509_STORE based implementations of these two callbacks.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow multiple CRLs to exist in an X509_STORE with matching issuer names.
     Modify get_crl() to find a valid (unexpired) CRL if possible.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function X509_CRL_match() to check if two CRLs are identical. Normally
     this would be called X509_CRL_cmp() but that name is already used by
     a function that just compares CRL issuer names. Cache several CRL
     extensions in X509_CRL structure and cache CRLDP in X509.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Store a "canonical" representation of X509_NAME structure (ASN1 Name)
     this maps equivalent X509_NAME structures into a consistent structure.
     Name comparison can then be performed rapidly using memcmp().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Non-blocking OCSP request processing. Add -timeout option to ocsp
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow digests to supply their own micalg string for S/MIME type using
     the ctrl EVP_MD_CTRL_MICALG.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) During PKCS7 signing pass the PKCS7 SignerInfo structure to the
     EVP_PKEY_METHOD before and after signing via the EVP_PKEY_CTRL_PKCS7_SIGN
     ctrl. It can then customise the structure before and/or after signing
     if necessary.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function OBJ_add_sigid() to allow application defined signature OIDs
     to be added to OpenSSLs internal tables. New function OBJ_sigid_free()
     to free up any added signature OIDs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions EVP_CIPHER_do_all(), EVP_CIPHER_do_all_sorted(),
     EVP_MD_do_all() and EVP_MD_do_all_sorted() to enumerate internal
     digest and cipher tables. New options added to openssl utility:
     list-message-digest-algorithms and list-cipher-algorithms.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the array representation of binary polynomials: the list
     of degrees of non-zero coefficients is now terminated with -1.
     Previously it was terminated with 0, which was also part of the
     value; thus, the array representation was not applicable to
     polynomials where t^0 has coefficient zero.  This change makes
     the array representation useful in a more general context.
     [Douglas Stebila]

  *) Various modifications and fixes to SSL/TLS cipher string
     handling.  For ECC, the code now distinguishes between fixed ECDH
     with RSA certificates on the one hand and with ECDSA certificates
     on the other hand, since these are separate ciphersuites.  The
     unused code for Fortezza ciphersuites has been removed.

     For consistency with EDH, ephemeral ECDH is now called "EECDH"
     (not "ECDHE").  For consistency with the code for DH
     certificates, use of ECDH certificates is now considered ECDH
     authentication, not RSA or ECDSA authentication (the latter is
     merely the CA's signing algorithm and not actively used in the

     The temporary ciphersuite alias "ECCdraft" is no longer
     available, and ECC ciphersuites are no longer excluded from "ALL"
     and "DEFAULT".  The following aliases now exist for RFC 4492
     ciphersuites, most of these by analogy with the DH case:

         kECDHr   - ECDH cert, signed with RSA
         kECDHe   - ECDH cert, signed with ECDSA
         kECDH    - ECDH cert (signed with either RSA or ECDSA)
         kEECDH   - ephemeral ECDH
         ECDH     - ECDH cert or ephemeral ECDH

         aECDH    - ECDH cert
         aECDSA   - ECDSA cert
         ECDSA    - ECDSA cert

         AECDH    - anonymous ECDH
         EECDH    - non-anonymous ephemeral ECDH (equivalent to "kEECDH:-AECDH")

     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add additional S/MIME capabilities for AES and GOST ciphers if supported.
     Use correct micalg parameters depending on digest(s) in signed message.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add engine support for EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD. Add functions to process
     an ENGINE asn1 method. Support ENGINE lookups in the ASN1 code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial engine support for EVP_PKEY_METHOD. New functions to permit
     an engine to register a method. Add ENGINE lookups for methods and
     functional reference processing.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions EVP_Digest{Sign,Verify)*. These are enhanced versions of
     EVP_{Sign,Verify}* which allow an application to customise the signature
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New -resign option to smime utility. This adds one or more signers
     to an existing PKCS#7 signedData structure. Also -md option to use an
     alternative message digest algorithm for signing.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Tidy up PKCS#7 routines and add new functions to make it easier to
     create PKCS7 structures containing multiple signers. Update smime
     application to support multiple signers.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New -macalg option to pkcs12 utility to allow setting of an alternative
     digest MAC.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for PKCS#5 v2.0 PRFs other than default SHA1 HMAC.
     Reorganize PBE internals to lookup from a static table using NIDs,
     add support for HMAC PBE OID translation. Add a EVP_CIPHER ctrl:
     EVP_CTRL_PBE_PRF_NID this allows a cipher to specify an alternative
     PRF which will be automatically used with PBES2.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Replace the algorithm specific calls to generate keys in "req" with the
     new API.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update PKCS#7 enveloped data routines to use new API. This is now
     supported by any public key method supporting the encrypt operation. A
     ctrl is added to allow the public key algorithm to examine or modify
     the PKCS#7 RecipientInfo structure if it needs to: for RSA this is
     a no op.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a ctrl to asn1 method to allow a public key algorithm to express
     a default digest type to use. In most cases this will be SHA1 but some
     algorithms (such as GOST) need to specify an alternative digest. The
     return value indicates how strong the preference is 1 means optional and
     2 is mandatory (that is it is the only supported type). Modify
     ASN1_item_sign() to accept a NULL digest argument to indicate it should
     use the default md. Update openssl utilities to use the default digest
     type for signing if it is not explicitly indicated.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Use OID cross reference table in ASN1_sign() and ASN1_verify(). New
     EVP_MD flag EVP_MD_FLAG_PKEY_METHOD_SIGNATURE. This uses the relevant
     signing method from the key type. This effectively removes the link
     between digests and public key types.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add an OID cross reference table and utility functions. Its purpose is to
     translate between signature OIDs such as SHA1WithrsaEncryption and SHA1,
     rsaEncryption. This will allow some of the algorithm specific hackery
     needed to use the correct OID to be removed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove algorithm specific dependencies when setting PKCS7_SIGNER_INFO
     structures for PKCS7_sign(). They are now set up by the relevant public
     key ASN1 method.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add provisional EC pkey method with support for ECDSA and ECDH.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for key derivation (agreement) in the API, DH method and
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add DSA pkey method and DH pkey methods, extend DH ASN1 method to support
     public and private key formats. As a side effect these add additional
     command line functionality not previously available: DSA signatures can be
     generated and verified using pkeyutl and DH key support and generation in
     pkey, genpkey.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) BeOS support.
     [Oliver Tappe <>]

  *) New make target "install_html_docs" installs HTML renditions of the
     manual pages.
     [Oliver Tappe <>]

  *) New utility "genpkey" this is analogous to "genrsa" etc except it can
     generate keys for any algorithm. Extend and update EVP_PKEY_METHOD to
     support key and parameter generation and add initial key generation
     functionality for RSA.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add functions for main EVP_PKEY_method operations. The undocumented
     functions EVP_PKEY_{encrypt,decrypt} have been renamed to
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial definitions for EVP_PKEY_METHOD. This will be a high level public
     key API, doesn't do much yet.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function EVP_PKEY_asn1_get0_info() to retrieve information about
     public key algorithms. New option to openssl utility:
     "list-public-key-algorithms" to print out info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement the Supported Elliptic Curves Extension for
     ECC ciphersuites from draft-ietf-tls-ecc-12.txt.
     [Douglas Stebila]

  *) Don't free up OIDs in OBJ_cleanup() if they are in use by EVP_MD or
     EVP_CIPHER structures to avoid later problems in EVP_cleanup().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New utilities pkey and pkeyparam. These are similar to algorithm specific
     utilities such as rsa, dsa, dsaparam etc except they process any key
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Transfer public key printing routines to EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD. New
     functions EVP_PKEY_print_public(), EVP_PKEY_print_private(),
     EVP_PKEY_print_param() to print public key data from an EVP_PKEY
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for pluggable public key ASN1.
     De-spaghettify the public key ASN1 handling. Move public and private
     key ASN1 handling to a new EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD structure. Relocate
     algorithm specific handling to a single module within the relevant
     algorithm directory. Add functions to allow (near) opaque processing
     of public and private key structures.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement the Supported Point Formats Extension for
     ECC ciphersuites from draft-ietf-tls-ecc-12.txt.
     [Douglas Stebila]

  *) Add initial support for RFC 4279 PSK TLS ciphersuites. Add members
     for the psk identity [hint] and the psk callback functions to the
     SSL_SESSION, SSL and SSL_CTX structure.

     New ciphersuites:

     New functions:

     [Mika Kousa and Pasi Eronen of Nokia Corporation]

  *) Add RFC 3161 compliant time stamp request creation, response generation
     and response verification functionality.
     [Zoltán Glózik <>, The OpenTSA Project]

  *) Add initial support for TLS extensions, specifically for the server_name
     extension so far.  The SSL_SESSION, SSL_CTX, and SSL data structures now
     have new members for a host name.  The SSL data structure has an
     additional member SSL_CTX *initial_ctx so that new sessions can be
     stored in that context to allow for session resumption, even after the
     SSL has been switched to a new SSL_CTX in reaction to a client's
     server_name extension.

     New functions (subject to change):


     New CTRL codes and macros (subject to change):

                                 - SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_callback()
                                      - SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_arg()
         SSL_CTRL_SET_TLSEXT_HOSTNAME           - SSL_set_tlsext_host_name()

     openssl s_client has a new '-servername ...' option.

     openssl s_server has new options '-servername_host ...', '-cert2 ...',
     '-key2 ...', '-servername_fatal' (subject to change).  This allows
     testing the HostName extension for a specific single host name ('-cert'
     and '-key' remain fallbacks for handshakes without HostName
     negotiation).  If the unrecognized_name alert has to be sent, this by
     default is a warning; it becomes fatal with the '-servername_fatal'

     [Peter Sylvester,  Remy Allais, Christophe Renou]

  *) Whirlpool hash implementation is added.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) BIGNUM code on 64-bit SPARCv9 targets is switched from bn(64,64) to
     bn(64,32). Because of instruction set limitations it doesn't have
     any negative impact on performance. This was done mostly in order
     to make it possible to share assembler modules, such as bn_mul_mont
     implementations, between 32- and 64-bit builds without hassle.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Move code previously exiled into file crypto/ec/ec2_smpt.c
     to ec2_smpl.c, and no longer require the OPENSSL_EC_BIN_PT_COMP
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New candidate for BIGNUM assembler implementation, bn_mul_mont,
     dedicated Montgomery multiplication procedure, is introduced.
     BN_MONT_CTX is modified to allow bn_mul_mont to reach for higher
     "64-bit" performance on certain 32-bit targets.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) New option SSL_OP_NO_COMP to disable use of compression selectively
     in SSL structures. New SSL ctrl to set maximum send fragment size.
     Save memory by setting the I/O buffer sizes dynamically instead of
     using the maximum available value.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New option -V for 'openssl ciphers'. This prints the ciphersuite code
     in addition to the text details.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Very, very preliminary EXPERIMENTAL support for printing of general
     ASN1 structures. This currently produces rather ugly output and doesn't
     handle several customised structures at all.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Integrated support for PVK file format and some related formats such
     as MS PUBLICKEYBLOB and PRIVATEKEYBLOB. Command line switches to support
     these in the 'rsa' and 'dsa' utilities.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for PKCS#1 RSAPublicKey format on rsa utility command line.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove the ancient ASN1_METHOD code. This was only ever used in one
     place for the (very old) "NETSCAPE" format certificates which are now
     handled using new ASN1 code equivalents.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Let the TLSv1_method() etc. functions return a 'const' SSL_METHOD
     pointer and make the SSL_METHOD parameter in SSL_CTX_new,
     SSL_CTX_set_ssl_version and SSL_set_ssl_method 'const'.
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Modify CRL distribution points extension code to print out previously
     unsupported fields. Enhance extension setting code to allow setting of
     all fields.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add print and set support for Issuing Distribution Point CRL extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change 'Configure' script to enable Camellia by default.

 Changes between 0.9.8m and 0.9.8n [24 Mar 2010]

  *) When rejecting SSL/TLS records due to an incorrect version number, never
     update s->server with a new major version number.  As of
     - OpenSSL 0.9.8m if 'short' is a 16-bit type,
     - OpenSSL 0.9.8f if 'short' is longer than 16 bits,
     the previous behavior could result in a read attempt at NULL when
     receiving specific incorrect SSL/TLS records once record payload
     protection is active.  (CVE-2010-0740)
     [Bodo Moeller, Adam Langley <>]

  *) Fix for CVE-2010-0433 where some kerberos enabled versions of OpenSSL
     could be crashed if the relevant tables were not present (e.g. chrooted).
     [Tomas Hoger <>]

 Changes between 0.9.8l and 0.9.8m [25 Feb 2010]

  *) Always check bn_wexpand() return values for failure.  (CVE-2009-3245)
     [Martin Olsson, Neel Mehta]

  *) Fix X509_STORE locking: Every 'objs' access requires a lock (to
     accommodate for stack sorting, always a write lock!).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) On some versions of WIN32 Heap32Next is very slow. This can cause
     excessive delays in the RAND_poll(): over a minute. As a workaround
     include a time check in the inner Heap32Next loop too.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) The code that handled flushing of data in SSL/TLS originally used the
     BIO_CTRL_INFO ctrl to see if any data was pending first. This caused
     the problem outlined in PR#1949. The fix suggested there however can
     trigger problems with buggy BIO_CTRL_WPENDING (e.g. some versions
     of Apache). So instead simplify the code to flush unconditionally.
     This should be fine since flushing with no data to flush is a no op.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Handle TLS versions 2.0 and later properly and correctly use the
     highest version of TLS/SSL supported. Although TLS >= 2.0 is some way
     off ancient servers have a habit of sticking around for a while...
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify compression code so it frees up structures without using the
     ex_data callbacks. This works around a problem where some applications
     call CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data() before application exit (e.g. when
     restarting) then use compression (e.g. SSL with compression) later.
     This results in significant per-connection memory leaks and
     has caused some security issues including CVE-2008-1678 and
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Constify crypto/cast (i.e., <openssl/cast.h>): a CAST_KEY doesn't
     change when encrypting or decrypting.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add option SSL_OP_LEGACY_SERVER_CONNECT which will allow clients to
     connect and renegotiate with servers which do not support RI.
     Until RI is more widely deployed this option is enabled by default.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add "missing" ssl ctrls to clear options and mode.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) If client attempts to renegotiate and doesn't support RI respond with
     a no_renegotiation alert as required by RFC5746.  Some renegotiating
     TLS clients will continue a connection gracefully when they receive
     the alert. Unfortunately OpenSSL mishandled this alert and would hang
     waiting for a server hello which it will never receive. Now we treat a
     received no_renegotiation alert as a fatal error. This is because
     applications requesting a renegotiation might well expect it to succeed
     and would have no code in place to handle the server denying it so the
     only safe thing to do is to terminate the connection.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add ctrl macro SSL_get_secure_renegotiation_support() which returns 1 if
     peer supports secure renegotiation and 0 otherwise. Print out peer
     renegotiation support in s_client/s_server.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Replace the highly broken and deprecated SPKAC certification method with
     the updated NID creation version. This should correctly handle UTF8.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement RFC5746. Re-enable renegotiation but require the extension
     turns out to be a bad idea. It has been replaced by
     SSL_CTX_set_options(). This is really not recommended unless you
     know what you are doing.
     [Eric Rescorla <>, Ben Laurie, Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to stateless session resumption handling. Use initial_ctx when
     issuing and attempting to decrypt tickets in case it has changed during
     servername handling. Use a non-zero length session ID when attempting
     stateless session resumption: this makes it possible to determine if
     a resumption has occurred immediately after receiving server hello
     (several places in OpenSSL subtly assume this) instead of later in
     the handshake.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) The functions ENGINE_ctrl(), OPENSSL_isservice(),
     CMS_get1_RecipientRequest() and RAND_bytes() can return <=0 on error
     fixes for a few places where the return code is not checked
     [Julia Lawall <>]

  *) Add --strict-warnings option to Configure script to include devteam
     warnings in other configurations.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for --libdir option and LIBDIR variable in makefiles. This
     makes it possible to install openssl libraries in locations which
     have names other than "lib", for example "/usr/lib64" which some
     systems need.
     [Steve Henson, based on patch from Jeremy Utley]

  *) Don't allow the use of leading 0x80 in OIDs. This is a violation of
     X690 8.9.12 and can produce some misleading textual output of OIDs.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Dan Kaminsky]

  *) Delete MD2 from algorithm tables. This follows the recommendation in
     several standards that it is not used in new applications due to
     several cryptographic weaknesses. For binary compatibility reasons
     the MD2 API is still compiled in by default.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add compression id to {d2i,i2d}_SSL_SESSION so it is correctly saved
     and restored.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Rename uni2asc and asc2uni functions to OPENSSL_uni2asc and
     OPENSSL_asc2uni conditionally on Netware platforms to avoid a name
     [Guenter <>]

  *) Fix the server certificate chain building code to use X509_verify_cert(),
     it used to have an ad-hoc builder which was unable to cope with anything
     other than a simple chain.
     [David Woodhouse <>, Steve Henson]

  *) Don't check self signed certificate signatures in X509_verify_cert()
     by default (a flag can override this): it just wastes time without
     adding any security. As a useful side effect self signed root CAs
     with non-FIPS digests are now usable in FIPS mode.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In dtls1_process_out_of_seq_message() the check if the current message
     is already buffered was missing. For every new message was memory
     allocated, allowing an attacker to perform an denial of service attack
     with sending out of seq handshake messages until there is no memory
     left. Additionally every future message was buffered, even if the
     sequence number made no sense and would be part of another handshake.
     So only messages with sequence numbers less than 10 in advance will be
     buffered.  (CVE-2009-1378)
     [Robin Seggelmann, discovered by Daniel Mentz]

  *) Records are buffered if they arrive with a future epoch to be
     processed after finishing the corresponding handshake. There is
     currently no limitation to this buffer allowing an attacker to perform
     a DOS attack with sending records with future epochs until there is no
     memory left. This patch adds the pqueue_size() function to determine
     the size of a buffer and limits the record buffer to 100 entries.
     [Robin Seggelmann, discovered by Daniel Mentz]

  *) Keep a copy of frag->msg_header.frag_len so it can be used after the
     parent structure is freed.  (CVE-2009-1379)
     [Daniel Mentz]

  *) Handle non-blocking I/O properly in SSL_shutdown() call.
     [Darryl Miles <>]

  *) Add 2.5.4.* OIDs
     [Ilya O. <>]

 Changes between 0.9.8k and 0.9.8l  [5 Nov 2009]

  *) Disable renegotiation completely - this fixes a severe security
     problem (CVE-2009-3555) at the cost of breaking all
     renegotiation. Renegotiation can be re-enabled by setting
     run-time. This is really not recommended unless you know what
     you're doing.
     [Ben Laurie]

 Changes between 0.9.8j and 0.9.8k  [25 Mar 2009]

  *) Don't set val to NULL when freeing up structures, it is freed up by
     underlying code. If sizeof(void *) > sizeof(long) this can result in
     zeroing past the valid field. (CVE-2009-0789)
     [Paolo Ganci <Paolo.Ganci@AdNovum.CH>]

  *) Fix bug where return value of CMS_SignerInfo_verify_content() was not
     checked correctly. This would allow some invalid signed attributes to
     appear to verify correctly. (CVE-2009-0591)
     [Ivan Nestlerode <>]

  *) Reject UniversalString and BMPString types with invalid lengths. This
     prevents a crash in ASN1_STRING_print_ex() which assumes the strings have
     a legal length. (CVE-2009-0590)
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Set S/MIME signing as the default purpose rather than setting it
     unconditionally. This allows applications to override it at the store
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Permit restricted recursion of ASN1 strings. This is needed in practice
     to handle some structures.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Improve efficiency of mem_gets: don't search whole buffer each time
     for a '\n'
     [Jeremy Shapiro <>]

  *) New -hex option for openssl rand.
     [Matthieu Herrb]

  *) Print out UTF8String and NumericString when parsing ASN1.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support NumericString type for name components.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow CC in the environment to override the automatically chosen
     compiler. Note that nothing is done to ensure flags work with the
     chosen compiler.
     [Ben Laurie]

 Changes between 0.9.8i and 0.9.8j  [07 Jan 2009]

  *) Properly check EVP_VerifyFinal() and similar return values
     [Ben Laurie, Bodo Moeller, Google Security Team]

  *) Enable TLS extensions by default.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Allow the CHIL engine to be loaded, whether the application is
     multithreaded or not. (This does not release the developer from the
     obligation to set up the dynamic locking callbacks.)
     [Sander Temme <>]

  *) Use correct exit code if there is an error in dgst command.
     [Steve Henson; problem pointed out by Roland Dirlewanger]

  *) Tweak Configure so that you need to say "experimental-jpake" to enable
     JPAKE, and need to use -DOPENSSL_EXPERIMENTAL_JPAKE in applications.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add experimental JPAKE support, including demo authentication in
     s_client and s_server.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Set the comparison function in v3_addr_canonize().
     [Rob Austein <>]

  *) Add support for XMPP STARTTLS in s_client.
     [Philip Paeps <>]

  *) Change the server-side SSL_OP_NETSCAPE_REUSE_CIPHER_CHANGE_BUG behavior
     to ensure that even with this option, only ciphersuites in the
     server's preference list will be accepted.  (Note that the option
     applies only when resuming a session, so the earlier behavior was
     just about the algorithm choice for symmetric cryptography.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.8h and 0.9.8i  [15 Sep 2008]

  *) Fix NULL pointer dereference if a DTLS server received
     ChangeCipherSpec as first record (CVE-2009-1386).
     [PR #1679]

  *) Fix a state transition in s3_srvr.c and d1_srvr.c
     (was using SSL3_ST_CW_CLNT_HELLO_B, should be ..._ST_SW_SRVR_...).
     [Nagendra Modadugu]

  *) The fix in 0.9.8c that supposedly got rid of unsafe
     double-checked locking was incomplete for RSA blinding,
     addressing just one layer of what turns out to have been
     doubly unsafe triple-checked locking.

     So now fix this for real by retiring the MONT_HELPER macro
     in crypto/rsa/rsa_eay.c.

     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Marius Schilder]

  *) Various precautionary measures:

     - Avoid size_t integer overflow in HASH_UPDATE (md32_common.h).

     - Avoid a buffer overflow in d2i_SSL_SESSION() (ssl_asn1.c).
       (NB: This would require knowledge of the secret session ticket key
       to exploit, in which case you'd be SOL either way.)

     - Change bn_nist.c so that it will properly handle input BIGNUMs
       outside the expected range.

     - Enforce the 'num' check in BN_div() (bn_div.c) for non-BN_DEBUG

     [Neel Mehta, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Allow engines to be "soft loaded" - i.e. optionally don't die if
     the load fails. Useful for distros.
     [Ben Laurie and the FreeBSD team]

  *) Add support for Local Machine Keyset attribute in PKCS#12 files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix BN_GF2m_mod_arr() top-bit cleanup code.
     [Huang Ying]

  *) Expand ENGINE to support engine supplied SSL client certificate functions.

     This work was sponsored by Logica.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add CryptoAPI ENGINE to support use of RSA and DSA keys held in Windows
     keystores. Support for SSL/TLS client authentication too.
     Not compiled unless enable-capieng specified to Configure.

     This work was sponsored by Logica.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix bug in X509_ATTRIBUTE creation: don't set attribute using
     ASN1_TYPE_set1 if MBSTRING flag set. This bug would crash certain
     attribute creation routines such as certificate requests and PKCS#12
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.8g and 0.9.8h  [28 May 2008]

  *) Fix flaw if 'Server Key exchange message' is omitted from a TLS
     handshake which could lead to a client crash as found using the
     Codenomicon TLS test suite (CVE-2008-1672)
     [Steve Henson, Mark Cox]

  *) Fix double free in TLS server name extensions which could lead to
     a remote crash found by Codenomicon TLS test suite (CVE-2008-0891)
     [Joe Orton]

  *) Clear error queue in SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file()

     Clear the error queue to ensure that error entries left from
     older function calls do not interfere with the correct operation.
     [Lutz Jaenicke, Erik de Castro Lopo]

  *) Remove root CA certificates of commercial CAs:

     The OpenSSL project does not recommend any specific CA and does not
     have any policy with respect to including or excluding any CA.
     Therefore it does not make any sense to ship an arbitrary selection
     of root CA certificates with the OpenSSL software.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) RSA OAEP patches to fix two separate invalid memory reads.
     The first one involves inputs when 'lzero' is greater than
     'SHA_DIGEST_LENGTH' (it would read about SHA_DIGEST_LENGTH bytes
     before the beginning of from). The second one involves inputs where
     the 'db' section contains nothing but zeroes (there is a one-byte
     invalid read after the end of 'db').
     [Ivan Nestlerode <>]

  *) Partial backport from 0.9.9-dev:

     Introduce bn_mul_mont (dedicated Montgomery multiplication
     procedure) as a candidate for BIGNUM assembler implementation.
     While 0.9.9-dev uses assembler for various architectures, only
     x86_64 is available by default here in the 0.9.8 branch, and
     32-bit x86 is available through a compile-time setting.

     To try the 32-bit x86 assembler implementation, use Configure
     option "enable-montasm" (which exists only for this backport).

     As "enable-montasm" for 32-bit x86 disclaims code stability
     anyway, in this constellation we activate additional code
     backported from 0.9.9-dev for further performance improvements,
     namely BN_from_montgomery_word.  (To enable this otherwise,
     e.g. x86_64, try "-DMONT_FROM_WORD___NON_DEFAULT_0_9_8_BUILD".)

     [Andy Polyakov (backport partially by Bodo Moeller)]

  *) Add TLS session ticket callback. This allows an application to set
     TLS ticket cipher and HMAC keys rather than relying on hardcoded fixed
     values. This is useful for key rollover for example where several key
     sets may exist with different names.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reverse ENGINE-internal logic for caching default ENGINE handles.
     This was broken until now in 0.9.8 releases, such that the only way
     a registered ENGINE could be used (assuming it initialises
     successfully on the host) was to explicitly set it as the default
     for the relevant algorithms. This is in contradiction with 0.9.7
     behaviour and the documentation. With this fix, when an ENGINE is
     registered into a given algorithm's table of implementations, the
     'uptodate' flag is reset so that auto-discovery will be used next
     time a new context for that algorithm attempts to select an
     [Ian Lister (tweaked by Geoff Thorpe)]

  *) Backport of CMS code to OpenSSL 0.9.8. This differs from the 0.9.9
     implementation in the following ways:

     Lack of EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD means algorithm parameters have to be
     hard coded.

     Lack of BER streaming support means one pass streaming processing is
     only supported if data is detached: setting the streaming flag is
     ignored for embedded content.

     CMS support is disabled by default and must be explicitly enabled
     with the enable-cms configuration option.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update the GMP engine glue to do direct copies between BIGNUM and
     mpz_t when openssl and GMP use the same limb size. Otherwise the
     existing "conversion via a text string export" trick is still used.
     [Paul Sheer <>]

  *) Zlib compression BIO. This is a filter BIO which compressed and
     uncompresses any data passed through it.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add AES_wrap_key() and AES_unwrap_key() functions to implement
     RFC3394 compatible AES key wrapping.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add utility functions to handle ASN1 structures. ASN1_STRING_set0():
     sets string data without copying. X509_ALGOR_set0() and
     X509_ALGOR_get0(): set and retrieve X509_ALGOR (AlgorithmIdentifier)
     data. Attribute function X509at_get0_data_by_OBJ(): retrieves data
     from an X509_ATTRIBUTE structure optionally checking it occurs only
     once. ASN1_TYPE_set1(): set and ASN1_TYPE structure copying supplied
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix BN flag handling in RSA_eay_mod_exp() and BN_MONT_CTX_set()
     to get the expected BN_FLG_CONSTTIME behavior.
     [Bodo Moeller (Google)]

  *) Netware support:

     - fixed wrong usage of ioctlsocket() when build for LIBC BSD sockets
     - fixed to run the test suite with CLIB builds too (CLIB_OPT)
     - added some more tests to
     - fixed RunningProcess usage so that it works with newer LIBC NDKs too
     - removed usage of BN_LLONG for CLIB builds to avoid runtime dependency
     - added new Configure targets netware-clib-bsdsock, netware-clib-gcc,
       netware-clib-bsdsock-gcc, netware-libc-bsdsock-gcc
     - various changes to to enable gcc-cross builds on Win32
     - changed crypto/bio/b_sock.c to work with macro functions (CLIB BSD)
     - various changes to fix missing prototype warnings
     - fixed to create correct asm files for NASM COFF output
     - added AES, WHIRLPOOL and CPUID assembler code to build files
     - added missing AES assembler make rules to
     - fixed order of includes in apps/ocsp.c so that e_os.h settings apply
     [Guenter Knauf <>]

  *) Implement certificate status request TLS extension defined in RFC3546.
     A client can set the appropriate parameters and receive the encoded
     OCSP response via a callback. A server can query the supplied parameters
     and set the encoded OCSP response in the callback. Add simplified examples
     to s_client and s_server.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.8f and 0.9.8g  [19 Oct 2007]

  *) Fix various bugs:
     + Binary incompatibility of ssl_ctx_st structure
     + DTLS interoperation with non-compliant servers
     + Don't call get_session_cb() without proposed session
     + Fix ia64 assembler code
     [Andy Polyakov, Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.8e and 0.9.8f  [11 Oct 2007]

  *) DTLS Handshake overhaul. There were longstanding issues with
     OpenSSL DTLS implementation, which were making it impossible for
     RFC 4347 compliant client to communicate with OpenSSL server.
     Unfortunately just fixing these incompatibilities would "cut off"
     pre-0.9.8f clients. To allow for hassle free upgrade post-0.9.8e
     server keeps tolerating non RFC compliant syntax. The opposite is
     not true, 0.9.8f client can not communicate with earlier server.
     This update even addresses CVE-2007-4995.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Changes to avoid need for function casts in OpenSSL: some compilers
     (gcc 4.2 and later) reject their use.
     [Kurt Roeckx <>, Peter Hartley <>,
      Steve Henson]

  *) Add RFC4507 support to OpenSSL. This includes the corrections in
     RFC4507bis. The encrypted ticket format is an encrypted encoded
     SSL_SESSION structure, that way new session features are automatically

     If a client application caches session in an SSL_SESSION structure
     support is transparent because tickets are now stored in the encoded

     The SSL_CTX structure automatically generates keys for ticket
     protection in servers so again support should be possible
     with no application modification.

     If a client or server wishes to disable RFC4507 support then the option
     SSL_OP_NO_TICKET can be set.

     Add a TLS extension debugging callback to allow the contents of any client
     or server extensions to be examined.

     This work was sponsored by Google.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add initial support for TLS extensions, specifically for the server_name
     extension so far.  The SSL_SESSION, SSL_CTX, and SSL data structures now
     have new members for a host name.  The SSL data structure has an
     additional member SSL_CTX *initial_ctx so that new sessions can be
     stored in that context to allow for session resumption, even after the
     SSL has been switched to a new SSL_CTX in reaction to a client's
     server_name extension.

     New functions (subject to change):


     New CTRL codes and macros (subject to change):

                                 - SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_callback()
                                      - SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_arg()
         SSL_CTRL_SET_TLSEXT_HOSTNAME           - SSL_set_tlsext_host_name()

     openssl s_client has a new '-servername ...' option.

     openssl s_server has new options '-servername_host ...', '-cert2 ...',
     '-key2 ...', '-servername_fatal' (subject to change).  This allows
     testing the HostName extension for a specific single host name ('-cert'
     and '-key' remain fallbacks for handshakes without HostName
     negotiation).  If the unrecognized_name alert has to be sent, this by
     default is a warning; it becomes fatal with the '-servername_fatal'

     [Peter Sylvester,  Remy Allais, Christophe Renou, Steve Henson]

  *) Add AES and SSE2 assembly language support to VC++ build.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Mitigate attack on final subtraction in Montgomery reduction.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Fix crypto/ec/ec_mult.c to work properly with scalars of value 0
     (which previously caused an internal error).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Squeeze another 10% out of IGE mode when in != out.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) AES IGE mode speedup.
     [Dean Gaudet (Google)]

  *) Add the Korean symmetric 128-bit cipher SEED (see and
     add SEED ciphersuites from RFC 4162:


     To minimize changes between patchlevels in the OpenSSL 0.9.8
     series, SEED remains excluded from compilation unless OpenSSL
     is configured with 'enable-seed'.
     [KISA, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Mitigate branch prediction attacks, which can be practical if a
     single processor is shared, allowing a spy process to extract
     information.  For detailed background information, see (O. Aciicmez, S. Gueron,
     J.-P. Seifert, "New Branch Prediction Vulnerabilities in OpenSSL
     and Necessary Software Countermeasures").  The core of the change
     are new versions BN_div_no_branch() and
     BN_mod_inverse_no_branch() of BN_div() and BN_mod_inverse(),
     respectively, which are slower, but avoid the security-relevant
     conditional branches.  These are automatically called by BN_div()
     and BN_mod_inverse() if the flag BN_FLG_CONSTTIME is set for one
     of the input BIGNUMs.  Also, BN_is_bit_set() has been changed to
     remove a conditional branch.

     BN_FLG_CONSTTIME is the new name for the previous
     BN_FLG_EXP_CONSTTIME flag, since it now affects more than just
     modular exponentiation.  (Since OpenSSL 0.9.7h, setting this flag
     in the exponent causes BN_mod_exp_mont() to use the alternative
     implementation in BN_mod_exp_mont_consttime().)  The old name
     remains as a deprecated alias.

     Similarly, RSA_FLAG_NO_EXP_CONSTTIME is replaced by a more general
     RSA_FLAG_NO_CONSTTIME flag since the RSA implementation now uses
     constant-time implementations for more than just exponentiation.
     Here too the old name is kept as a deprecated alias.

     BN_BLINDING_new() will now use BN_dup() for the modulus so that
     the BN_BLINDING structure gets an independent copy of the
     modulus.  This means that the previous "BIGNUM *m" argument to
     BN_BLINDING_new() and to BN_BLINDING_create_param() now
     essentially becomes "const BIGNUM *m", although we can't actually
     change this in the header file before 0.9.9.  It allows
     RSA_setup_blinding() to use BN_with_flags() on the modulus to
     enable BN_FLG_CONSTTIME.

     [Matthew D Wood (Intel Corp)]

  *) In the SSL/TLS server implementation, be strict about session ID
     context matching (which matters if an application uses a single
     external cache for different purposes).  Previously,
     out-of-context reuse was forbidden only if SSL_VERIFY_PEER was
     set.  This did ensure strict client verification, but meant that,
     with applications using a single external cache for quite
     different requirements, clients could circumvent ciphersuite
     restrictions for a given session ID context by starting a session
     in a different context.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Include "!eNULL" in SSL_DEFAULT_CIPHER_LIST to make sure that
     a ciphersuite string such as "DEFAULT:RSA" cannot enable
     authentication-only ciphersuites.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Update the SSL_get_shared_ciphers() fix CVE-2006-3738 which was
     not complete and could lead to a possible single byte overflow
     (CVE-2007-5135) [Ben Laurie]

 Changes between 0.9.8d and 0.9.8e  [23 Feb 2007]

  *) Since AES128 and AES256 (and similarly Camellia128 and
     Camellia256) share a single mask bit in the logic of
     ssl/ssl_ciph.c, the code for masking out disabled ciphers needs a
     kludge to work properly if AES128 is available and AES256 isn't
     (or if Camellia128 is available and Camellia256 isn't).
     [Victor Duchovni]

  *) Fix the BIT STRING encoding generated by crypto/ec/ec_asn1.c
     (within i2d_ECPrivateKey, i2d_ECPKParameters, i2d_ECParameters):
     When a point or a seed is encoded in a BIT STRING, we need to
     prevent the removal of trailing zero bits to get the proper DER
     encoding.  (By default, crypto/asn1/a_bitstr.c assumes the case
     of a NamedBitList, for which trailing 0 bits need to be removed.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Have SSL/TLS server implementation tolerate "mismatched" record
     protocol version while receiving ClientHello even if the
     ClientHello is fragmented.  (The server can't insist on the
     particular protocol version it has chosen before the ServerHello
     message has informed the client about his choice.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add RFC 3779 support.
     [Rob Austein for ARIN, Ben Laurie]

  *) Load error codes if they are not already present instead of using a
     static variable. This allows them to be cleanly unloaded and reloaded.
     Improve header file function name parsing.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) extend SMTP and IMAP protocol emulation in s_client to use EHLO
     or CAPABILITY handshake as required by RFCs.
     [Goetz Babin-Ebell]

 Changes between 0.9.8c and 0.9.8d  [28 Sep 2006]

  *) Introduce limits to prevent malicious keys being able to
     cause a denial of service.  (CVE-2006-2940)
     [Steve Henson, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix ASN.1 parsing of certain invalid structures that can result
     in a denial of service.  (CVE-2006-2937)  [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix buffer overflow in SSL_get_shared_ciphers() function.
     (CVE-2006-3738) [Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]

  *) Fix SSL client code which could crash if connecting to a
     malicious SSLv2 server.  (CVE-2006-4343)
     [Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]

  *) Since 0.9.8b, ciphersuite strings naming explicit ciphersuites
     match only those.  Before that, "AES256-SHA" would be interpreted
     as a pattern and match "AES128-SHA" too (since AES128-SHA got
     the same strength classification in 0.9.7h) as we currently only
     have a single AES bit in the ciphersuite description bitmap.
     That change, however, also applied to ciphersuite strings such as
     "RC4-MD5" that intentionally matched multiple ciphersuites --
     namely, SSL 2.0 ciphersuites in addition to the more common ones
     from SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0.

     So we change the selection algorithm again: Naming an explicit
     ciphersuite selects this one ciphersuite, and any other similar
     ciphersuite (same bitmap) from *other* protocol versions.
     Thus, "RC4-MD5" again will properly select both the SSL 2.0
     ciphersuite and the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 ciphersuite.

     Since SSL 2.0 does not have any ciphersuites for which the
     128/256 bit distinction would be relevant, this works for now.
     The proper fix will be to use different bits for AES128 and
     AES256, which would have avoided the problems from the beginning;
     however, bits are scarce, so we can only do this in a new release
     (not just a patchlevel) when we can change the SSL_CIPHER
     definition to split the single 'unsigned long mask' bitmap into
     multiple values to extend the available space.

     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.8b and 0.9.8c  [05 Sep 2006]

  *) Avoid PKCS #1 v1.5 signature attack discovered by Daniel Bleichenbacher
     (CVE-2006-4339)  [Ben Laurie and Google Security Team]

  *) Add AES IGE and biIGE modes.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Change the Unix randomness entropy gathering to use poll() when
     possible instead of select(), since the latter has some
     undesirable limitations.
     [Darryl Miles via Richard Levitte and Bodo Moeller]

  *) Disable "ECCdraft" ciphersuites more thoroughly.  Now special
     treatment in ssl/ssl_ciph.s makes sure that these ciphersuites
     cannot be implicitly activated as part of, e.g., the "AES" alias.
     However, please upgrade to OpenSSL 0.9.9[-dev] for
     non-experimental use of the ECC ciphersuites to get TLS extension
     support, which is required for curve and point format negotiation
     to avoid potential handshake problems.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Disable rogue ciphersuites:

      - SSLv2 0x08 0x00 0x80 ("RC4-64-MD5")
      - SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x61 ("EXP1024-RC2-CBC-MD5")
      - SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x60 ("EXP1024-RC4-MD5")

     The latter two were purportedly from
     draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-0[01].txt, but do not really
     appear there.

     Also deactivate the remaining ciphersuites from
     draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-01.txt.  These are just as
     unofficial, and the ID has long expired.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix RSA blinding Heisenbug (problems sometimes occurred on
     dual-core machines) and other potential thread-safety issues.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add the symmetric cipher Camellia (128-bit, 192-bit, 256-bit key
     versions), which is now available for royalty-free use
     Also, add Camellia TLS ciphersuites from RFC 4132.

     To minimize changes between patchlevels in the OpenSSL 0.9.8
     series, Camellia remains excluded from compilation unless OpenSSL
     is configured with 'enable-camellia'.

  *) Disable the padding bug check when compression is in use. The padding
     bug check assumes the first packet is of even length, this is not
     necessarily true if compression is enabled and can result in false
     positives causing handshake failure. The actual bug test is ancient
     code so it is hoped that implementations will either have fixed it by
     now or any which still have the bug do not support compression.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.8a and 0.9.8b  [04 May 2006]

  *) When applying a cipher rule check to see if string match is an explicit
     cipher suite and only match that one cipher suite if it is.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Link in manifests for VC++ if needed.
     [Austin Ziegler <>]

  *) Update support for ECC-based TLS ciphersuites according to
     draft-ietf-tls-ecc-12.txt with proposed changes (but without
     TLS extensions, which are supported starting with the 0.9.9
     branch, not in the OpenSSL 0.9.8 branch).
     [Douglas Stebila]

  *) New functions EVP_CIPHER_CTX_new() and EVP_CIPHER_CTX_free() to support
     opaque EVP_CIPHER_CTX handling.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes and enhancements to zlib compression code. We now only use
     "zlib1.dll" and use the default __cdecl calling convention on Win32
     to conform with the standards mentioned here:
     Static zlib linking now works on Windows and the new --with-zlib-include
     --with-zlib-lib options to Configure can be used to supply the location
     of the headers and library. Gracefully handle case where zlib library
     can't be loaded.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Several fixes and enhancements to the OID generation code. The old code
     sometimes allowed invalid OIDs (1.X for X >= 40 for example), couldn't
     handle numbers larger than ULONG_MAX, truncated printing and had a
     non standard OBJ_obj2txt() behaviour.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for building of engines under engine/ as shared libraries
     under VC++ build system.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Corrected the numerous bugs in the Win32 path splitter in DSO.
     Hopefully, we will not see any false combination of paths any more.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.8 and 0.9.8a  [11 Oct 2005]

  *) Remove the functionality of SSL_OP_MSIE_SSLV2_RSA_PADDING
     (part of SSL_OP_ALL).  This option used to disable the
     countermeasure against man-in-the-middle protocol-version
     rollback in the SSL 2.0 server implementation, which is a bad
     idea.  (CVE-2005-2969)

     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Yutaka Oiwa (Research Center
     for Information Security, National Institute of Advanced Industrial
     Science and Technology [AIST], Japan)]

  *) Add two function to clear and return the verify parameter flags.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Keep cipherlists sorted in the source instead of sorting them at
     runtime, thus removing the need for a lock.
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Avoid some small subgroup attacks in Diffie-Hellman.
     [Nick Mathewson and Ben Laurie]

  *) Add functions for well-known primes.
     [Nick Mathewson]

  *) Extended Windows CE support.
     [Satoshi Nakamura and Andy Polyakov]

  *) Initialize SSL_METHOD structures at compile time instead of during
     runtime, thus removing the need for a lock.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make PKCS7_decrypt() work even if no certificate is supplied by
     attempting to decrypt each encrypted key in turn. Add support to
     smime utility.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.7h and 0.9.8  [05 Jul 2005]

  [NB: OpenSSL 0.9.7i and later 0.9.7 patch levels were released after
  OpenSSL 0.9.8.]

  *) Add libcrypto.pc and libssl.pc for those who feel they need them.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change and so they don't bundle the CSR and the private
     key into the same file any more.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add initial support for Win64, both IA64 and AMD64/x64 flavors.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add -utf8 command line and config file option to 'ca'.
     [Stefan <]

  *) Removed the macro des_crypt(), as it seems to conflict with some
     libraries.  Use DES_crypt().
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Correct naming of the 'chil' and '4758cca' ENGINEs. This
     involves renaming the source and generated shared-libs for
     both. The engines will accept the corrected or legacy ids
     ('ncipher' and '4758_cca' respectively) when binding. NB,
     this only applies when building 'shared'.
     [Corinna Vinschen <> and Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add attribute functions to EVP_PKEY structure. Modify
     PKCS12_create() to recognize a CSP name attribute and
     use it. Make -CSP option work again in pkcs12 utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new functionality to the bn blinding code:
     - automatic re-creation of the BN_BLINDING parameters after
       a fixed number of uses (currently 32)
     - add new function for parameter creation
     - introduce flags to control the update behaviour of the
       BN_BLINDING parameters
     - hide BN_BLINDING structure
     Add a second BN_BLINDING slot to the RSA structure to improve
     performance when a single RSA object is shared among several
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Add support for DTLS.
     [Nagendra Modadugu <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) Add support for DER encoded private keys (SSL_FILETYPE_ASN1)
     to SSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_file() and SSL_use_PrivateKey_file()
     [Walter Goulet]

  *) Remove buggy and incomplete DH cert support from
     ssl/ssl_rsa.c and ssl/s3_both.c
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Use SHA-1 instead of MD5 as the default digest algorithm for
     the apps/openssl applications.
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Compile clean with "-Wall -Wmissing-prototypes
     -Wstrict-prototypes -Wmissing-declarations -Werror". Currently
     DEBUG_SAFESTACK must also be set.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Change ./Configure so that certain algorithms can be disabled by default.
     The new counterpiece to "no-xxx" is "enable-xxx".

     The patented RC5 and MDC2 algorithms will now be disabled unless
     "enable-rc5" and "enable-mdc2", respectively, are specified.

     (IDEA remains enabled despite being patented.  This is because IDEA
     is frequently required for interoperability, and there is no license
     fee for non-commercial use.  As before, "no-idea" can be used to
     avoid this algorithm.)

     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add processing of proxy certificates (see RFC 3820).  This work was
     sponsored by KTH (The Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm) and
     EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-science in Europe).
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) RC4 performance overhaul on modern architectures/implementations, such
     as Intel P4, IA-64 and AMD64.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) New utility This can be used specify an alternative
     section number in a pod file instead of having to treat each file as
     a separate case in Makefile. This can be done by adding two lines to the
     pod file:

     =for comment openssl_section:XXX

     The blank line is mandatory.

     [Steve Henson]

  *) New arguments -certform, -keyform and -pass for s_client and s_server
     to allow alternative format key and certificate files and passphrase
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New structure X509_VERIFY_PARAM which combines current verify parameters,
     update associated structures and add various utility functions.

     Add new policy related verify parameters, include policy checking in
     standard verify code. Enhance 'smime' application with extra parameters
     to support policy checking and print out.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new engine to support VIA PadLock ACE extensions in the VIA C3
     Nehemiah processors. These extensions support AES encryption in hardware
     as well as RNG (though RNG support is currently disabled).
     [Michal Ludvig <>, with help from Andy Polyakov]

  *) Deprecate BN_[get|set]_params() functions (they were ignored internally).
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) New FIPS 180-2 algorithms, SHA-224/-256/-384/-512 are implemented.
     [Andy Polyakov and a number of other people]

  *) Improved PowerPC platform support. Most notably BIGNUM assembler
     implementation contributed by IBM.
     [Suresh Chari, Peter Waltenberg, Andy Polyakov]

  *) The new 'RSA_generate_key_ex' function now takes a BIGNUM for the public
     exponent rather than 'unsigned long'. There is a corresponding change to
     the new 'rsa_keygen' element of the RSA_METHOD structure.
     [Jelte Jansen, Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Functionality for creating the initial serial number file is now
     moved from to the 'ca' utility with a new option -create_serial.

     (Before OpenSSL 0.9.7e, used to initialize the serial
     number file to 1, which is bound to cause problems.  To avoid
     the problems while respecting compatibility between different 0.9.7
     patchlevels, 0.9.7e  employed 'openssl x509 -next_serial' in for serial number initialization.  With the new release 0.9.8,
     we can fix the problem directly in the 'ca' utility.)
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reduced header interdependencies by declaring more opaque objects in
     ossl_typ.h. As a consequence, including some headers (eg. engine.h) will
     give fewer recursive includes, which could break lazy source code - so
     this change is covered by the OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED symbol. As always,
     developers should define this symbol when building and using openssl to
     ensure they track the recommended behaviour, interfaces, [etc], but
     backwards-compatible behaviour prevails when this isn't defined.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) New function X509_POLICY_NODE_print() which prints out policy nodes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new EVP function EVP_CIPHER_CTX_rand_key and associated functionality.
     This will generate a random key of the appropriate length based on the
     cipher context. The EVP_CIPHER can provide its own random key generation
     routine to support keys of a specific form. This is used in the des and
     3des routines to generate a key of the correct parity. Update S/MIME
     code to use new functions and hence generate correct parity DES keys.
     Add EVP_CHECK_DES_KEY #define to return an error if the key is not
     valid (weak or incorrect parity).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a local set of CRLs that can be used by X509_verify_cert() as well
     as looking them up. This is useful when the verified structure may contain
     CRLs, for example PKCS#7 signedData. Modify PKCS7_verify() to use any CRLs
     present unless the new PKCS7_NO_CRL flag is asserted.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extend ASN1 oid configuration module. It now additionally accepts the

     shortName = some long name,
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reimplemented the BN_CTX implementation. There is now no more static
     limitation on the number of variables it can handle nor the depth of the
     "stack" handling for BN_CTX_start()/BN_CTX_end() pairs. The stack
     information can now expand as required, and rather than having a single
     static array of bignums, BN_CTX now uses a linked-list of such arrays
     allowing it to expand on demand whilst maintaining the usefulness of
     BN_CTX's "bundling".
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add a missing BN_CTX parameter to the 'rsa_mod_exp' callback in RSA_METHOD
     to allow all RSA operations to function using a single BN_CTX.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Preliminary support for certificate policy evaluation and checking. This
     is initially intended to pass the tests outlined in "Conformance Testing
     of Relying Party Client Certificate Path Processing Logic" v1.07.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) bn_dup_expand() has been deprecated, it was introduced in 0.9.7 and
     remained unused and not that useful. A variety of other little bignum
     tweaks and fixes have also been made continuing on from the audit (see
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Constify all or almost all d2i, c2i, s2i and r2i functions, along with
     associated ASN1, EVP and SSL functions and old ASN1 macros.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) BN_zero() only needs to set 'top' and 'neg' to zero for correct results,
     and this should never fail. So the return value from the use of
     BN_set_word() (which can fail due to needless expansion) is now deprecated;
     if OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED is defined, BN_zero() is a void macro.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) BN_CTX_get() should return zero-valued bignums, providing the same
     initialised value as BN_new().
     [Geoff Thorpe, suggested by Ulf Möller]

  *) Support for inhibitAnyPolicy certificate extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) An audit of the BIGNUM code is underway, for which debugging code is
     enabled when BN_DEBUG is defined. This makes stricter enforcements on what
     is considered valid when processing BIGNUMs, and causes execution to
     assert() when a problem is discovered. If BN_DEBUG_RAND is defined,
     further steps are taken to deliberately pollute unused data in BIGNUM
     structures to try and expose faulty code further on. For now, openssl will
     (in its default mode of operation) continue to tolerate the inconsistent
     forms that it has tolerated in the past, but authors and packagers should
     consider trying openssl and their own applications when compiled with
     these debugging symbols defined. It will help highlight potential bugs in
     their own code, and will improve the test coverage for OpenSSL itself. At
     some point, these tighter rules will become openssl's default to improve
     maintainability, though the assert()s and other overheads will remain only
     in debugging configurations. See bn.h for more details.
     [Geoff Thorpe, Nils Larsch, Ulf Möller]

  *) BN_CTX_init() has been deprecated, as BN_CTX is an opaque structure
     that can only be obtained through BN_CTX_new() (which implicitly
     initialises it). The presence of this function only made it possible
     to overwrite an existing structure (and cause memory leaks).
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Because of the callback-based approach for implementing LHASH as a
     template type, lh_insert() adds opaque objects to hash-tables and
     lh_doall() or lh_doall_arg() are typically used with a destructor callback
     to clean up those corresponding objects before destroying the hash table
     (and losing the object pointers). So some over-zealous constifications in
     LHASH have been relaxed so that lh_insert() does not take (nor store) the
     objects as "const" and the lh_doall[_arg] callback wrappers are not
     prototyped to have "const" restrictions on the object pointers they are
     given (and so aren't required to cast them away any more).
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) The tmdiff.h API was so ugly and minimal that our own timing utility
     (speed) prefers to use its own implementation. The two implementations
     haven't been consolidated as yet (volunteers?) but the tmdiff API has had
     its object type properly exposed (MS_TM) instead of casting to/from "char
     *". This may still change yet if someone realises MS_TM and "ms_time_***"
     aren't necessarily the greatest nomenclatures - but this is what was used
     internally to the implementation so I've used that for now.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Ensure that deprecated functions do not get compiled when
     OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED is defined. Some "openssl" subcommands and a few of
     the self-tests were still using deprecated key-generation functions so
     these have been updated also.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Reorganise PKCS#7 code to separate the digest location functionality
     into PKCS7_find_digest(), digest addition into PKCS7_bio_add_digest().
     New function PKCS7_set_digest() to set the digest type for PKCS#7
     digestedData type. Add additional code to correctly generate the
     digestedData type and add support for this type in PKCS7 initialization
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function PKCS7_set0_type_other() this initializes a PKCS7
     structure of type "other".
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix prime generation loop in crypto/bn/ by making
     sure the loop does correctly stop and breaking ("division by zero")
     modulus operations are not performed. The (pre-generated) prime
     table crypto/bn/bn_prime.h was already correct, but it could not be
     re-generated on some platforms because of the "division by zero"
     situation in the script.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Update support for ECC-based TLS ciphersuites according to
     draft-ietf-tls-ecc-03.txt: the KDF1 key derivation function with
     SHA-1 now is only used for "small" curves (where the
     representation of a field element takes up to 24 bytes); for
     larger curves, the field element resulting from ECDH is directly
     used as premaster secret.
     [Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Add code for kP+lQ timings to crypto/ec/ectest.c, and add SEC2
     curve secp160r1 to the tests.
     [Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Add the possibility to load symbols globally with DSO.
     [Götz Babin-Ebell <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the functions ERR_set_mark() and ERR_pop_to_mark() for better
     control of the error stack.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add support for STORE in ENGINE.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the STORE type.  The intention is to provide a common interface
     to certificate and key stores, be they simple file-based stores, or
     HSM-type store, or LDAP stores, or...
     NOTE: The code is currently UNTESTED and isn't really used anywhere.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add a generic structure called OPENSSL_ITEM.  This can be used to
     pass a list of arguments to any function as well as provide a way
     for a function to pass data back to the caller.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the functions BUF_strndup() and BUF_memdup().  BUF_strndup()
     works like BUF_strdup() but can be used to duplicate a portion of
     a string.  The copy gets NUL-terminated.  BUF_memdup() duplicates
     a memory area.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the function sk_find_ex() which works like sk_find(), but will
     return an index to an element even if an exact match couldn't be
     found.  The index is guaranteed to point at the element where the
     searched-for key would be inserted to preserve sorting order.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the function OBJ_bsearch_ex() which works like OBJ_bsearch() but
     takes an extra flags argument for optional functionality.  Currently,
     the following flags are defined:

        This one gets OBJ_bsearch_ex() to return a pointer to the first
        element where the comparing function returns a negative or zero

        This one gets OBJ_bsearch_ex() to return a pointer to the first
        element where the comparing function returns zero.  This is useful
        if there are more than one element where the comparing function
        returns zero.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make it possible to create self-signed certificates with 'openssl ca'
     in such a way that the self-signed certificate becomes part of the
     CA database and uses the same mechanisms for serial number generation
     as all other certificate signing.  The new flag '-selfsign' enables
     this functionality.  Adapt and
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add functionality to check the public key of a certificate request
     against a given private.  This is useful to check that a certificate
     request can be signed by that key (self-signing).
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make it possible to have multiple active certificates with the same
     subject in the CA index file.  This is done only if the keyword
     'unique_subject' is set to 'no' in the main CA section (default
     if 'CA_default') of the configuration file.  The value is saved
     with the database itself in a separate index attribute file,
     named like the index file with '.attr' appended to the name.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Generate multi-valued AVAs using '+' notation in config files for
     req and dirName.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for nameConstraints certificate extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for policyConstraints certificate extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for policyMappings certificate extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make sure the default DSA_METHOD implementation only uses its
     dsa_mod_exp() and/or bn_mod_exp() handlers if they are non-NULL,
     and change its own handlers to be NULL so as to remove unnecessary
     indirection. This lets alternative implementations fallback to the
     default implementation more easily.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Support for directoryName in GeneralName related extensions
     in config files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make it possible to link applications using Makefile.shared.
     Make that possible even when linking against static libraries!
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Support for single pass processing for S/MIME signing. This now
     means that S/MIME signing can be done from a pipe, in addition
     cleartext signing (multipart/signed type) is effectively streaming
     and the signed data does not need to be all held in memory.

     This is done with a new flag PKCS7_STREAM. When this flag is set
     PKCS7_sign() only initializes the PKCS7 structure and the actual signing
     is done after the data is output (and digests calculated) in
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add full support for -rpath/-R, both in shared libraries and
     applications, at least on the platforms where it's known how
     to do it.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) In crypto/ec/ec_mult.c, implement fast point multiplication with
     precomputation, based on wNAF splitting: EC_GROUP_precompute_mult()
     will now compute a table of multiples of the generator that
     makes subsequent invocations of EC_POINTs_mul() or EC_POINT_mul()
     faster (notably in the case of a single point multiplication,
     scalar * generator).
     [Nils Larsch, Bodo Moeller]

  *) IPv6 support for certificate extensions. The various extensions
     which use the IP:a.b.c.d can now take IPv6 addresses using the
     formats of RFC1884 2.2 . IPv6 addresses are now also displayed
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added an ENGINE that implements RSA by performing private key
     exponentiations with the GMP library. The conversions to and from
     GMP's mpz_t format aren't optimised nor are any montgomery forms
     cached, and on x86 it appears OpenSSL's own performance has caught up.
     However there are likely to be other architectures where GMP could
     provide a boost. This ENGINE is not built in by default, but it can be
     specified at Configure time and should be accompanied by the necessary
     linker additions, eg;
         ./config -DOPENSSL_USE_GMP -lgmp
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) "openssl engine" will not display ENGINE/DSO load failure errors when
     testing availability of engines with "-t" - the old behaviour is
     produced by increasing the feature's verbosity with "-tt".
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) ECDSA routines: under certain error conditions uninitialized BN objects
     could be freed. Solution: make sure initialization is performed early
     enough. (Reported and fix supplied by Nils Larsch <>
     via PR#459)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Key-generation can now be implemented in RSA_METHOD, DSA_METHOD
     and DH_METHOD (eg. by ENGINE implementations) to override the normal
     software implementations. For DSA and DH, parameter generation can
     also be overridden by providing the appropriate method callbacks.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Change the "progress" mechanism used in key-generation and
     primality testing to functions that take a new BN_GENCB pointer in
     place of callback/argument pairs. The new API functions have "_ex"
     postfixes and the older functions are reimplemented as wrappers for
     the new ones. The OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED symbol can be used to hide
     declarations of the old functions to help (graceful) attempts to
     migrate to the new functions. Also, the new key-generation API
     functions operate on a caller-supplied key-structure and return
     success/failure rather than returning a key or NULL - this is to
     help make "keygen" another member function of RSA_METHOD etc.

     Example for using the new callback interface:

          int (*my_callback)(int a, int b, BN_GENCB *cb) = ...;
          void *my_arg = ...;
          BN_GENCB my_cb;

          BN_GENCB_set(&my_cb, my_callback, my_arg);

          return BN_is_prime_ex(some_bignum, BN_prime_checks, NULL, &cb);
          /* For the meaning of a, b in calls to my_callback(), see the
           * documentation of the function that calls the callback.
           * cb will point to my_cb; my_arg can be retrieved as cb->arg.
           * my_callback should return 1 if it wants BN_is_prime_ex()
           * to continue, or 0 to stop.

     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Change the ZLIB compression method to be stateful, and make it
     available to TLS with the number defined in
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the ASN.1 structures and functions for CertificatePair, which
     is defined as follows (according to X.509_4thEditionDraftV6.pdf):

     CertificatePair ::= SEQUENCE {
        forward         [0]     Certificate OPTIONAL,
        reverse         [1]     Certificate OPTIONAL,
        -- at least one of the pair shall be present -- }

     Also implement the PEM functions to read and write certificate
     pairs, and defined the PEM tag as "CERTIFICATE PAIR".

     This needed to be defined, mostly for the sake of the LDAP
     attribute crossCertificatePair, but may prove useful elsewhere as
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make it possible to inhibit symlinking of shared libraries in
     Makefile.shared, for Cygwin's sake.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Extend the BIGNUM API by creating a function
          void BN_set_negative(BIGNUM *a, int neg);
     and a macro that behave like
          int  BN_is_negative(const BIGNUM *a);

     to avoid the need to access 'a->neg' directly in applications.
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) Implement fast modular reduction for pseudo-Mersenne primes
     used in NIST curves (crypto/bn/bn_nist.c, crypto/ec/ecp_nist.c).
     EC_GROUP_new_curve_GFp() will now automatically use this
     if applicable.
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Add new lock type (CRYPTO_LOCK_BN).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change the ENGINE framework to automatically load engines
     dynamically from specific directories unless they could be
     found to already be built in or loaded.  Move all the
     current engines except for the cryptodev one to a new
     directory engines/.
     The engines in engines/ are built as shared libraries if
     the "shared" options was given to ./Configure or ./config.
     Otherwise, they are inserted in libcrypto.a.
     /usr/local/ssl/engines is the default directory for dynamic
     engines, but that can be overridden at configure time through
     the usual use of --prefix and/or --openssldir, and at run
     time with the environment variable OPENSSL_ENGINES.
     [Geoff Thorpe and Richard Levitte]

  *) Add Makefile.shared, a helper makefile to build shared
     libraries.  Adapt
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add version info to Win32 DLLs.
     [Peter 'Luna' Runestig" <>]

  *) Add new 'medium level' PKCS#12 API. Certificates and keys
     can be added using this API to created arbitrary PKCS#12
     files while avoiding the low level API.

     New options to PKCS12_create(), key or cert can be NULL and
     will then be omitted from the output file. The encryption
     algorithm NIDs can be set to -1 for no encryption, the mac
     iteration count can be set to 0 to omit the mac.

     Enhance pkcs12 utility by making the -nokeys and -nocerts
     options work when creating a PKCS#12 file. New option -nomac
     to omit the mac, NONE can be set for an encryption algorithm.
     New code is modified to use the enhanced PKCS12_create()
     instead of the low level API.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extend ASN1 encoder to support indefinite length constructed
     encoding. This can output sequences tags and octet strings in
     this form. Modify pk7_asn1.c to support indefinite length
     encoding. This is experimental and needs additional code to
     be useful, such as an ASN1 bio and some enhanced streaming
     PKCS#7 code.

     Extend template encode functionality so that tagging is passed
     down to the template encoder.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Let 'openssl req' fail if an argument to '-newkey' is not
     recognized instead of using RSA as a default.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add support for ECC-based ciphersuites from draft-ietf-tls-ecc-01.txt.
     As these are not official, they are not included in "ALL";
     the "ECCdraft" ciphersuite group alias can be used to select them.
     [Vipul Gupta and Sumit Gupta (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Add ECDH engine support.
     [Nils Gura and Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Add ECDH in new directory crypto/ecdh/.
     [Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Let BN_rand_range() abort with an error after 100 iterations
     without success (which indicates a broken PRNG).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change BN_mod_sqrt() so that it verifies that the input value
     is really the square of the return value.  (Previously,
     BN_mod_sqrt would show GIGO behaviour.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add named elliptic curves over binary fields from X9.62, SECG,
     and WAP/WTLS; add OIDs that were still missing.

     [Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
     (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Extend the EC library for elliptic curves over binary fields
     (new files ec2_smpl.c, ec2_smpt.c, ec2_mult.c in crypto/ec/).
     New EC_METHOD:


     New API functions:


     Point compression for binary fields is disabled by default for
     patent reasons (compile with OPENSSL_EC_BIN_PT_COMP defined to
     enable it).

     As binary polynomials are represented as BIGNUMs, various members
     of the EC_GROUP and EC_POINT data structures can be shared
     between the implementations for prime fields and binary fields;
     the above ..._GF2m functions (except for EX_GROUP_new_curve_GF2m)
     are essentially identical to their ..._GFp counterparts.
     (For simplicity, the '..._GFp' prefix has been dropped from
     various internal method names.)

     An internal 'field_div' method (similar to 'field_mul' and
     'field_sqr') has been added; this is used only for binary fields.

     [Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
     (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Optionally dispatch EC_POINT_mul(), EC_POINT_precompute_mult()
     through methods ('mul', 'precompute_mult').

     The generic implementations (now internally called 'ec_wNAF_mul'
     and 'ec_wNAF_precomputed_mult') remain the default if these
     methods are undefined.

     [Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
     (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) New function EC_GROUP_get_degree, which is defined through
     EC_METHOD.  For curves over prime fields, this returns the bit
     length of the modulus.

     [Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
     (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) New functions EC_GROUP_dup, EC_POINT_dup.
     (These simply call ..._new  and ..._copy).

     [Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
     (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Add binary polynomial arithmetic software in crypto/bn/bn_gf2m.c.
     Polynomials are represented as BIGNUMs (where the sign bit is not
     used) in the following functions [macros]:

          BN_GF2m_sub             [= BN_GF2m_add]
          BN_GF2m_mod             [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_arr]
          BN_GF2m_mod_mul         [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_mul_arr]
          BN_GF2m_mod_sqr         [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_sqr_arr]
          BN_GF2m_mod_exp         [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_exp_arr]
          BN_GF2m_mod_sqrt        [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_sqrt_arr]
          BN_GF2m_mod_solve_quad  [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_solve_quad_arr]
          BN_GF2m_cmp             [= BN_ucmp]

     (Note that only the 'mod' functions are actually for fields GF(2^m).
     BN_GF2m_add() is misnomer, but this is for the sake of consistency.)

     For some functions, an the irreducible polynomial defining a
     field can be given as an 'unsigned int[]' with strictly
     decreasing elements giving the indices of those bits that are set;
     i.e., p[] represents the polynomial
          f(t) = t^p[0] + t^p[1] + ... + t^p[k]
          p[0] > p[1] > ... > p[k] = 0.
     This applies to the following functions:

          BN_GF2m_mod_inv_arr        [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_inv]
          BN_GF2m_mod_div_arr        [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_div]

     Conversion can be performed by the following functions:


     bntest.c has additional tests for binary polynomial arithmetic.

     Two implementations for BN_GF2m_mod_div() are available.
     The default algorithm simply uses BN_GF2m_mod_inv() and
     BN_GF2m_mod_mul().  The alternative algorithm is compiled in only
     if OPENSSL_SUN_GF2M_DIV is defined (patent pending; read the
     copyright notice in crypto/bn/bn_gf2m.c before enabling it).

     [Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
     (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]

  *) Add new error code 'ERR_R_DISABLED' that can be used when some
     functionality is disabled at compile-time.
     [Douglas Stebila <>]

  *) Change default behaviour of 'openssl asn1parse' so that more
     information is visible when viewing, e.g., a certificate:

     Modify asn1_parse2 (crypto/asn1/asn1_par.c) so that in non-'dump'
     mode the content of non-printable OCTET STRINGs is output in a
     style similar to INTEGERs, but with '[HEX DUMP]' prepended to
     avoid the appearance of a printable string.
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Add 'asn1_flag' and 'asn1_form' member to EC_GROUP with access
     These control ASN1 encoding details:
     - Curves (i.e., groups) are encoded explicitly unless asn1_flag
       has been set to OPENSSL_EC_NAMED_CURVE.
     - Points are encoded in uncompressed form by default; options for
       asn1_for are as for point2oct, namely

     Also add 'seed' and 'seed_len' members to EC_GROUP with access
     This is used only for ASN1 purposes (so far).
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Add 'field_type' member to EC_METHOD, which holds the NID
     of the appropriate field type OID.  The new function
     EC_METHOD_get_field_type() returns this value.
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Add functions
     providing useful interfaces to EC_POINT_point2oct() and
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Change internals of the EC library so that the functions
     are implemented directly in crypto/ec/ec_lib.c and not dispatched
     to methods, which would lead to unnecessary code duplication when
     adding different types of curves.
     [Nils Larsch <> with input by Bodo Moeller]

  *) Implement compute_wNAF (crypto/ec/ec_mult.c) without BIGNUM
     arithmetic, and such that modified wNAFs are generated
     (which avoid length expansion in many cases).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add a function EC_GROUP_check_discriminant() (defined via
     EC_METHOD) that verifies that the curve discriminant is non-zero.

     Add a function EC_GROUP_check() that makes some sanity tests
     on a EC_GROUP, its generator and order.  This includes
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Add ECDSA in new directory crypto/ecdsa/.

     Add applications 'openssl ecparam' and 'openssl ecdsa'
     (these are based on 'openssl dsaparam' and 'openssl dsa').

     ECDSA support is also included in various other files across the
     library.  Most notably,
     - 'openssl req' now has a '-newkey ecdsa:file' option;
     - EVP_PKCS82PKEY (crypto/evp/evp_pkey.c) now can handle ECDSA;
     - X509_PUBKEY_get (crypto/asn1/x_pubkey.c) and
       d2i_PublicKey (crypto/asn1/d2i_pu.c) have been modified to make
       them suitable for ECDSA where domain parameters must be
       extracted before the specific public key;
     - ECDSA engine support has been added.
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Include some named elliptic curves, and add OIDs from X9.62,
     SECG, and WAP/WTLS.  Each curve can be obtained from the new
     and the list of available named curves can be obtained with
     Also add a 'curve_name' member to EC_GROUP objects, which can be
     accessed via
     [Nils Larsch <, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Remove a few calls to bn_wexpand() in BN_sqr() (the one in there
     was actually never needed) and in BN_mul().  The removal in BN_mul()
     required a small change in bn_mul_part_recursive() and the addition
     of the functions bn_cmp_part_words(), bn_sub_part_words() and
     bn_add_part_words(), which do the same thing as bn_cmp_words(),
     bn_sub_words() and bn_add_words() except they take arrays with
     differing sizes.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.7l and 0.9.7m  [23 Feb 2007]

  *) Cleanse PEM buffers before freeing them since they may contain
     sensitive data.
     [Benjamin Bennett <>]

  *) Include "!eNULL" in SSL_DEFAULT_CIPHER_LIST to make sure that
     a ciphersuite string such as "DEFAULT:RSA" cannot enable
     authentication-only ciphersuites.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Since AES128 and AES256 share a single mask bit in the logic of
     ssl/ssl_ciph.c, the code for masking out disabled ciphers needs a
     kludge to work properly if AES128 is available and AES256 isn't.
     [Victor Duchovni]

  *) Expand security boundary to match 1.1.1 module.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove redundant features: hash file source, editing of test vectors
     modify fipsld to use external fips_premain.c signature.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New perl script to create shell scripts or batch files to
     run algorithm test programs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make algorithm test programs more tolerant of whitespace.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Have SSL/TLS server implementation tolerate "mismatched" record
     protocol version while receiving ClientHello even if the
     ClientHello is fragmented.  (The server can't insist on the
     particular protocol version it has chosen before the ServerHello
     message has informed the client about his choice.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Load error codes if they are not already present instead of using a
     static variable. This allows them to be cleanly unloaded and reloaded.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.7k and 0.9.7l  [28 Sep 2006]

  *) Introduce limits to prevent malicious keys being able to
     cause a denial of service.  (CVE-2006-2940)
     [Steve Henson, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix ASN.1 parsing of certain invalid structures that can result
     in a denial of service.  (CVE-2006-2937)  [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix buffer overflow in SSL_get_shared_ciphers() function.
     (CVE-2006-3738) [Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]

  *) Fix SSL client code which could crash if connecting to a
     malicious SSLv2 server.  (CVE-2006-4343)
     [Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]

  *) Change ciphersuite string processing so that an explicit
     ciphersuite selects this one ciphersuite (so that "AES256-SHA"
     will no longer include "AES128-SHA"), and any other similar
     ciphersuite (same bitmap) from *other* protocol versions (so that
     "RC4-MD5" will still include both the SSL 2.0 ciphersuite and the
     SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 ciphersuite).  This is a backport combining
     changes from 0.9.8b and 0.9.8d.
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.7j and 0.9.7k  [05 Sep 2006]

  *) Avoid PKCS #1 v1.5 signature attack discovered by Daniel Bleichenbacher
     (CVE-2006-4339)  [Ben Laurie and Google Security Team]

  *) Change the Unix randomness entropy gathering to use poll() when
     possible instead of select(), since the latter has some
     undesirable limitations.
     [Darryl Miles via Richard Levitte and Bodo Moeller]

  *) Disable rogue ciphersuites:

      - SSLv2 0x08 0x00 0x80 ("RC4-64-MD5")
      - SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x61 ("EXP1024-RC2-CBC-MD5")
      - SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x60 ("EXP1024-RC4-MD5")

     The latter two were purportedly from
     draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-0[01].txt, but do not really
     appear there.

     Also deactivate the remaining ciphersuites from
     draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-01.txt.  These are just as
     unofficial, and the ID has long expired.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix RSA blinding Heisenbug (problems sometimes occurred on
     dual-core machines) and other potential thread-safety issues.
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.7i and 0.9.7j  [04 May 2006]

  *) Adapt fipsld and the build system to link against the validated FIPS
     module in FIPS mode.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes for VC++ 2005 build under Windows.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new Windows build target VC-32-GMAKE for VC++. This uses GNU make
     from a Windows bash shell such as MSYS. It is autodetected from the
     "config" script when run from a VC++ environment. Modify standard VC++
     build to use fipscanister.o from the GNU make build.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.7h and 0.9.7i  [14 Oct 2005]

  *) Wrapped the definition of EVP_MAX_MD_SIZE in a #ifdef OPENSSL_FIPS.
     The value now differs depending on if you build for FIPS or not.
     BEWARE!  A program linked with a shared FIPSed libcrypto can't be
     safely run with a non-FIPSed libcrypto, as it may crash because of
     the difference induced by this change.
     [Andy Polyakov]

 Changes between 0.9.7g and 0.9.7h  [11 Oct 2005]

  *) Remove the functionality of SSL_OP_MSIE_SSLV2_RSA_PADDING
     (part of SSL_OP_ALL).  This option used to disable the
     countermeasure against man-in-the-middle protocol-version
     rollback in the SSL 2.0 server implementation, which is a bad
     idea.  (CVE-2005-2969)

     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Yutaka Oiwa (Research Center
     for Information Security, National Institute of Advanced Industrial
     Science and Technology [AIST], Japan)]

  *) Minimal support for X9.31 signatures and PSS padding modes. This is
     mainly for FIPS compliance and not fully integrated at this stage.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) For DSA signing, unless DSA_FLAG_NO_EXP_CONSTTIME is set, perform
     the exponentiation using a fixed-length exponent.  (Otherwise,
     the information leaked through timing could expose the secret key
     after many signatures; cf. Bleichenbacher's attack on DSA with
     biased k.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Make a new fixed-window mod_exp implementation the default for
     RSA, DSA, and DH private-key operations so that the sequence of
     squares and multiplies and the memory access pattern are
     independent of the particular secret key.  This will mitigate
     cache-timing and potential related attacks.

     BN_mod_exp_mont_consttime() is the new exponentiation implementation,
     and this is automatically used by BN_mod_exp_mont() if the new flag
     BN_FLG_EXP_CONSTTIME is set for the exponent.  RSA, DSA, and DH
     will use this BN flag for private exponents unless the flag
     DH_FLAG_NO_EXP_CONSTTIME, respectively, is set.

     [Matthew D Wood (Intel Corp), with some changes by Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change the client implementation for SSLv23_method() and
     SSLv23_client_method() so that is uses the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0
     Client Hello message format if the SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2 option is set.
     (Previously, the SSL 2.0 backwards compatible Client Hello
     message format would be used even with SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add support for smime-type MIME parameter in S/MIME messages which some
     clients need.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function BN_MONT_CTX_set_locked() to set montgomery parameters in
     a threadsafe manner. Modify rsa code to use new function and add calls
     to dsa and dh code (which had race conditions before).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Include the fixed error library code in the C error file definitions
     instead of fixing them up at runtime. This keeps the error code
     structures constant.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.7f and 0.9.7g  [11 Apr 2005]

  [NB: OpenSSL 0.9.7h and later 0.9.7 patch levels were released after
  OpenSSL 0.9.8.]

  *) Fixes for newer kerberos headers. NB: the casts are needed because
     the 'length' field is signed on one version and unsigned on another
     with no (?) obvious way to tell the difference, without these VC++
     complains. Also the "definition" of FAR (blank) is no longer included
     nor is the error ENOMEM. KRB5_PRIVATE has to be set to 1 to pick up
     some needed definitions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Undo Cygwin change.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Added support for proxy certificates according to RFC 3820.
     Because they may be a security thread to unaware applications,
     they must be explicitly allowed in run-time.  See
     docs/HOWTO/proxy_certificates.txt for further information.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.7e and 0.9.7f  [22 Mar 2005]

  *) Use (SSL_RANDOM_VALUE - 4) bytes of pseudo random data when generating
     server and client random values. Previously
     (SSL_RANDOM_VALUE - sizeof(time_t)) would be used which would result in
     less random data when sizeof(time_t) > 4 (some 64 bit platforms).

     This change has negligible security impact because:

     1. Server and client random values still have 24 bytes of pseudo random

     2. Server and client random values are sent in the clear in the initial

     3. The master secret is derived using the premaster secret (48 bytes in
        size for static RSA ciphersuites) as well as client server and random

     The OpenSSL team would like to thank the UK NISCC for bringing this issue
     to our attention.

     [Stephen Henson, reported by UK NISCC]

  *) Use Windows randomness collection on Cygwin.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix hang in EGD/PRNGD query when communication socket is closed
     prematurely by EGD/PRNGD.
     [Darren Tucker <> via Lutz Jänicke, resolves #1014]

  *) Prompt for pass phrases when appropriate for PKCS12 input format.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Back-port of selected performance improvements from development
     branch, as well as improved support for PowerPC platforms.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add lots of checks for memory allocation failure, error codes to indicate
     failure and freeing up memory if a failure occurs.
     [Nauticus Networks SSL Team <>, Steve Henson]

  *) Add new -passin argument to dgst.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Perform some character comparisons of different types in X509_NAME_cmp:
     this is needed for some certificates that re-encode DNs into UTF8Strings
     (in violation of RFC3280) and can't or won't issue name rollover
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make an explicit check during certificate validation to see that
     the CA setting in each certificate on the chain is correct.  As a
     side effect always do the following basic checks on extensions,
     not just when there's an associated purpose to the check:

      - if there is an unhandled critical extension (unless the user
        has chosen to ignore this fault)
      - if the path length has been exceeded (if one is set at all)
      - that certain extensions fit the associated purpose (if one has
        been given)
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.7d and 0.9.7e  [25 Oct 2004]

  *) Avoid a race condition when CRLs are checked in a multi threaded
     environment. This would happen due to the reordering of the revoked
     entries during signature checking and serial number lookup. Now the
     encoding is cached and the serial number sort performed under a lock.
     Add new STACK function sk_is_sorted().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add Delta CRL to the extension code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Various fixes to s3_pkt.c so alerts are sent properly.
     [David Holmes <>]

  *) Reduce the chances of duplicate issuer name and serial numbers (in
     violation of RFC3280) using the OpenSSL certificate creation utilities.
     This is done by creating a random 64 bit value for the initial serial
     number when a serial number file is created or when a self signed
     certificate is created using 'openssl req -x509'. The initial serial
     number file is created using 'openssl x509 -next_serial' in
     rather than being initialized to 1.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.7c and 0.9.7d  [17 Mar 2004]

  *) Fix null-pointer assignment in do_change_cipher_spec() revealed
     by using the Codenomicon TLS Test Tool (CVE-2004-0079)
     [Joe Orton, Steve Henson]

  *) Fix flaw in SSL/TLS handshaking when using Kerberos ciphersuites
     [Joe Orton, Steve Henson]

  *) Make it possible to have multiple active certificates with the same
     subject in the CA index file.  This is done only if the keyword
     'unique_subject' is set to 'no' in the main CA section (default
     if 'CA_default') of the configuration file.  The value is saved
     with the database itself in a separate index attribute file,
     named like the index file with '.attr' appended to the name.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) X509 verify fixes. Disable broken certificate workarounds when
     X509_V_FLAGS_X509_STRICT is set. Check CRL issuer has cRLSign set if
     keyUsage extension present. Don't accept CRLs with unhandled critical
     extensions: since verify currently doesn't process CRL extensions this
     rejects a CRL with *any* critical extensions. Add new verify error codes
     for these cases.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) When creating an OCSP nonce use an OCTET STRING inside the extnValue.
     A clarification of RFC2560 will require the use of OCTET STRINGs and
     some implementations cannot handle the current raw format. Since OpenSSL
     copies and compares OCSP nonces as opaque blobs without any attempt at
     parsing them this should not create any compatibility issues.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New md flag EVP_MD_CTX_FLAG_REUSE this allows md_data to be reused when
     calling EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() to avoid calling OPENSSL_malloc(). Without
     this HMAC (and other) operations are several times slower than OpenSSL
     < 0.9.7.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Print out GeneralizedTime and UTCTime in ASN1_STRING_print_ex().
     [Peter Sylvester <>]

  *) Use the correct content when signing type "other".
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.7b and 0.9.7c  [30 Sep 2003]

  *) Fix various bugs revealed by running the NISCC test suite:

     Stop out of bounds reads in the ASN1 code when presented with
     invalid tags (CVE-2003-0543 and CVE-2003-0544).

     Free up ASN1_TYPE correctly if ANY type is invalid (CVE-2003-0545).

     If verify callback ignores invalid public key errors don't try to check
     certificate signature with the NULL public key.

     [Steve Henson]

  *) New -ignore_err option in ocsp application to stop the server
     exiting on the first error in a request.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In ssl3_accept() (ssl/s3_srvr.c) only accept a client certificate
     if the server requested one: as stated in TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In ssl3_get_client_hello() (ssl/s3_srvr.c), tolerate additional
     extra data after the compression methods not only for TLS 1.0
     but also for SSL 3.0 (as required by the specification).
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Matthias Loepfe]

  *) Change X509_certificate_type() to mark the key as exported/exportable
     when it's 512 *bits* long, not 512 bytes.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change AES_cbc_encrypt() so it outputs exact multiple of
     blocks during encryption.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Various fixes to base64 BIO and non blocking I/O. On write
     flushes were not handled properly if the BIO retried. On read
     data was not being buffered properly and had various logic bugs.
     This also affects blocking I/O when the data being decoded is a
     certain size.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Various S/MIME bugfixes and compatibility changes:
     output correct application/pkcs7 MIME type if
     PKCS7_NOOLDMIMETYPE is set. Tolerate some broken signatures.
     Output CR+LF for EOL if PKCS7_CRLFEOL is set (this makes opening
     of files as .eml work). Correctly handle very long lines in MIME
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.7a and 0.9.7b  [10 Apr 2003]

  *) Countermeasure against the Klima-Pokorny-Rosa extension of
     Bleichbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 padding: treat
     a protocol version number mismatch like a decryption error
     in ssl3_get_client_key_exchange (ssl/s3_srvr.c).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Turn on RSA blinding by default in the default implementation
     to avoid a timing attack. Applications that don't want it can call
     RSA_blinding_off() or use the new flag RSA_FLAG_NO_BLINDING.
     They would be ill-advised to do so in most cases.
     [Ben Laurie, Steve Henson, Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change RSA blinding code so that it works when the PRNG is not
     seeded (in this case, the secret RSA exponent is abused as
     an unpredictable seed -- if it is not unpredictable, there
     is no point in blinding anyway).  Make RSA blinding thread-safe
     by remembering the creator's thread ID in rsa->blinding and
     having all other threads use local one-time blinding factors
     (this requires more computation than sharing rsa->blinding, but
     avoids excessive locking; and if an RSA object is not shared
     between threads, blinding will still be very fast).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fixed a typo bug that would cause ENGINE_set_default() to set an
     ENGINE as defaults for all supported algorithms irrespective of
     the 'flags' parameter. 'flags' is now honoured, so applications
     should make sure they are passing it correctly.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Target "mingw" now allows native Windows code to be generated in
     the Cygwin environment as well as with the MinGW compiler.
     [Ulf Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.7 and 0.9.7a  [19 Feb 2003]

  *) In ssl3_get_record (ssl/s3_pkt.c), minimize information leaked
     via timing by performing a MAC computation even if incorrect
     block cipher padding has been found.  This is a countermeasure
     against active attacks where the attacker has to distinguish
     between bad padding and a MAC verification error. (CVE-2003-0078)

     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Brice Canvel (EPFL),
     Alain Hiltgen (UBS), Serge Vaudenay (EPFL), and
     Martin Vuagnoux (EPFL, Ilion)]

  *) Make the no-err option work as intended.  The intention with no-err
     is not to have the whole error stack handling routines removed from
     libcrypto, it's only intended to remove all the function name and
     reason texts, thereby removing some of the footprint that may not
     be interesting if those errors aren't displayed anyway.

     NOTE: it's still possible for any application or module to have its
     own set of error texts inserted.  The routines are there, just not
     used by default when no-err is given.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add support for FreeBSD on IA64.
     [ via Richard Levitte, resolves #454]

  *) Adjust DES_cbc_cksum() so it returns the same value as the MIT
     Kerberos function mit_des_cbc_cksum().  Before this change,
     the value returned by DES_cbc_cksum() was like the one from
     mit_des_cbc_cksum(), except the bytes were swapped.
     [Kevin Greaney <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Allow an application to disable the automatic SSL chain building.
     Before this a rather primitive chain build was always performed in
     ssl3_output_cert_chain(): an application had no way to send the
     correct chain if the automatic operation produced an incorrect result.

     Now the chain builder is disabled if either:

     1. Extra certificates are added via SSL_CTX_add_extra_chain_cert().

     2. The mode flag SSL_MODE_NO_AUTO_CHAIN is set.

     The reasoning behind this is that an application would not want the
     auto chain building to take place if extra chain certificates are
     present and it might also want a means of sending no additional
     certificates (for example the chain has two certificates and the
     root is omitted).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add the possibility to build without the ENGINE framework.
     [Steven Reddie <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Under Win32 gmtime() can return NULL: check return value in
     OPENSSL_gmtime(). Add error code for case where gmtime() fails.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) DSA routines: under certain error conditions uninitialized BN objects
     could be freed. Solution: make sure initialization is performed early
     enough. (Reported and fix supplied by Ivan D Nestlerode <nestler@MIT.EDU>,
     Nils Larsch <> via PR#459)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Another fix for SSLv2 session ID handling: the session ID was incorrectly
     checked on reconnect on the client side, therefore session resumption
     could still fail with a "ssl session id is different" error. This
     behaviour is masked when SSL_OP_ALL is used due to
     Behaviour observed by Crispin Flowerday <> as
     followup to PR #377.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) IA-32 assembler support enhancements: unified ELF targets, support
     for SCO/Caldera platforms, fix for Cygwin shared build.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add support for FreeBSD on sparc64.  As a consequence, support for
     FreeBSD on non-x86 processors is separate from x86 processors on
     the config script, much like the NetBSD support.
     [Richard Levitte & Kris Kennaway <>]

 Changes between 0.9.6h and 0.9.7  [31 Dec 2002]

  [NB: OpenSSL 0.9.6i and later 0.9.6 patch levels were released after
  OpenSSL 0.9.7.]

  *) Fix session ID handling in SSLv2 client code: the SERVER FINISHED
     code (06) was taken as the first octet of the session ID and the last
     octet was ignored consequently. As a result SSLv2 client side session
     caching could not have worked due to the session ID mismatch between
     client and server.
     Behaviour observed by Crispin Flowerday <> as
     PR #377.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Change the declaration of needed Kerberos libraries to use EX_LIBS
     instead of the special (and badly supported) LIBKRB5.  LIBKRB5 is
     removed entirely.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) The hw_ncipher.c engine requires dynamic locks.  Unfortunately, it
     seems that in spite of existing for more than a year, many application
     author have done nothing to provide the necessary callbacks, which
     means that this particular engine will not work properly anywhere.
     This is a very unfortunate situation which forces us, in the name
     of usability, to give the hw_ncipher.c a static lock, which is part
     of libcrypto.
     NOTE: This is for the 0.9.7 series ONLY.  This hack will never
     appear in 0.9.8 or later.  We EXPECT application authors to have
     dealt properly with this when 0.9.8 is released (unless we actually
     make such changes in the libcrypto locking code that changes will
     have to be made anyway).
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) In asn1_d2i_read_bio() repeatedly call BIO_read() until all content
     octets have been read, EOF or an error occurs. Without this change
     some truncated ASN1 structures will not produce an error.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Disable Heimdal support, since it hasn't been fully implemented.
     Still give the possibility to force the use of Heimdal, but with
     warnings and a request that patches get sent to openssl-dev.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the VC-CE target, introduce the WINCE sysname, and add
     INSTALL.WCE and appropriate conditionals to make it build.
     [Steven Reddie <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Change the DLL names for Cygwin to cygcrypto-x.y.z.dll and
     cygssl-x.y.z.dll, where x, y and z are the major, minor and
     edit numbers of the version.
     [Corinna Vinschen <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Introduce safe string copy and catenation functions
     (BUF_strlcpy() and BUF_strlcat()).
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS) and Richard Levitte]

  *) Avoid using fixed-size buffers for one-line DNs.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Add BUF_MEM_grow_clean() to avoid information leakage when
     resizing buffers containing secrets, and use where appropriate.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Avoid using fixed size buffers for configuration file location.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Avoid filename truncation for various CA files.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Use sizeof in preference to magic numbers.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Avoid filename truncation in cert requests.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Add assertions to check for (supposedly impossible) buffer
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Don't cache truncated DNS entries in the local cache (this could
     potentially lead to a spoofing attack).
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Fix various buffers to be large enough for hex/decimal
     representations in a platform independent manner.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Add CRYPTO_realloc_clean() to avoid information leakage when
     resizing buffers containing secrets, and use where appropriate.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Add BIO_indent() to avoid much slightly worrying code to do
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Convert sprintf()/BIO_puts() to BIO_printf().
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) buffer_gets() could terminate with the buffer only half
     full. Fixed.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Add assertions to prevent user-supplied crypto functions from
     overflowing internal buffers by having large block sizes, etc.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) New OPENSSL_assert() macro (similar to assert(), but enabled
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Eliminate unused copy of key in RC4.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Eliminate unused and incorrectly sized buffers for IV in pem.h.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Fix off-by-one error in EGD path.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) If RANDFILE path is too long, ignore instead of truncating.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Eliminate unused and incorrectly sized X.509 structure
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Eliminate unused and dangerous function knumber().
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Eliminate unused and dangerous structure, KSSL_ERR.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Protect against overlong session ID context length in an encoded
     session object. Since these are local, this does not appear to be
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Change from security patch (see 0.9.6e below) that did not affect
     the 0.9.6 release series:

     Remote buffer overflow in SSL3 protocol - an attacker could
     supply an oversized master key in Kerberos-enabled versions.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Change the SSL kerb5 codes to match RFC 2712.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make -nameopt work fully for req and add -reqopt switch.
     [Michael Bell <>, Steve Henson]

  *) The "block size" for block ciphers in CFB and OFB mode should be 1.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Yngve Nysaeter Pettersen <>]

  *) Make sure tests can be performed even if the corresponding algorithms
     have been removed entirely.  This was also the last step to make
     OpenSSL compilable with DJGPP under all reasonable conditions.
     [Richard Levitte, Doug Kaufman <>]

  *) Add cipher selection rules COMPLEMENTOFALL and COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT
     to allow version independent disabling of normally unselected ciphers,
     which may be activated as a side-effect of selecting a single cipher.

     (E.g., cipher list string "RSA" enables ciphersuites that are left
     out of "ALL" because they do not provide symmetric encryption.
     "RSA:!COMPLEMEMENTOFALL" avoids these unsafe ciphersuites.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add appropriate support for separate platform-dependent build
     directories.  The recommended way to make a platform-dependent
     build directory is the following (tested on Linux), maybe with
     some local tweaks:

        # Place yourself outside of the OpenSSL source tree.  In
        # this example, the environment variable OPENSSL_SOURCE
        # is assumed to contain the absolute OpenSSL source directory.
        mkdir -p objtree/"`uname -s`-`uname -r`-`uname -m`"
        cd objtree/"`uname -s`-`uname -r`-`uname -m`"
        (cd $OPENSSL_SOURCE; find . -type f) | while read F; do
                mkdir -p `dirname $F`
                ln -s $OPENSSL_SOURCE/$F $F

     To be absolutely sure not to disturb the source tree, a "make clean"
     is a good thing.  If it isn't successful, don't worry about it,
     it probably means the source directory is very clean.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make sure any ENGINE control commands make local copies of string
     pointers passed to them whenever necessary. Otherwise it is possible
     the caller may have overwritten (or deallocated) the original string
     data when a later ENGINE operation tries to use the stored values.
     [Götz Babin-Ebell <>]

  *) Improve diagnostics in file reading and command-line digests.
     [Ben Laurie aided and abetted by Solar Designer <>]

  *) Add AES modes CFB and OFB to the object database.  Correct an
     error in AES-CFB decryption.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove most calls to EVP_CIPHER_CTX_cleanup() in evp_enc.c, this
     allows existing EVP_CIPHER_CTX structures to be reused after
     calling EVP_*Final(). This behaviour is used by encryption
     BIOs and some applications. This has the side effect that
     applications must explicitly clean up cipher contexts with
     EVP_CIPHER_CTX_cleanup() or they will leak memory.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Check the values of dna and dnb in bn_mul_recursive before calling
     bn_mul_comba (a non zero value means the a or b arrays do not contain
     n2 elements) and fallback to bn_mul_normal if either is not zero.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix escaping of non-ASCII characters when using the -subj option
     of the "openssl req" command line tool. (Robert Joop <>)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Make object definitions compliant to LDAP (RFC2256): SN is the short
     form for "surname", serialNumber has no short form.
     Use "mail" as the short name for "rfc822Mailbox" according to RFC2798;
     therefore remove "mail" short name for "internet 7".
     The OID for unique identifiers in X509 certificates is
     x500UniqueIdentifier, not uniqueIdentifier.
     Some more OID additions. (Michael Bell <>)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Add an "init" command to the ENGINE config module and auto initialize
     ENGINEs. Without any "init" command the ENGINE will be initialized
     after all ctrl commands have been executed on it. If init=1 the
     ENGINE is initialized at that point (ctrls before that point are run
     on the uninitialized ENGINE and after on the initialized one). If
     init=0 then the ENGINE will not be initialized at all.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the 'app_verify_callback' interface so that the user-defined
     argument is actually passed to the callback: In the
     SSL_CTX_set_cert_verify_callback() prototype, the callback
     declaration has been changed from
          int (*cb)()
          int (*cb)(X509_STORE_CTX *,void *);
     in ssl_verify_cert_chain (ssl/ssl_cert.c), the call
     has been changed into
          i=s->ctx->app_verify_callback(&ctx, s->ctx->app_verify_arg).

     To update applications using SSL_CTX_set_cert_verify_callback(),
     a dummy argument can be added to their callback functions.
     [D. K. Smetters <>]

  *) Added the '4758cca' ENGINE to support IBM 4758 cards.
     [Maurice Gittens <>, touchups by Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add and OPENSSL_LOAD_CONF define which will cause
     OpenSSL_add_all_algorithms() to load the openssl.cnf config file.
     This allows older applications to transparently support certain
     OpenSSL features: such as crypto acceleration and dynamic ENGINE loading.
     Two new functions OPENSSL_add_all_algorithms_noconf() which will never
     load the config file and OPENSSL_add_all_algorithms_conf() which will
     always load it have also been added.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add the OFB, CFB and CTR (all with 128 bit feedback) to AES.
     Adjust NIDs and EVP layer.
     [Stephen Sprunk <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Config modules support in openssl utility.

     Most commands now load modules from the config file,
     though in a few (such as version) this isn't done
     because it couldn't be used for anything.

     In the case of ca and req the config file used is
     the same as the utility itself: that is the -config
     command line option can be used to specify an
     alternative file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Move default behaviour from OPENSSL_config(). If appname is NULL
     use "openssl_conf" if filename is NULL use default openssl config file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add an argument to OPENSSL_config() to allow the use of an alternative
     config section name. Add a new flag to tolerate a missing config file
     and move code to CONF_modules_load_file().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for crypto accelerator cards from Accelerated Encryption
     Processing,  (Use engine 'aep')
     The support was copied from 0.9.6c [engine] and adapted/corrected
     to work with the new engine framework.
     [AEP Inc. and Richard Levitte]

  *) Support for SureWare crypto accelerator cards from Baltimore
     Technologies.  (Use engine 'sureware')
     The support was copied from 0.9.6c [engine] and adapted
     to work with the new engine framework.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Have the CHIL engine fork-safe (as defined by nCipher) and actually
     make the newer ENGINE framework commands for the CHIL engine work.
     [Toomas Kiisk <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Make it possible to produce shared libraries on ReliantUNIX.
     [Robert Dahlem <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the configuration target debug-linux-ppro.
     Make 'openssl rsa' use the general key loading routines
     implemented in apps.c, and make those routines able to
     handle the key format FORMAT_NETSCAPE and the variant
     [Toomas Kiisk <> via Richard Levitte]

 *) Fix a crashbug and a logic bug in hwcrhk_load_pubkey().
     [Toomas Kiisk <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Add -keyform to rsautl, and document -engine.
     [Richard Levitte, inspired by Toomas Kiisk <>]

  *) Change BIO_new_file (crypto/bio/bss_file.c) to use new
     BIO_R_NO_SUCH_FILE error code rather than the generic
     ERR_R_SYS_LIB error code if fopen() fails with ENOENT.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add new functions
     These are similar to
     but report on the latest error recorded rather than the first one
     still in the error queue.
     [Ben Laurie, Bodo Moeller]

  *) default_algorithms option in ENGINE config module. This allows things
     default_algorithms = ALL
     default_algorithms = RSA, DSA, RAND, CIPHERS, DIGESTS
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Preliminary ENGINE config module.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New experimental application configuration code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the AES code to follow the same name structure as all other
     symmetric ciphers, and behave the same way.  Move everything to
     the directory crypto/aes, thereby obsoleting crypto/rijndael.
     [Stephen Sprunk <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) SECURITY: remove unsafe setjmp/signal interaction from ui_openssl.c.
     [Ben Laurie and Theo de Raadt]

  *) Add option to output public keys in req command.
     [Massimiliano Pala]

  *) Use wNAFs in EC_POINTs_mul() for improved efficiency
     (up to about 10% better than before for P-192 and P-224).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New functions/macros

          SSL_CTX_set_msg_callback(ctx, cb)
          SSL_CTX_set_msg_callback_arg(ctx, arg)
          SSL_set_msg_callback(ssl, cb)
          SSL_set_msg_callback_arg(ssl, arg)

     to request calling a callback function

          void cb(int write_p, int version, int content_type,
                  const void *buf, size_t len, SSL *ssl, void *arg)

     whenever a protocol message has been completely received
     (write_p == 0) or sent (write_p == 1).  Here 'version' is the
     protocol version  according to which the SSL library interprets
     the current protocol message (SSL2_VERSION, SSL3_VERSION, or
     TLS1_VERSION).  'content_type' is 0 in the case of SSL 2.0, or
     the content type as defined in the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 protocol
     specification (change_cipher_spec(20), alert(21), handshake(22)).
     'buf' and 'len' point to the actual message, 'ssl' to the
     SSL object, and 'arg' is the application-defined value set by

     'openssl s_client' and 'openssl s_server' have new '-msg' options
     to enable a callback that displays all protocol messages.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change the shared library support so shared libraries are built as
     soon as the corresponding static library is finished, and thereby get
     openssl and the test programs linked against the shared library.
     This still only happens when the keyword "shard" has been given to
     the configuration scripts.

     NOTE: shared library support is still an experimental thing, and
     backward binary compatibility is still not guaranteed.
     ["Maciej W. Rozycki" <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Add support for Subject Information Access extension.
     [Peter Sylvester <>]

  *) Make BUF_MEM_grow() behaviour more consistent: Initialise to zero
     additional bytes when new memory had to be allocated, not just
     when reusing an existing buffer.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New command line and configuration option 'utf8' for the req command.
     This allows field values to be specified as UTF8 strings.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add -multi and -mr options to "openssl speed" - giving multiple parallel
     runs for the former and machine-readable output for the latter.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add '-noemailDN' option to 'openssl ca'.  This prevents inclusion
     of the e-mail address in the DN (i.e., it will go into a certificate
     extension only).  The new configuration file option 'email_in_dn = no'
     has the same effect.
     [Massimiliano Pala]

  *) Change all functions with names starting with des_ to be starting
     with DES_ instead.  Add wrappers that are compatible with libdes,
     but are named _ossl_old_des_*.  Finally, add macros that map the
     des_* symbols to the corresponding _ossl_old_des_* if libdes
     compatibility is desired.  If OpenSSL 0.9.6c compatibility is
     desired, the des_* symbols will be mapped to DES_*, with one

     Since we provide two compatibility mappings, the user needs to
     define the macro OPENSSL_DES_LIBDES_COMPATIBILITY if libdes
     compatibility is desired.  The default (i.e., when that macro
     isn't defined) is OpenSSL 0.9.6c compatibility.

     There are also macros that enable and disable the support of old
     des functions altogether.  Those are OPENSSL_ENABLE_OLD_DES_SUPPORT
     and OPENSSL_DISABLE_OLD_DES_SUPPORT.  If none or both of those
     are defined, the default will apply: to support the old des routines.

     In either case, one must include openssl/des.h to get the correct
     definitions.  Do not try to just include openssl/des_old.h, that
     won't work.

     NOTE: This is a major break of an old API into a new one.  Software
     authors are encouraged to switch to the DES_ style functions.  Some
     time in the future, des_old.h and the libdes compatibility functions
     will be disable (i.e. OPENSSL_DISABLE_OLD_DES_SUPPORT will be the
     default), and then completely removed.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Test for certificates which contain unsupported critical extensions.
     If such a certificate is found during a verify operation it is
     rejected by default: this behaviour can be overridden by either
     handling the new error X509_V_ERR_UNHANDLED_CRITICAL_EXTENSION or
     by setting the verify flag X509_V_FLAG_IGNORE_CRITICAL. A new function
     X509_supported_extension() has also been added which returns 1 if a
     particular extension is supported.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the behaviour of EVP cipher functions in similar way to digests
     to retain compatibility with existing code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the behaviour of EVP_DigestInit() and EVP_DigestFinal() to retain
     compatibility with existing code. In particular the 'ctx' parameter does
     not have to be to be initialized before the call to EVP_DigestInit() and
     it is tidied up after a call to EVP_DigestFinal(). New function
     EVP_DigestFinal_ex() which does not tidy up the ctx. Similarly function
     EVP_MD_CTX_copy() changed to not require the destination to be
     initialized valid and new function EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() added which
     requires the destination to be valid.

     Modify all the OpenSSL digest calls to use EVP_DigestInit_ex(),
     EVP_DigestFinal_ex() and EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) and the functions using it
     so that complete 'Handshake' protocol structures are kept in memory
     instead of overwriting 'msg_type' and 'length' with 'body' data.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add an implementation of SSL_add_dir_cert_subjects_to_stack for Win32.
     [Massimo Santin via Richard Levitte]

  *) Major restructuring to the underlying ENGINE code. This includes
     reduction of linker bloat, separation of pure "ENGINE" manipulation
     (initialisation, etc) from functionality dealing with implementations
     of specific crypto interfaces. This change also introduces integrated
     support for symmetric ciphers and digest implementations - so ENGINEs
     can now accelerate these by providing EVP_CIPHER and EVP_MD
     implementations of their own. This is detailed in crypto/engine/README
     as it couldn't be adequately described here. However, there are a few
     API changes worth noting - some RSA, DSA, DH, and RAND functions that
     were changed in the original introduction of ENGINE code have now
     reverted back - the hooking from this code to ENGINE is now a good
     deal more passive and at run-time, operations deal directly with
     RSA_METHODs, DSA_METHODs (etc) as they did before, rather than
     dereferencing through an ENGINE pointer any more. Also, the ENGINE
     functions dealing with BN_MOD_EXP[_CRT] handlers have been removed -
     they were not being used by the framework as there is no concept of a
     BIGNUM_METHOD and they could not be generalised to the new
     'ENGINE_TABLE' mechanism that underlies the new code. Similarly,
     ENGINE_cpy() has been removed as it cannot be consistently defined in
     the new code.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Change ASN1_GENERALIZEDTIME_check() to allow fractional seconds.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change to sort symbols that get the same entry number,
     and make sure the automatically generated functions ERR_load_*
     become part of libeay.num as well.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New function SSL_renegotiate_pending().  This returns true once
     renegotiation has been requested (either SSL_renegotiate() call
     or HelloRequest/ClientHello received from the peer) and becomes
     false once a handshake has been completed.
     (For servers, SSL_renegotiate() followed by SSL_do_handshake()
     sends a HelloRequest, but does not ensure that a handshake takes
     place.  SSL_renegotiate_pending() is useful for checking if the
     client has followed the request.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

     By default, clients may request session resumption even during
     renegotiation (if session ID contexts permit); with this option,
     session resumption is possible only in the first handshake.

     SSL_OP_ALL is now 0x00000FFFL instead of 0x000FFFFFL.  This makes
     more bits available for options that should not be part of
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add some demos for certificate and certificate request creation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make maximum certificate chain size accepted from the peer application
     settable (SSL*_get/set_max_cert_list()), as proposed by
     "Douglas E. Engert" <>.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Add support for shared libraries for Unixware-7
     (Boyd Lynn Gerber <>).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Add a "destroy" handler to ENGINEs that allows structural cleanup to
     be done prior to destruction. Use this to unload error strings from
     ENGINEs that load their own error strings. NB: This adds two new API
     functions to "get" and "set" this destroy handler in an ENGINE.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Alter all existing ENGINE implementations (except "openssl" and
     "openbsd") to dynamically instantiate their own error strings. This
     makes them more flexible to be built both as statically-linked ENGINEs
     and self-contained shared-libraries loadable via the "dynamic" ENGINE.
     Also, add stub code to each that makes building them as self-contained
     shared-libraries easier (see README.ENGINE).
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add a "dynamic" ENGINE that provides a mechanism for binding ENGINE
     implementations into applications that are completely implemented in
     self-contained shared-libraries. The "dynamic" ENGINE exposes control
     commands that can be used to configure what shared-library to load and
     to control aspects of the way it is handled. Also, made an update to
     the README.ENGINE file that brings its information up-to-date and
     provides some information and instructions on the "dynamic" ENGINE
     (ie. how to use it, how to build "dynamic"-loadable ENGINEs, etc).
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Make it possible to unload ranges of ERR strings with a new
     "ERR_unload_strings" function.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add a copy() function to EVP_MD.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Make EVP_MD routines take a context pointer instead of just the
     md_data void pointer.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add flags to EVP_MD and EVP_MD_CTX. EVP_MD_FLAG_ONESHOT indicates
     that the digest can only process a single chunk of data
     (typically because it is provided by a piece of
     hardware). EVP_MD_CTX_FLAG_ONESHOT indicates that the application
     is only going to provide a single chunk of data, and hence the
     framework needn't accumulate the data for oneshot drivers.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) As with "ERR", make it possible to replace the underlying "ex_data"
     functions. This change also alters the storage and management of global
     ex_data state - it's now all inside ex_data.c and all "class" code (eg.
     RSA, BIO, SSL_CTX, etc) no longer stores its own STACKS and per-class
     index counters. The API functions that use this state have been changed
     to take a "class_index" rather than pointers to the class's local STACK
     and counter, and there is now an API function to dynamically create new
     classes. This centralisation allows us to (a) plug a lot of the
     thread-safety problems that existed, and (b) makes it possible to clean
     up all allocated state using "CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data()". W.r.t. (b)
     such data would previously have always leaked in application code and
     workarounds were in place to make the memory debugging turn a blind eye
     to it. Application code that doesn't use this new function will still
     leak as before, but their memory debugging output will announce it now
     rather than letting it slide.

     Besides the addition of CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data(), another API change
     induced by the "ex_data" overhaul is that X509_STORE_CTX_init() now
     has a return value to indicate success or failure.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Make it possible to replace the underlying "ERR" functions such that the
     global state (2 LHASH tables and 2 locks) is only used by the "default"
     implementation. This change also adds two functions to "get" and "set"
     the implementation prior to it being automatically set the first time
     any other ERR function takes place. Ie. an application can call "get",
     pass the return value to a module it has just loaded, and that module
     can call its own "set" function using that value. This means the
     module's "ERR" operations will use (and modify) the error state in the
     application and not in its own statically linked copy of OpenSSL code.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Give DH, DSA, and RSA types their own "**_up_ref()" function to increment
     reference counts. This performs normal REF_PRINT/REF_CHECK macros on
     the operation, and provides a more encapsulated way for external code
     (crypto/evp/ and ssl/) to do this. Also changed the evp and ssl code
     to use these functions rather than manually incrementing the counts.

     Also rename "DSO_up()" function to more descriptive "DSO_up_ref()".
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add EVP test program.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add symmetric cipher support to ENGINE. Expect the API to change!
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) New CRL functions: X509_CRL_set_version(), X509_CRL_set_issuer_name()
     X509_CRL_set_lastUpdate(), X509_CRL_set_nextUpdate(), X509_CRL_sort(),
     X509_REVOKED_set_serialNumber(), and X509_REVOKED_set_revocationDate().
     These allow a CRL to be built without having to access X509_CRL fields
     directly. Modify 'ca' application to use new functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Move SSL_OP_TLS_ROLLBACK_BUG out of the SSL_OP_ALL list of recommended
     bug workarounds. Rollback attack detection is a security feature.
     The problem will only arise on OpenSSL servers when TLSv1 is not
     available (sslv3_server_method() or SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1).
     Software authors not wanting to support TLSv1 will have special reasons
     for their choice and can explicitly enable this option.
     [Bodo Moeller, Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Rationalise EVP so it can be extended: don't include a union of
     cipher/digest structures, add init/cleanup functions for EVP_MD_CTX
     (similar to those existing for EVP_CIPHER_CTX).
     Usage example:

         EVP_MD_CTX md;

         EVP_MD_CTX_init(&md);             /* new function call */
         EVP_DigestInit(&md, EVP_sha1());
         EVP_DigestUpdate(&md, in, len);
         EVP_DigestFinal(&md, out, NULL);
         EVP_MD_CTX_cleanup(&md);          /* new function call */

     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Make DES key schedule conform to the usual scheme, as well as
     correcting its structure. This means that calls to DES functions
     now have to pass a pointer to a des_key_schedule instead of a
     plain des_key_schedule (which was actually always a pointer
     anyway): E.g.,

         des_key_schedule ks;

         des_set_key_checked(..., &ks);
         des_ncbc_encrypt(..., &ks, ...);

     (Note that a later change renames 'des_...' into 'DES_...'.)
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Initial reduction of linker bloat: the use of some functions, such as
     PEM causes large amounts of unused functions to be linked in due to
     poor organisation. For example pem_all.c contains every PEM function
     which has a knock on effect of linking in large amounts of (unused)
     ASN1 code. Grouping together similar functions and splitting unrelated
     functions prevents this.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Cleanup of EVP macros.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Change historical references to {NID,SN,LN}_des_ede and ede3 to add the
     correct _ecb suffix.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add initial OCSP responder support to ocsp application. The
     revocation information is handled using the text based index
     use by the ca application. The responder can either handle
     requests generated internally, supplied in files (for example
     via a CGI script) or using an internal minimal server.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add configuration choices to get zlib compression for TLS.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Changes to Kerberos SSL for RFC 2712 compliance:
     1.  Implemented real KerberosWrapper, instead of just using
         KRB5 AP_REQ message.  [Thanks to Simon Wilkinson <>]
     2.  Implemented optional authenticator field of KerberosWrapper.

     Added openssl-style ASN.1 macros for Kerberos ticket, ap_req,
     and authenticator structs; see crypto/krb5/.

     Generalized Kerberos calls to support multiple Kerberos libraries.
     [Vern Staats <>,
      Jeffrey Altman <>
      via Richard Levitte]

  *) Cause 'openssl speed' to use fully hard-coded DSA keys as it
     already does with RSA. testdsa.h now has 'priv_key/pub_key'
     values for each of the key sizes rather than having just
     parameters (and 'speed' generating keys each time).
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Speed up EVP routines.
type              8 bytes     64 bytes    256 bytes   1024 bytes   8192 bytes
des-cbc           4408.85k     5560.51k     5778.46k     5862.20k     5825.16k
des-cbc           4389.55k     5571.17k     5792.23k     5846.91k     5832.11k
des-cbc           4394.32k     5575.92k     5807.44k     5848.37k     5841.30k
des-cbc           3482.66k     5069.49k     5496.39k     5614.16k     5639.28k
des-cbc           3480.74k     5068.76k     5510.34k     5609.87k     5635.52k
des-cbc           3483.72k     5067.62k     5504.60k     5708.01k     5724.80k
des-cbc           4660.16k     5650.19k     5807.19k     5827.13k     5783.32k
des-cbc           3624.96k     5258.21k     5530.91k     5624.30k     5628.26k
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Added the OS2-EMX target.
     ["Brian Havard" <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Rewrite apps to use NCONF routines instead of the old CONF. New functions
     to support NCONF routines in extension code. New function CONF_set_nconf()
     to allow functions which take an NCONF to also handle the old LHASH
     structure: this means that the old CONF compatible routines can be
     retained (in particular wrt extensions) without having to duplicate the
     code. New function X509V3_add_ext_nconf_sk to add extensions to a stack.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance the general user interface with mechanisms for inner control
     and with possibilities to have yes/no kind of prompts.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change all calls to low level digest routines in the library and
     applications to use EVP. Add missing calls to HMAC_cleanup() and
     don't assume HMAC_CTX can be copied using memcpy().
     [Verdon Walker <>, Steve Henson]

  *) Add the possibility to control engines through control names but with
     arbitrary arguments instead of just a string.
     Change the key loaders to take a UI_METHOD instead of a callback
     function pointer.  NOTE: this breaks binary compatibility with earlier
     versions of OpenSSL [engine].
     Adapt the nCipher code for these new conditions and add a card insertion
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Enhance the general user interface with mechanisms to better support
     dialog box interfaces, application-defined prompts, the possibility
     to use defaults (for example default passwords from somewhere else)
     and interrupts/cancellations.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Tidy up PKCS#12 attribute handling. Add support for the CSP name
     attribute in PKCS#12 files, add new -CSP option to pkcs12 utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix a memory leak in 'sk_dup()' in the case reallocation fails. (Also
     tidy up some unnecessarily weird code in 'sk_new()').
     [Geoff, reported by Diego Tartara <>]

  *) Change the key loading routines for ENGINEs to use the same kind
     callback (pem_password_cb) as all other routines that need this
     kind of callback.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Increase ENTROPY_NEEDED to 32 bytes, as Rijndael can operate with
     256 bit (=32 byte) keys. Of course seeding with more entropy bytes
     than this minimum value is recommended.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) New random seeder for OpenVMS, using the system process statistics
     that are easily reachable.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Windows apparently can't transparently handle global
     variables defined in DLLs. Initialisations such as:

        const ASN1_ITEM *it = &ASN1_INTEGER_it;

     won't compile. This is used by the any applications that need to
     declare their own ASN1 modules. This was fixed by adding the option
     EXPORT_VAR_AS_FN to all Win32 platforms, although this isn't strictly
     needed for static libraries under Win32.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions X509_PURPOSE_set() and X509_TRUST_set() to handle
     setting of purpose and trust fields. New X509_STORE trust and
     purpose functions and tidy up setting in other SSL functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add copies of X509_STORE_CTX fields and callbacks to X509_STORE
     structure. These are inherited by X509_STORE_CTX when it is
     initialised. This allows various defaults to be set in the
     X509_STORE structure (such as flags for CRL checking and custom
     purpose or trust settings) for functions which only use X509_STORE_CTX
     internally such as S/MIME.

     Modify X509_STORE_CTX_purpose_inherit() so it only sets purposes and
     trust settings if they are not set in X509_STORE. This allows X509_STORE
     purposes and trust (in S/MIME for example) to override any set by default.

     Add command line options for CRL checking to smime, s_client and s_server
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial CRL based revocation checking. If the CRL checking flag(s)
     are set then the CRL is looked up in the X509_STORE structure and
     its validity and signature checked, then if the certificate is found
     in the CRL the verify fails with a revoked error.

     Various new CRL related callbacks added to X509_STORE_CTX structure.

     Command line options added to 'verify' application to support this.

     This needs some additional work, such as being able to handle multiple
     CRLs with different times, extension based lookup (rather than just
     by subject name) and ultimately more complete V2 CRL extension
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a general user interface API (crypto/ui/).  This is designed
     to replace things like des_read_password and friends (backward
     compatibility functions using this new API are provided).
     The purpose is to remove prompting functions from the DES code
     section as well as provide for prompting through dialog boxes in
     a window system and the like.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add "ex_data" support to ENGINE so implementations can add state at a
     per-structure level rather than having to store it globally.

  *) Make it possible for ENGINE structures to be copied when retrieved by
     ENGINE_by_id() if the ENGINE specifies a new flag: ENGINE_FLAGS_BY_ID_COPY.
     This causes the "original" ENGINE structure to act like a template,
     analogous to the RSA vs. RSA_METHOD type of separation. Because of this
     operational state can be localised to each ENGINE structure, despite the
     fact they all share the same "methods". New ENGINE structures returned in
     this case have no functional references and the return value is the single
     structural reference. This matches the single structural reference returned
     by ENGINE_by_id() normally, when it is incremented on the pre-existing
     ENGINE structure.

  *) Fix ASN1 decoder when decoding type ANY and V_ASN1_OTHER: since this
     needs to match any other type at all we need to manually clear the
     tag cache.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Changes to the "openssl engine" utility to include;
     - verbosity levels ('-v', '-vv', and '-vvv') that provide information
       about an ENGINE's available control commands.
     - executing control commands from command line arguments using the
       '-pre' and '-post' switches. '-post' is only used if '-t' is
       specified and the ENGINE is successfully initialised. The syntax for
       the individual commands are colon-separated, for example;
         openssl engine chil -pre FORK_CHECK:0 -pre SO_PATH:/lib/

  *) New dynamic control command support for ENGINEs. ENGINEs can now
     declare their own commands (numbers), names (strings), descriptions,
     and input types for run-time discovery by calling applications. A
     subset of these commands are implicitly classed as "executable"
     depending on their input type, and only these can be invoked through
     the new string-based API function ENGINE_ctrl_cmd_string(). (Eg. this
     can be based on user input, config files, etc). The distinction is
     that "executable" commands cannot return anything other than a boolean
     result and can only support numeric or string input, whereas some
     discoverable commands may only be for direct use through
     ENGINE_ctrl(), eg. supporting the exchange of binary data, function
     pointers, or other custom uses. The "executable" commands are to
     support parameterisations of ENGINE behaviour that can be
     unambiguously defined by ENGINEs and used consistently across any
     OpenSSL-based application. Commands have been added to all the
     existing hardware-supporting ENGINEs, noticeably "SO_PATH" to allow
     control over shared-library paths without source code alterations.

  *) Changed all ENGINE implementations to dynamically allocate their
     ENGINEs rather than declaring them statically. Apart from this being
     necessary with the removal of the ENGINE_FLAGS_MALLOCED distinction,
     this also allows the implementations to compile without using the
     internal engine_int.h header.

  *) Minor adjustment to "rand" code. RAND_get_rand_method() now returns a
     'const' value. Any code that should be able to modify a RAND_METHOD
     should already have non-const pointers to it (ie. they should only
     modify their own ones).

  *) Made a variety of little tweaks to the ENGINE code.
     - "atalla" and "ubsec" string definitions were moved from header files
       to C code. "nuron" string definitions were placed in variables
       rather than hard-coded - allowing parameterisation of these values
       later on via ctrl() commands.
     - Removed unused "#if 0"'d code.
     - Fixed engine list iteration code so it uses ENGINE_free() to release
       structural references.
     - Constified the RAND_METHOD element of ENGINE structures.
     - Constified various get/set functions as appropriate and added
       missing functions (including a catch-all ENGINE_cpy that duplicates
       all ENGINE values onto a new ENGINE except reference counts/state).
     - Removed NULL parameter checks in get/set functions. Setting a method
       or function to NULL is a way of cancelling out a previously set
       value.  Passing a NULL ENGINE parameter is just plain stupid anyway
       and doesn't justify the extra error symbols and code.
     - Deprecate the ENGINE_FLAGS_MALLOCED define and move the area for
       flags from engine_int.h to engine.h.
     - Changed prototypes for ENGINE handler functions (init(), finish(),
       ctrl(), key-load functions, etc) to take an (ENGINE*) parameter.

  *) Implement binary inversion algorithm for BN_mod_inverse in addition
     to the algorithm using long division.  The binary algorithm can be
     used only if the modulus is odd.  On 32-bit systems, it is faster
     only for relatively small moduli (roughly 20-30% for 128-bit moduli,
     roughly 5-15% for 256-bit moduli), so we use it only for moduli
     up to 450 bits.  In 64-bit environments, the binary algorithm
     appears to be advantageous for much longer moduli; here we use it
     for moduli up to 2048 bits.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rewrite CHOICE field setting in ASN1_item_ex_d2i(). The old code
     could not support the combine flag in choice fields.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a 'copy_extensions' option to the 'ca' utility. This copies
     extensions from a certificate request to the certificate.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow multiple 'certopt' and 'nameopt' options to be separated
     by commas. Add 'namopt' and 'certopt' options to the 'ca' config
     file: this allows the display of the certificate about to be
     signed to be customised, to allow certain fields to be included
     or excluded and extension details. The old system didn't display
     multicharacter strings properly, omitted fields not in the policy
     and couldn't display additional details such as extensions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Function EC_POINTs_mul for multiple scalar multiplication
     of an arbitrary number of elliptic curve points
          \sum scalars[i]*points[i],
     optionally including the generator defined for the EC_GROUP:
          scalar*generator +  \sum scalars[i]*points[i].

     EC_POINT_mul is a simple wrapper function for the typical case
     that the point list has just one item (besides the optional
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) First EC_METHODs for curves over GF(p):

     EC_GFp_simple_method() uses the basic BN_mod_mul and BN_mod_sqr
     operations and provides various method functions that can also
     operate with faster implementations of modular arithmetic.

     EC_GFp_mont_method() reuses most functions that are part of
     EC_GFp_simple_method, but uses Montgomery arithmetic.

     [Bodo Moeller; point addition and point doubling
     implementation directly derived from source code provided by
     Lenka Fibikova <>]

  *) Framework for elliptic curves (crypto/ec/ec.h, crypto/ec/ec_lcl.h,

     Curves are EC_GROUP objects (with an optional group generator)
     based on EC_METHODs that are built into the library.

     Points are EC_POINT objects based on EC_GROUP objects.

     Most of the framework would be able to handle curves over arbitrary
     finite fields, but as there are no obvious types for fields other
     than GF(p), some functions are limited to that for now.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add the -HTTP option to s_server.  It is similar to -WWW, but requires
     that the file contains a complete HTTP response.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the ec directory to and In
     change the def and num file printf format specifier from "%-40sXXX"
     to "%-39s XXX". The latter will always guarantee a space after the
     field while the former will cause them to run together if the field
     is 40 of more characters long.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Constify the cipher and digest 'method' functions and structures
     and modify related functions to take constant EVP_MD and EVP_CIPHER
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Hide BN_CTX structure details in bn_lcl.h instead of publishing them
     in <openssl/bn.h>.  Also further increase BN_CTX_NUM to 32.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Modify EVP_Digest*() routines so they now return values. Although the
     internal software routines can never fail additional hardware versions
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Clean up crypto/err/err.h and change some error codes to avoid conflicts:

     Previously ERR_R_FATAL was too small and coincided with ERR_LIB_PKCS7
     (= ERR_R_PKCS7_LIB); it is now 64 instead of 32.

     ASN1 error codes
     were 4 .. 9, conflicting with
          ERR_LIB_RSA (= ERR_R_RSA_LIB)
          ERR_LIB_PEM (= ERR_R_PEM_LIB).
     They are now 58 .. 63 (i.e., just below ERR_R_FATAL).

     Add new error code 'ERR_R_INTERNAL_ERROR'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Don't overuse locks in crypto/err/err.c: For data retrieval, CRYPTO_r_lock
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New option '-subj arg' for 'openssl req' and 'openssl ca'.  This
     sets the subject name for a new request or supersedes the
     subject name in a given request. Formats that can be parsed are
          'CN=Some Name, OU=myOU, C=IT'
          'CN=Some Name/OU=myOU/C=IT'.

     Add options '-batch' and '-verbose' to 'openssl req'.
     [Massimiliano Pala <>]

  *) Introduce the possibility to access global variables through
     functions on platform were that's the best way to handle exporting
     global variables in shared libraries.  To enable this functionality,
     one must configure with "EXPORT_VAR_AS_FN" or defined the C macro
     "OPENSSL_EXPORT_VAR_AS_FUNCTION" in crypto/opensslconf.h (the latter
     is normally done by Configure or something similar).

     To implement a global variable, use the macro OPENSSL_IMPLEMENT_GLOBAL
     in the source file (foo.c) like this:


     To declare a global variable, use the macros OPENSSL_DECLARE_GLOBAL
     and OPENSSL_GLOBAL_REF in the header file (foo.h) like this:

        #define foo OPENSSL_GLOBAL_REF(foo)
        #define bar OPENSSL_GLOBAL_REF(bar)

     The #defines are very important, and therefore so is including the
     header file everywhere where the defined globals are used.

     The macro OPENSSL_EXPORT_VAR_AS_FUNCTION also affects the definition
     of ASN.1 items, but that structure is a bit different.

     The largest change is in util/ which has been enhanced with
     better and easier to understand logic to choose which symbols should
     go into the Windows .def files as well as a number of fixes and code
     cleanup (among others, algorithm keywords are now sorted
     lexicographically to avoid constant rewrites).
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) In BN_div() keep a copy of the sign of 'num' before writing the
     result to 'rm' because if rm==num the value will be overwritten
     and produce the wrong result if 'num' is negative: this caused
     problems with BN_mod() and BN_nnmod().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Function OCSP_request_verify(). This checks the signature on an
     OCSP request and verifies the signer certificate. The signer
     certificate is just checked for a generic purpose and OCSP request
     trust settings.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add OCSP_check_validity() function to check the validity of OCSP
     responses. OCSP responses are prepared in real time and may only
     be a few seconds old. Simply checking that the current time lies
     between thisUpdate and nextUpdate max reject otherwise valid responses
     caused by either OCSP responder or client clock inaccuracy. Instead
     we allow thisUpdate and nextUpdate to fall within a certain period of
     the current time. The age of the response can also optionally be
     checked. Two new options -validity_period and -status_age added to
     ocsp utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) If signature or public key algorithm is unrecognized print out its
     OID rather that just UNKNOWN.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change OCSP_cert_to_id() to tolerate a NULL subject certificate and
     OCSP_cert_id_new() a NULL serialNumber. This allows a partial certificate
     ID to be generated from the issuer certificate alone which can then be
     passed to OCSP_id_issuer_cmp().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New compilation option ASN1_ITEM_FUNCTIONS. This causes the new
     ASN1 modules to export functions returning ASN1_ITEM pointers
     instead of the ASN1_ITEM structures themselves. This adds several
     new macros which allow the underlying ASN1 function/structure to
     be accessed transparently. As a result code should not use ASN1_ITEM
     references directly (such as &X509_it) but instead use the relevant
     macros (such as ASN1_ITEM_rptr(X509)). This option is to allow
     use of the new ASN1 code on platforms where exporting structures
     is problematical (for example in shared libraries) but exporting
     functions returning pointers to structures is not.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for overriding the generation of SSL/TLS session IDs.
     These callbacks can be registered either in an SSL_CTX or per SSL.
     The purpose of this is to allow applications to control, if they wish,
     the arbitrary values chosen for use as session IDs, particularly as it
     can be useful for session caching in multiple-server environments. A
     command-line switch for testing this (and any client code that wishes
     to use such a feature) has been added to "s_server".
     [Geoff Thorpe, Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Modify to recognise and parse preprocessor conditionals
     of the form '#if defined(...) || defined(...) || ...' and
     '#if !defined(...) && !defined(...) && ...'.  This also avoids
     the growing number of special cases it was previously handling.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make all configuration macros available for application by making
     sure they are available in opensslconf.h, by giving them names starting
     with "OPENSSL_" to avoid conflicts with other packages and by making
     sure e_os2.h will cover all platform-specific cases together with
     Additionally, it is now possible to define configuration/platform-
     specific names (called "system identities").  In the C code, these
     are prefixed with "OPENSSL_SYSNAME_".  e_os2.h will create another
     macro with the name beginning with "OPENSSL_SYS_", which is determined
     from "OPENSSL_SYSNAME_*" or compiler-specific macros depending on
     what is available.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New option -set_serial to 'req' and 'x509' this allows the serial
     number to use to be specified on the command line. Previously self
     signed certificates were hard coded with serial number 0 and the
     CA options of 'x509' had to use a serial number in a file which was
     auto incremented.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New options to 'ca' utility to support V2 CRL entry extensions.
     Currently CRL reason, invalidity date and hold instruction are
     supported. Add new CRL extensions to V3 code and some new objects.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function EVP_CIPHER_CTX_set_padding() this is used to
     disable standard block padding (aka PKCS#5 padding) in the EVP
     API, which was previously mandatory. This means that the data is
     not padded in any way and so the total length much be a multiple
     of the block size, otherwise an error occurs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial (incomplete) OCSP SSL support.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function OCSP_parse_url(). This splits up a URL into its host,
     port and path components: primarily to parse OCSP URLs. New -url
     option to ocsp utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New nonce behavior. The return value of OCSP_check_nonce() now
     reflects the various checks performed. Applications can decide
     whether to tolerate certain situations such as an absent nonce
     in a response when one was present in a request: the ocsp application
     just prints out a warning. New function OCSP_add1_basic_nonce()
     this is to allow responders to include a nonce in a response even if
     the request is nonce-less.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Disable stdin buffering in load_cert (apps/apps.c) so that no certs are
     skipped when using openssl x509 multiple times on a single input file,
     e.g. "(openssl x509 -out cert1; openssl x509 -out cert2) <certs".
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Make ASN1_UTCTIME_set_string() and ASN1_GENERALIZEDTIME_set_string()
     set string type: to handle setting ASN1_TIME structures. Fix ca
     utility to correctly initialize revocation date of CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New option SSL_OP_CIPHER_SERVER_PREFERENCE allows the server to override
     the clients preferred ciphersuites and rather use its own preferences.
     Should help to work around M$ SGC (Server Gated Cryptography) bug in
     Internet Explorer by ensuring unchanged hash method during stepup.
     (Also replaces the broken/deactivated SSL_OP_NON_EXPORT_FIRST option.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Make recognise all DECLARE_ASN1 macros, change rijndael
     to aes and add a new 'exist' option to print out symbols that don't
     appear to exist.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Additional options to ocsp utility to allow flags to be set and
     additional certificates supplied.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add the option -VAfile to 'openssl ocsp', so the user can give the
     OCSP client a number of certificate to only verify the response
     signature against.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Update Rijndael code to version 3.0 and change EVP AES ciphers to
     handle the new API. Currently only ECB, CBC modes supported. Add new
     AES OIDs.

     Add TLS AES ciphersuites as described in RFC3268, "Advanced
     Encryption Standard (AES) Ciphersuites for Transport Layer
     Security (TLS)".  (In beta versions of OpenSSL 0.9.7, these were
     not enabled by default and were not part of the "ALL" ciphersuite
     alias because they were not yet official; they could be
     explicitly requested by specifying the "AESdraft" ciphersuite
     group alias.  In the final release of OpenSSL 0.9.7, the group
     alias is called "AES" and is part of "ALL".)
     [Ben Laurie, Steve  Henson, Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function OCSP_copy_nonce() to copy nonce value (if present) from
     request to response.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Functions for OCSP responders. OCSP_request_onereq_count(),
     OCSP_request_onereq_get0(), OCSP_onereq_get0_id() and OCSP_id_get0_info()
     extract information from a certificate request. OCSP_response_create()
     creates a response and optionally adds a basic response structure.
     OCSP_basic_add1_status() adds a complete single response to a basic
     response and returns the OCSP_SINGLERESP structure just added (to allow
     extensions to be included for example). OCSP_basic_add1_cert() adds a
     certificate to a basic response and OCSP_basic_sign() signs a basic
     response with various flags. New helper functions ASN1_TIME_check()
     (checks validity of ASN1_TIME structure) and ASN1_TIME_to_generalizedtime()
     (converts ASN1_TIME to GeneralizedTime).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Various new functions. EVP_Digest() combines EVP_Digest{Init,Update,Final}()
     in a single operation. X509_get0_pubkey_bitstr() extracts the public_key
     structure from a certificate. X509_pubkey_digest() digests the public_key
     contents: this is used in various key identifiers.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make sk_sort() tolerate a NULL argument.
     [Steve Henson reported by Massimiliano Pala <>]

  *) New OCSP verify flag OCSP_TRUSTOTHER. When set the "other" certificates
     passed by the function are trusted implicitly. If any of them signed the
     response then it is assumed to be valid and is not verified.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In PKCS7_set_type() initialise content_type in PKCS7_ENC_CONTENT
     to data. This was previously part of the PKCS7 ASN1 code. This
     was causing problems with OpenSSL created PKCS#12 and PKCS#7 structures.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Kenneth R. Robinette

  *) Add CRYPTO_push_info() and CRYPTO_pop_info() calls to new ASN1
     routines: without these tracing memory leaks is very painful.
     Fix leaks in PKCS12 and PKCS7 routines.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make X509_time_adj() cope with the new behaviour of ASN1_TIME_new().
     Previously it initialised the 'type' argument to V_ASN1_UTCTIME which
     effectively meant GeneralizedTime would never be used. Now it
     is initialised to -1 but X509_time_adj() now has to check the value
     and use ASN1_TIME_set() if the value is not V_ASN1_UTCTIME or
     V_ASN1_GENERALIZEDTIME, without this it always uses GeneralizedTime.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Kenneth R. Robinette

  *) Fixes to BN_to_ASN1_INTEGER when bn is zero. This would previously
     result in a zero length in the ASN1_INTEGER structure which was
     not consistent with the structure when d2i_ASN1_INTEGER() was used
     and would cause ASN1_INTEGER_cmp() to fail. Enhance s2i_ASN1_INTEGER()
     to cope with hex and negative integers. Fix bug in i2a_ASN1_INTEGER()
     where it did not print out a minus for negative ASN1_INTEGER.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add summary printout to ocsp utility. The various functions which
     convert status values to strings have been renamed to:
     OCSP_response_status_str(), OCSP_cert_status_str() and
     OCSP_crl_reason_str() and are no longer static. New options
     to verify nonce values and to disable verification. OCSP response
     printout format cleaned up.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add additional OCSP certificate checks. These are those specified
     in RFC2560. This consists of two separate checks: the CA of the
     certificate being checked must either be the OCSP signer certificate
     or the issuer of the OCSP signer certificate. In the latter case the
     OCSP signer certificate must contain the OCSP signing extended key
     usage. This check is performed by attempting to match the OCSP
     signer or the OCSP signer CA to the issuerNameHash and issuerKeyHash
     in the OCSP_CERTID structures of the response.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial OCSP certificate verification added to OCSP_basic_verify()
     and related routines. This uses the standard OpenSSL certificate
     verify routines to perform initial checks (just CA validity) and
     to obtain the certificate chain. Then additional checks will be
     performed on the chain. Currently the root CA is checked to see
     if it is explicitly trusted for OCSP signing. This is used to set
     a root CA as a global signing root: that is any certificate that
     chains to that CA is an acceptable OCSP signing certificate.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New '-extfile ...' option to 'openssl ca' for reading X.509v3
     extensions from a separate configuration file.
     As when reading extensions from the main configuration file,
     the '-extensions ...' option may be used for specifying the
     section to use.
     [Massimiliano Pala <>]

  *) New OCSP utility. Allows OCSP requests to be generated or
     read. The request can be sent to a responder and the output
     parsed, outputted or printed in text form. Not complete yet:
     still needs to check the OCSP response validity.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New subcommands for 'openssl ca':
     'openssl ca -status <serial>' prints the status of the cert with
     the given serial number (according to the index file).
     'openssl ca -updatedb' updates the expiry status of certificates
     in the index file.
     [Massimiliano Pala <>]

  *) New '-newreq-nodes' command option to  This is like
     '-newreq', but calls 'openssl req' with the '-nodes' option
     so that the resulting key is not encrypted.
     [Damien Miller <>]

  *) New configuration for the GNU Hurd.
     [Jonathan Bartlett <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Initial code to implement OCSP basic response verify. This
     is currently incomplete. Currently just finds the signer's
     certificate and verifies the signature on the response.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New SSLeay_version code SSLEAY_DIR to determine the compiled-in
     value of OPENSSLDIR.  This is available via the new '-d' option
     to 'openssl version', and is also included in 'openssl version -a'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Allowing defining memory allocation callbacks that will be given
     file name and line number information in additional arguments
     (a const char* and an int).  The basic functionality remains, as
     well as the original possibility to just replace malloc(),
     realloc() and free() by functions that do not know about these
     additional arguments.  To register and find out the current
     settings for extended allocation functions, the following
     functions are provided:


     These work the same way as CRYPTO_set_mem_functions and friends.
     CRYPTO_get_[locked_]mem_functions now writes 0 where such an
     extended allocation function is enabled.
     Similarly, CRYPTO_get_[locked_]mem_ex_functions writes 0 where
     a conventional allocation function is enabled.
     [Richard Levitte, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Finish off removing the remaining LHASH function pointer casts.
     There should no longer be any prototype-casting required when using
     the LHASH abstraction, and any casts that remain are "bugs". See
     the callback types and macros at the head of lhash.h for details
     (and "OBJ_cleanup" in crypto/objects/obj_dat.c as an example).
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add automatic query of EGD sockets in RAND_poll() for the unix variant.
     If /dev/[u]random devices are not available or do not return enough
     entropy, EGD style sockets (served by EGD or PRNGD) will automatically
     be queried.
     The locations /var/run/egd-pool, /dev/egd-pool, /etc/egd-pool, and
     /etc/entropy will be queried once each in this sequence, querying stops
     when enough entropy was collected without querying more sockets.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Change the Unix RAND_poll() variant to be able to poll several
     random devices, as specified by DEVRANDOM, until a sufficient amount
     of data has been collected.   We spend at most 10 ms on each file
     (select timeout) and read in non-blocking mode.  DEVRANDOM now
     defaults to the list "/dev/urandom", "/dev/random", "/dev/srandom"
     (previously it was just the string "/dev/urandom"), so on typical
     platforms the 10 ms delay will never occur.
     Also separate out the Unix variant to its own file, rand_unix.c.
     For VMS, there's a currently-empty rand_vms.c.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Move OCSP client related routines to ocsp_cl.c. These
     provide utility functions which an application needing
     to issue a request to an OCSP responder and analyse the
     response will typically need: as opposed to those which an
     OCSP responder itself would need which will be added later.

     OCSP_request_sign() signs an OCSP request with an API similar
     to PKCS7_sign(). OCSP_response_status() returns status of OCSP
     response. OCSP_response_get1_basic() extracts basic response
     from response. OCSP_resp_find_status(): finds and extracts status
     information from an OCSP_CERTID structure (which will be created
     when the request structure is built). These are built from lower
     level functions which work on OCSP_SINGLERESP structures but
     won't normally be used unless the application wishes to examine
     extensions in the OCSP response for example.

     Replace nonce routines with a pair of functions.
     OCSP_request_add1_nonce() adds a nonce value and optionally
     generates a random value. OCSP_check_nonce() checks the
     validity of the nonce in an OCSP response.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change function OCSP_request_add() to OCSP_request_add0_id().
     This doesn't copy the supplied OCSP_CERTID and avoids the
     need to free up the newly created id. Change return type
     to OCSP_ONEREQ to return the internal OCSP_ONEREQ structure.
     This can then be used to add extensions to the request.
     Deleted OCSP_request_new(), since most of its functionality
     is now in OCSP_REQUEST_new() (and the case insensitive name
     clash) apart from the ability to set the request name which
     will be added elsewhere.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update OCSP API. Remove obsolete extensions argument from
     various functions. Extensions are now handled using the new
     OCSP extension code. New simple OCSP HTTP function which
     can be used to send requests and parse the response.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the PKCS#7 (S/MIME) code to work with new ASN1. Two new
     ASN1_ITEM structures help with sign and verify. PKCS7_ATTR_SIGN
     uses the special reorder version of SET OF to sort the attributes
     and reorder them to match the encoded order. This resolves a long
     standing problem: a verify on a PKCS7 structure just after signing
     it used to fail because the attribute order did not match the
     encoded order. PKCS7_ATTR_VERIFY does not reorder the attributes:
     it uses the received order. This is necessary to tolerate some broken
     software that does not order SET OF. This is handled by encoding
     as a SEQUENCE OF but using implicit tagging (with UNIVERSAL class)
     to produce the required SET OF.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Have generate the macros OPENSSL_BUILD_SHLIBCRYPTO and
     OPENSSL_BUILD_SHLIBSSL and use them appropriately in the header
     files to get correct declarations of the ASN.1 item variables.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Rewrite of PKCS#12 code to use new ASN1 functionality. Replace many
     PKCS#12 macros with real functions. Fix two unrelated ASN1 bugs:
     asn1_check_tlen() would sometimes attempt to use 'ctx' when it was
     NULL and ASN1_TYPE was not dereferenced properly in asn1_ex_c2i().
     New ASN1 macro: DECLARE_ASN1_ITEM() which just declares the relevant
     ASN1_ITEM and no wrapper functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions or ASN1_item_d2i_fp() and ASN1_item_d2i_bio(). These
     replace the old function pointer based I/O routines. Change most of
     the *_d2i_bio() and *_d2i_fp() functions to use these.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance to be more accepting about spacing in C preprocessor
     lines, recognize more "algorithms" that can be deselected, and make
     it complain about algorithm deselection that isn't recognised.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New ASN1 functions to handle dup, sign, verify, digest, pack and
     unpack operations in terms of ASN1_ITEM. Modify existing wrappers
     to use new functions. Add NO_ASN1_OLD which can be set to remove
     some old style ASN1 functions: this can be used to determine if old
     code will still work when these eventually go away.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New extension functions for OCSP structures, these follow the
     same conventions as certificates and CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function X509V3_add1_i2d(). This automatically encodes and
     adds an extension. Its behaviour can be customised with various
     flags to append, replace or delete. Various wrappers added for
     certificates and CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix to avoid calling the underlying ASN1 print routine when
     an extension cannot be parsed. Correct a typo in the
     OCSP_SERVICELOC extension. Tidy up print OCSP format.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make parse some of the ASN1 macros and add appropriate
     entries for variables.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add functionality to apps/openssl.c for detecting locking
     problems: As the program is single-threaded, all we have
     to do is register a locking callback using an array for
     storing which locks are currently held by the program.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Use a lock around the call to CRYPTO_get_ex_new_index() in
     SSL_get_ex_data_X509_STORE_idx(), which is used in
     ssl_verify_cert_chain() and thus can be called at any time
     during TLS/SSL handshakes so that thread-safety is essential.
     Unfortunately, the ex_data design is not at all suited
     for multi-threaded use, so it probably should be abolished.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Added Broadcom "ubsec" ENGINE to OpenSSL.
     [Broadcom, tweaked and integrated by Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Move common extension printing code to new function
     X509V3_print_extensions(). Reorganise OCSP print routines and
     implement some needed OCSP ASN1 functions. Add OCSP extensions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function X509_signature_print() to remove duplication in some
     print routines.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a special meaning when SET OF and SEQUENCE OF flags are both
     set (this was treated exactly the same as SET OF previously). This
     is used to reorder the STACK representing the structure to match the
     encoding. This will be used to get round a problem where a PKCS7
     structure which was signed could not be verified because the STACK
     order did not reflect the encoded order.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reimplement the OCSP ASN1 module using the new code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Update the X509V3 code to permit the use of an ASN1_ITEM structure
     for its ASN1 operations. The old style function pointers still exist
     for now but they will eventually go away.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Merge in replacement ASN1 code from the ASN1 branch. This almost
     completely replaces the old ASN1 functionality with a table driven
     encoder and decoder which interprets an ASN1_ITEM structure describing
     the ASN1 module. Compatibility with the existing ASN1 API (i2d,d2i) is
     largely maintained. Almost all of the old asn1_mac.h macro based ASN1
     has also been converted to the new form.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change BN_mod_exp_recp so that negative moduli are tolerated
     (the sign is ignored).  Similarly, ignore the sign in BN_MONT_CTX_set
     so that BN_mod_exp_mont and BN_mod_exp_mont_word work
     for negative moduli.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix BN_uadd and BN_usub: Always return non-negative results instead
     of not touching the result's sign bit.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) BN_div bugfix: If the result is 0, the sign (res->neg) must not be
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Changed the LHASH code to use prototypes for callbacks, and created
     macros to declare and implement thin (optionally static) functions
     that provide type-safety and avoid function pointer casting for the
     type-specific callbacks.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Added Kerberos Cipher Suites to be used with TLS, as written in
     RFC 2712.
     [Veers Staats <>,
      Jeffrey Altman <>, via Richard Levitte]

  *) Reformat the FAQ so the different questions and answers can be divided
     in sections depending on the subject.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Have the zlib compression code load ZLIB.DLL dynamically under
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New function BN_mod_sqrt for computing square roots modulo a prime
     (using the probabilistic Tonelli-Shanks algorithm unless
     p == 3 (mod 4)  or  p == 5 (mod 8),  which are cases that can
     be handled deterministically).
     [Lenka Fibikova <>, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Make BN_mod_inverse faster by explicitly handling small quotients
     in the Euclid loop. (Speed gain about 20% for small moduli [256 or
     512 bits], about 30% for larger ones [1024 or 2048 bits].)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function BN_kronecker.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix BN_gcd so that it works on negative inputs; the result is
     positive unless both parameters are zero.
     Previously something reasonably close to an infinite loop was
     possible because numbers could be growing instead of shrinking
     in the implementation of Euclid's algorithm.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix BN_is_word() and BN_is_one() macros to take into account the
     sign of the number in question.

     Fix BN_is_word(a,w) to work correctly for w == 0.

     The old BN_is_word(a,w) macro is now called BN_abs_is_word(a,w)
     because its test if the absolute value of 'a' equals 'w'.
     Note that BN_abs_is_word does *not* handle w == 0 reliably;
     it exists mostly for use in the implementations of BN_is_zero(),
     BN_is_one(), and BN_is_word().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function BN_swap.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Use BN_nnmod instead of BN_mod in crypto/bn/bn_exp.c so that
     the exponentiation functions are more likely to produce reasonable
     results on negative inputs.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change BN_mod_mul so that the result is always non-negative.
     Previously, it could be negative if one of the factors was negative;
     I don't think anyone really wanted that behaviour.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Move BN_mod_... functions into new file crypto/bn/bn_mod.c
     (except for exponentiation, which stays in crypto/bn/bn_exp.c,
     and BN_mod_mul_reciprocal, which stays in crypto/bn/bn_recp.c)
     and add new functions:


     These functions always generate non-negative results.

     BN_nnmod otherwise is like BN_mod (if BN_mod computes a remainder  r
     such that  |m| < r < 0,  BN_nnmod will output  rem + |m|  instead).

     BN_mod_XXX_quick(r, a, [b,] m) generates the same result as
     BN_mod_XXX(r, a, [b,] m, ctx), but requires that  a  [and  b]
     be reduced modulo  m.
     [Lenka Fibikova <>, Bodo Moeller]

#if 0
     The following entry accidentally appeared in the CHANGES file
     distributed with OpenSSL 0.9.7.  The modifications described in
     it do *not* apply to OpenSSL 0.9.7.

  *) Remove a few calls to bn_wexpand() in BN_sqr() (the one in there
     was actually never needed) and in BN_mul().  The removal in BN_mul()
     required a small change in bn_mul_part_recursive() and the addition
     of the functions bn_cmp_part_words(), bn_sub_part_words() and
     bn_add_part_words(), which do the same thing as bn_cmp_words(),
     bn_sub_words() and bn_add_words() except they take arrays with
     differing sizes.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) In 'openssl passwd', verify passwords read from the terminal
     unless the '-salt' option is used (which usually means that
     verification would just waste user's time since the resulting
     hash is going to be compared with some given password hash)
     or the new '-noverify' option is used.

     This is an incompatible change, but it does not affect
     non-interactive use of 'openssl passwd' (passwords on the command
     line, '-stdin' option, '-in ...' option) and thus should not
     cause any problems.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Remove all references to RSAref, since there's no more need for it.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make DSO load along a path given through an environment variable
     (SHLIB_PATH) with shl_load().
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Constify the ENGINE code as a result of BIGNUM constification.
     Also constify the RSA code and most things related to it.  In a
     few places, most notable in the depth of the ASN.1 code, ugly
     casts back to non-const were required (to be solved at a later
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make it so the openssl application has all engines loaded by default.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Constify the BIGNUM routines a little more.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the following functions:


     That way, an application can itself choose if external engines that
     are built-in in OpenSSL shall ever be used or not.  The benefit is
     that applications won't have to be linked with libdl or other dso
     libraries unless it's really needed.

     Changed 'openssl engine' to load all engines on demand.
     Changed the engine header files to avoid the duplication of some
     declarations (they differed!).
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) 'openssl engine' can now list capabilities.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Better error reporting in 'openssl engine'.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Never call load_dh_param(NULL) in s_server.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add engine application.  It can currently list engines by name and
     identity, and test if they are actually available.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Improve RPM specification file by forcing symbolic linking and making
     sure the installed documentation is also owned by root.root.
     [Damien Miller <>]

  *) Give the OpenSSL applications more possibilities to make use of
     keys (public as well as private) handled by engines.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add OCSP code that comes from CertCo.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add VMS support for the Rijndael code.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added untested support for Nuron crypto accelerator.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add support for external cryptographic devices.  This code was
     previously distributed separately as the "engine" branch.
     [Geoff Thorpe, Richard Levitte]

  *) Rework the filename-translation in the DSO code. It is now possible to
     have far greater control over how a "name" is turned into a filename
     depending on the operating environment and any oddities about the
     different shared library filenames on each system.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Support threads on FreeBSD-elf in Configure.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix for SHA1 assembly problem with MASM: it produces
     warnings about corrupt line number information when assembling
     with debugging information. This is caused by the overlapping
     of two sections.
     [Bernd Matthes <>, Steve Henson]

  *) NCONF changes.
     NCONF_get_number() has no error checking at all.  As a replacement,
     NCONF_get_number_e() is defined (_e for "error checking") and is
     promoted strongly.  The old NCONF_get_number is kept around for
     binary backward compatibility.
     Make it possible for methods to load from something other than a BIO,
     by providing a function pointer that is given a name instead of a BIO.
     For example, this could be used to load configuration data from an
     LDAP server.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix for non blocking accept BIOs. Added new I/O special reason
     BIO_RR_ACCEPT to cover this case. Previously use of accept BIOs
     with non blocking I/O was not possible because no retry code was
     implemented. Also added new SSL code SSL_WANT_ACCEPT to cover
     this case.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added the beginnings of Rijndael support.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix for bug in DirectoryString mask setting. Add support for
     X509_NAME_print_ex() in 'req' and X509_print_ex() function
     to allow certificate printing to more controllable, additional
     'certopt' option to 'x509' to allow new printing options to be
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Clean old EAY MD5 hack from e_os.h.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.6l and 0.9.6m  [17 Mar 2004]

  *) Fix null-pointer assignment in do_change_cipher_spec() revealed
     by using the Codenomicon TLS Test Tool (CVE-2004-0079)
     [Joe Orton, Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.6k and 0.9.6l  [04 Nov 2003]

  *) Fix additional bug revealed by the NISCC test suite:

     Stop bug triggering large recursion when presented with
     certain ASN.1 tags (CVE-2003-0851)
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.6j and 0.9.6k  [30 Sep 2003]

  *) Fix various bugs revealed by running the NISCC test suite:

     Stop out of bounds reads in the ASN1 code when presented with
     invalid tags (CVE-2003-0543 and CVE-2003-0544).

     If verify callback ignores invalid public key errors don't try to check
     certificate signature with the NULL public key.

     [Steve Henson]

  *) In ssl3_accept() (ssl/s3_srvr.c) only accept a client certificate
     if the server requested one: as stated in TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In ssl3_get_client_hello() (ssl/s3_srvr.c), tolerate additional
     extra data after the compression methods not only for TLS 1.0
     but also for SSL 3.0 (as required by the specification).
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Matthias Loepfe]

  *) Change X509_certificate_type() to mark the key as exported/exportable
     when it's 512 *bits* long, not 512 bytes.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.6i and 0.9.6j  [10 Apr 2003]

  *) Countermeasure against the Klima-Pokorny-Rosa extension of
     Bleichbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 padding: treat
     a protocol version number mismatch like a decryption error
     in ssl3_get_client_key_exchange (ssl/s3_srvr.c).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Turn on RSA blinding by default in the default implementation
     to avoid a timing attack. Applications that don't want it can call
     RSA_blinding_off() or use the new flag RSA_FLAG_NO_BLINDING.
     They would be ill-advised to do so in most cases.
     [Ben Laurie, Steve Henson, Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change RSA blinding code so that it works when the PRNG is not
     seeded (in this case, the secret RSA exponent is abused as
     an unpredictable seed -- if it is not unpredictable, there
     is no point in blinding anyway).  Make RSA blinding thread-safe
     by remembering the creator's thread ID in rsa->blinding and
     having all other threads use local one-time blinding factors
     (this requires more computation than sharing rsa->blinding, but
     avoids excessive locking; and if an RSA object is not shared
     between threads, blinding will still be very fast).
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.6h and 0.9.6i  [19 Feb 2003]

  *) In ssl3_get_record (ssl/s3_pkt.c), minimize information leaked
     via timing by performing a MAC computation even if incorrect
     block cipher padding has been found.  This is a countermeasure
     against active attacks where the attacker has to distinguish
     between bad padding and a MAC verification error. (CVE-2003-0078)

     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Brice Canvel (EPFL),
     Alain Hiltgen (UBS), Serge Vaudenay (EPFL), and
     Martin Vuagnoux (EPFL, Ilion)]

 Changes between 0.9.6g and 0.9.6h  [5 Dec 2002]

  *) New function OPENSSL_cleanse(), which is used to cleanse a section of
     memory from its contents.  This is done with a counter that will
     place alternating values in each byte.  This can be used to solve
     two issues: 1) the removal of calls to memset() by highly optimizing
     compilers, and 2) cleansing with other values than 0, since those can
     be read through on certain media, for example a swap space on disk.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Bugfix: client side session caching did not work with external caching,
     because the session->cipher setting was not restored when reloading
     from the external cache. This problem was masked, when
     (Found by Steve Haslam <>.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix client_certificate (ssl/s2_clnt.c): The permissible total
     length of the REQUEST-CERTIFICATE message is 18 .. 34, not 17 .. 33.
     [Zeev Lieber <>]

  *) Undo an undocumented change introduced in 0.9.6e which caused
     repeated calls to OpenSSL_add_all_ciphers() and
     OpenSSL_add_all_digests() to be ignored, even after calling
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change the default configuration reader to deal with last line not
     being properly terminated.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change X509_NAME_cmp() so it applies the special rules on handling
     DN values that are of type PrintableString, as well as RDNs of type
     emailAddress where the value has the type ia5String.
     [ via Richard Levitte]

  *) Add a SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_STORE flag to take over half
     the job SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_LOOKUP was inconsistently
     doing, define a new flag (SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL) to be
     the bitwise-OR of the two for use by the majority of applications
     wanting this behaviour, and update the docs. The documented
     behaviour and actual behaviour were inconsistent and had been
     changing anyway, so this is more a bug-fix than a behavioural
     [Geoff Thorpe, diagnosed by Nadav Har'El]

  *) Don't impose a 16-byte length minimum on session IDs in ssl/s3_clnt.c
     (the SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0 specifications allow any length up to 32 bytes).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix initialization code race conditions in
        SSLv23_method(),  SSLv23_client_method(),   SSLv23_server_method(),
        SSLv2_method(),   SSLv2_client_method(),    SSLv2_server_method(),
        SSLv3_method(),   SSLv3_client_method(),    SSLv3_server_method(),
        TLSv1_method(),   TLSv1_client_method(),    TLSv1_server_method(),
     [Patrick McCormick <>, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Reorder cleanup sequence in SSL_CTX_free(): only remove the ex_data after
     the cached sessions are flushed, as the remove_cb() might use ex_data
     contents. Bug found by Sam Varshavchik <>
     (see [ #212]).
     [Geoff Thorpe, Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix typo in OBJ_txt2obj which incorrectly passed the content
     length, instead of the encoding length to d2i_ASN1_OBJECT.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.6f and 0.9.6g  [9 Aug 2002]

  *) [In 0.9.6g-engine release:]
     Fix crypto/engine/vendor_defns/cswift.h for WIN32 (use '_stdcall').
     [Lynn Gazis <>]

 Changes between 0.9.6e and 0.9.6f  [8 Aug 2002]

  *) Fix ASN1 checks. Check for overflow by comparing with LONG_MAX
     and get fix the header length calculation.
     [Florian Weimer <Weimer@CERT.Uni-Stuttgart.DE>,
        Alon Kantor <> (and others),
        Steve Henson]

  *) Use proper error handling instead of 'assertions' in buffer
     overflow checks added in 0.9.6e.  This prevents DoS (the
     assertions could call abort()).
     [Arne Ansper <>, Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.6d and 0.9.6e  [30 Jul 2002]

  *) Add various sanity checks to asn1_get_length() to reject
     the ASN1 length bytes if they exceed sizeof(long), will appear
     negative or the content length exceeds the length of the
     supplied buffer.
     [Steve Henson, Adi Stav <>, James Yonan <>]

  *) Fix cipher selection routines: ciphers without encryption had no flags
     for the cipher strength set and where therefore not handled correctly
     by the selection routines (PR #130).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix EVP_dsa_sha macro.
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) New option
     for disabling the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 CBC vulnerability countermeasure
     that was added in OpenSSL 0.9.6d.

     As the countermeasure turned out to be incompatible with some
     broken SSL implementations, the new option is part of SSL_OP_ALL.
     SSL_OP_ALL is usually employed when compatibility with weird SSL
     implementations is desired (e.g. '-bugs' option to 's_client' and
     's_server'), so the new option is automatically set in many
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Changes in security patch:

     Changes marked "(CHATS)" were sponsored by the Defense Advanced
     Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Laboratory,
     Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under agreement number

  *) Add various sanity checks to asn1_get_length() to reject
     the ASN1 length bytes if they exceed sizeof(long), will appear
     negative or the content length exceeds the length of the
     supplied buffer. (CVE-2002-0659)
     [Steve Henson, Adi Stav <>, James Yonan <>]

  *) Assertions for various potential buffer overflows, not known to
     happen in practice.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Various temporary buffers to hold ASCII versions of integers were
     too small for 64 bit platforms. (CVE-2002-0655)
     [Matthew Byng-Maddick <> and Ben Laurie (CHATS)>

  *) Remote buffer overflow in SSL3 protocol - an attacker could
     supply an oversized session ID to a client. (CVE-2002-0656)
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Remote buffer overflow in SSL2 protocol - an attacker could
     supply an oversized client master key. (CVE-2002-0656)
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

 Changes between 0.9.6c and 0.9.6d  [9 May 2002]

  *) Fix crypto/asn1/a_sign.c so that 'parameters' is omitted (not
     encoded as NULL) with id-dsa-with-sha1.
     [Nils Larsch <>; problem pointed out by Bodo Moeller]

  *) Check various X509_...() return values in apps/req.c.
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Fix BASE64 decode (EVP_DecodeUpdate) for data with CR/LF ended lines:
     an end-of-file condition would erroneously be flagged, when the CRLF
     was just at the end of a processed block. The bug was discovered when
     processing data through a buffering memory BIO handing the data to a
     BASE64-decoding BIO. Bug fund and patch submitted by Pavel Tsekov
     <> and Nedelcho Stanev.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Implement a countermeasure against a vulnerability recently found
     in CBC ciphersuites in SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0: Send an empty fragment
     before application data chunks to avoid the use of known IVs
     with data potentially chosen by the attacker.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix length checks in ssl3_get_client_hello().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) TLS/SSL library bugfix: use s->s3->in_read_app_data differently
     to prevent ssl3_read_internal() from incorrectly assuming that
     ssl3_read_bytes() found application data while handshake
     processing was enabled when in fact s->s3->in_read_app_data was
     merely automatically cleared during the initial handshake.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Fix object definitions for Private and Enterprise: they were not
     recognized in their shortname (=lowercase) representation. Extend to issue an error when using undefined keywords instead
     of silently ignoring the problem (Svenning Sorensen
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix DH_generate_parameters() so that it works for 'non-standard'
     generators, i.e. generators other than 2 and 5.  (Previously, the
     code did not properly initialise the 'add' and 'rem' values to

     In the new general case, we do not insist that 'generator' is
     actually a primitive root: This requirement is rather pointless;
     a generator of the order-q subgroup is just as good, if not
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Map new X509 verification errors to alerts. Discovered and submitted by
     Tom Wu <>.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix ssl3_pending() (ssl/s3_lib.c) to prevent SSL_pending() from
     returning non-zero before the data has been completely received
     when using non-blocking I/O.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by John Hughes]

  *) Some of the ciphers missed the strength entry (SSL_LOW etc).
     [Ben Laurie, Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix bug in SSL_clear(): bad sessions were not removed (found by
     Yoram Zahavi <>).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Add information about CygWin 1.3 and on, and preserve proper
     configuration for the versions before that.
     [Corinna Vinschen <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Make removal from session cache (SSL_CTX_remove_session()) more robust:
     check whether we deal with a copy of a session and do not delete from
     the cache in this case. Problem reported by "Izhar Shoshani Levi"
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Do not store session data into the internal session cache, if it
     is never intended to be looked up (SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_LOOKUP
     flag is set). Proposed by Aslam <>.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Have ASN1_BIT_STRING_set_bit() really clear a bit when the requested
     value is 0.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) [In 0.9.6d-engine release:]
     Fix a crashbug and a logic bug in hwcrhk_load_pubkey().
     [Toomas Kiisk <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the configuration target linux-s390x.
     [Neale Ferguson <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) The earlier bugfix for the SSL3_ST_SW_HELLO_REQ_C case of
     ssl3_accept (ssl/s3_srvr.c) incorrectly used a local flag
     variable as an indication that a ClientHello message has been
     received.  As the flag value will be lost between multiple
     invocations of ssl3_accept when using non-blocking I/O, the
     function may not be aware that a handshake has actually taken
     place, thus preventing a new session from being added to the
     session cache.

     To avoid this problem, we now set s->new_session to 2 instead of
     using a local variable.
     [Lutz Jaenicke, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix: Return -1 from ssl3_get_server_done (ssl3/s3_clnt.c)
     if the SSL_R_LENGTH_MISMATCH error is detected.
     [Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]

  *) New 'shared_ldflag' column in Configure platform table.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix EVP_CIPHER_mode macro.
     ["Dan S. Camper" <>]

  *) Fix ssl3_read_bytes (ssl/s3_pkt.c): To ignore messages of unknown
     type, we must throw them away by setting rr->length to 0.
     [D P Chang <>]

 Changes between 0.9.6b and 0.9.6c  [21 dec 2001]

  *) Fix BN_rand_range bug pointed out by Dominikus Scherkl
     <>.  (The previous implementation
     worked incorrectly for those cases where  range = 10..._2  and
     3*range  is two bits longer than  range.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Only add signing time to PKCS7 structures if it is not already
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix crypto/objects/objects.h: "ld-ce" should be "id-ce",
     OBJ_ld_ce should be OBJ_id_ce.
     Also some ip-pda OIDs in crypto/objects/objects.txt were
     incorrect (cf. RFC 3039).
     [Matt Cooper, Frederic Giudicelli, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Release CRYPTO_LOCK_DYNLOCK when CRYPTO_destroy_dynlockid()
     returns early because it has nothing to do.
     [Andy Schneider <>]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Fix mutex callback return values in crypto/engine/hw_ncipher.c.
     [Andy Schneider <>]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for Cryptographic Appliance's keyserver technology.
     (Use engine 'keyclient')
     [Cryptographic Appliances and Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add a configuration entry for OS/390 Unix.  The C compiler 'c89'
     is called via tools/ because arguments have to be
     rearranged (all '-L' options must appear before the first object
     [Richard Shapiro <>]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for Broadcom crypto accelerator cards, backported
     from 0.9.7.
     [Broadcom, Nalin Dahyabhai <>, Mark Cox]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for SureWare crypto accelerator cards from
     Baltimore Technologies.  (Use engine 'sureware')
     [Baltimore Technologies and Mark Cox]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for crypto accelerator cards from Accelerated
     Encryption Processing,  (Use engine 'aep')
     [AEP Inc. and Mark Cox]

  *) Add a configuration entry for gcc on UnixWare.
     [Gary Benson <>]

  *) Change ssl/s2_clnt.c and ssl/s2_srvr.c so that received handshake
     messages are stored in a single piece (fixed-length part and
     variable-length part combined) and fix various bugs found on the way.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Disable caching in BIO_gethostbyname(), directly use gethostbyname()
     instead.  BIO_gethostbyname() does not know what timeouts are
     appropriate, so entries would stay in cache even when they have
     become invalid.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Rich Salz <>

  *) Change ssl23_get_client_hello (ssl/s23_srvr.c) behaviour when
     faced with a pathologically small ClientHello fragment that does
     not contain client_version: Instead of aborting with an error,
     simply choose the highest available protocol version (i.e.,
     TLS 1.0 unless it is disabled).  In practice, ClientHello
     messages are never sent like this, but this change gives us
     strictly correct behaviour at least for TLS.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix SSL handshake functions and SSL_clear() such that SSL_clear()
     never resets s->method to s->ctx->method when called from within
     one of the SSL handshake functions.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Niko Baric]

  *) In ssl3_get_client_hello (ssl/s3_srvr.c), generate a fatal alert
     (sent using the client's version number) if client_version is
     smaller than the protocol version in use.  Also change
     ssl23_get_client_hello (ssl/s23_srvr.c) to select TLS 1.0 if
     the client demanded SSL 3.0 but only TLS 1.0 is enabled; then
     the client will at least see that alert.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) to handle message fragmentation
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid infinite loop in ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) if a
     client receives HelloRequest while in a handshake.
     [Bodo Moeller; bug noticed by Andy Schneider <>]

  *) Bugfix in ssl3_accept (ssl/s3_srvr.c): Case SSL3_ST_SW_HELLO_REQ_C
     should end in 'break', not 'goto end' which circumvents various
     cleanups done in state SSL_ST_OK.   But session related stuff
     must be disabled for SSL_ST_OK in the case that we just sent a

     Also avoid some overhead by not calling ssl_init_wbio_buffer()
     before just sending a HelloRequest.
     [Bodo Moeller, Eric Rescorla <>]

  *) Fix ssl/s3_enc.c, ssl/t1_enc.c and ssl/s3_pkt.c so that we don't
     reveal whether illegal block cipher padding was found or a MAC
     verification error occurred.  (Neither SSLerr() codes nor alerts
     are directly visible to potential attackers, but the information
     may leak via logfiles.)

     Similar changes are not required for the SSL 2.0 implementation
     because the number of padding bytes is sent in clear for SSL 2.0,
     and the extra bytes are just ignored.  However ssl/s2_pkt.c
     failed to verify that the purported number of padding bytes is in
     the legal range.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add OpenUNIX-8 support including shared libraries
     (Boyd Lynn Gerber <>).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Improve RSA_padding_check_PKCS1_OAEP() check again to avoid
     'wristwatch attack' using huge encoding parameters (cf.
     James H. Manger's CRYPTO 2001 paper).  Note that the
     RSA_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING case of RSA_private_decrypt() does not use
     encoding parameters and hence was not vulnerable.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) BN_sqr() bug fix.
     [Ulf Möller, reported by Jim Ellis <>]

  *) Rabin-Miller test analyses assume uniformly distributed witnesses,
     so use BN_pseudo_rand_range() instead of using BN_pseudo_rand()
     followed by modular reduction.
     [Bodo Moeller; pointed out by Adam Young <AYoung1@NCSUS.JNJ.COM>]

  *) Add BN_pseudo_rand_range() with obvious functionality: BN_rand_range()
     equivalent based on BN_pseudo_rand() instead of BN_rand().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) s3_srvr.c: allow sending of large client certificate lists (> 16 kB).
     This function was broken, as the check for a new client hello message
     to handle SGC did not allow these large messages.
     (Tracked down by "Douglas E. Engert" <>.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Add alert descriptions for TLSv1 to SSL_alert_desc_string[_long]().
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix buggy behaviour of BIO_get_num_renegotiates() and BIO_ctrl()
     for BIO_C_GET_WRITE_BUF_SIZE ("Stephen Hinton" <>).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Rework the configuration and shared library support for Tru64 Unix.
     The configuration part makes use of modern compiler features and
     still retains old compiler behavior for those that run older versions
     of the OS.  The shared library support part includes a variant that
     uses the RPATH feature, and is available through the special
     configuration target "alpha-cc-rpath", which will never be selected
     [Tim Mooney <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) In ssl3_get_key_exchange (ssl/s3_clnt.c), call ssl3_get_message()
     with the same message size as in ssl3_get_certificate_request().
     Otherwise, if no ServerKeyExchange message occurs, CertificateRequest
     messages might inadvertently be reject as too long.
     [Petr Lampa <>]

  *) Enhanced support for IA-64 Unix platforms (well, Linux and HP-UX).
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Modified SSL library such that the verify_callback that has been set
     specifically for an SSL object with SSL_set_verify() is actually being
     used. Before the change, a verify_callback set with this function was
     ignored and the verify_callback() set in the SSL_CTX at the time of
     the call was used. New function X509_STORE_CTX_set_verify_cb() introduced
     to allow the necessary settings.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Initialize static variable in crypto/dsa/dsa_lib.c and crypto/dh/dh_lib.c
     explicitly to NULL, as at least on Solaris 8 this seems not always to be
     done automatically (in contradiction to the requirements of the C
     standard). This made problems when used from OpenSSH.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) In OpenSSL 0.9.6a and 0.9.6b, crypto/dh/dh_key.c ignored
     dh->length and always used

          BN_rand_range(priv_key, dh->p).

     BN_rand_range() is not necessary for Diffie-Hellman, and this
     specific range makes Diffie-Hellman unnecessarily inefficient if
     dh->length (recommended exponent length) is much smaller than the
     length of dh->p.  We could use BN_rand_range() if the order of
     the subgroup was stored in the DH structure, but we only have

     So switch back to

          BN_rand(priv_key, l, ...)

     where 'l' is dh->length if this is defined, or BN_num_bits(dh->p)-1
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In

          RSA_eay_private_encrypt (signing)
          RSA_eay_public_decrypt (signature verification)

     (default implementations for RSA_public_encrypt,
     RSA_private_decrypt, RSA_private_encrypt, RSA_public_decrypt),
     always reject numbers >= n.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/rand/md_rand.c, use a new short-time lock CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND2
     to synchronize access to 'locking_thread'.  This is necessary on
     systems where access to 'locking_thread' (an 'unsigned long'
     variable) is not atomic.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/rand/md_rand.c, set 'locking_thread' to current thread's ID
     *before* setting the 'crypto_lock_rand' flag.  The previous code had
     a race condition if 0 is a valid thread ID.
     [Travis Vitek <>]

  *) Add support for shared libraries under Irix.
     [Albert Chin-A-Young <>]

  *) Add configuration option to build on Linux on both big-endian and
     little-endian MIPS.
     [Ralf Baechle <>]

  *) Add the possibility to create shared libraries on HP-UX.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.6a and 0.9.6b  [9 Jul 2001]

  *) Change ssleay_rand_bytes (crypto/rand/md_rand.c)
     to avoid a SSLeay/OpenSSL PRNG weakness pointed out by
     Markku-Juhani O. Saarinen <>:
     PRNG state recovery was possible based on the output of
     one PRNG request appropriately sized to gain knowledge on
     'md' followed by enough consecutive 1-byte PRNG requests
     to traverse all of 'state'.

     1. When updating 'md_local' (the current thread's copy of 'md')
        during PRNG output generation, hash all of the previous
        'md_local' value, not just the half used for PRNG output.

     2. Make the number of bytes from 'state' included into the hash
        independent from the number of PRNG bytes requested.

     The first measure alone would be sufficient to avoid
     Markku-Juhani's attack.  (Actually it had never occurred
     to me that the half of 'md_local' used for chaining was the
     half from which PRNG output bytes were taken -- I had always
     assumed that the secret half would be used.)  The second
     measure makes sure that additional data from 'state' is never
     mixed into 'md_local' in small portions; this heuristically
     further strengthens the PRNG.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix crypto/bn/asm/mips3.s.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) When only the key is given to "enc", the IV is undefined. Print out
     an error message in this case.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Handle special case when X509_NAME is empty in X509 printing routines.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In dsa_do_verify (crypto/dsa/dsa_ossl.c), verify that r and s are
     positive and less than q.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Don't change *pointer in CRYPTO_add_lock() is add_lock_callback is
     used: it isn't thread safe and the add_lock_callback should handle
     that itself.
     [Paul Rose <>]

  *) Verify that incoming data obeys the block size in
     ssl3_enc (ssl/s3_enc.c) and tls1_enc (ssl/t1_enc.c).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix OAEP check.
     [Ulf Möller, Bodo Möller]

  *) The countermeasure against Bleichbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5
     RSA encryption was accidentally removed in s3_srvr.c in OpenSSL 0.9.5
     when fixing the server behaviour for backwards-compatible 'client
     hello' messages.  (Note that the attack is impractical against
     SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0 anyway because length and version checking
     means that the probability of guessing a valid ciphertext is
     around 2^-40; see section 5 in Bleichenbacher's CRYPTO '98

     Before 0.9.5, the countermeasure (hide the error by generating a
     random 'decryption result') did not work properly because
     ERR_clear_error() was missing, meaning that SSL_get_error() would
     detect the supposedly ignored error.

     Both problems are now fixed.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/bio/bf_buff.c, increase DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE to 4096
     (previously it was 1024).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for compatibility mode trust settings: ignore trust settings
     unless some valid trust or reject settings are present.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix for blowfish EVP: its a variable length cipher.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix various bugs related to DSA S/MIME verification. Handle missing
     parameters in DSA public key structures and return an error in the
     DSA routines if parameters are absent.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In versions up to 0.9.6, RAND_file_name() resorted to file ".rnd"
     in the current directory if neither $RANDFILE nor $HOME was set.
     RAND_file_name() in 0.9.6a returned NULL in this case.  This has
     caused some confusion to Windows users who haven't defined $HOME.
     Thus RAND_file_name() is changed again: e_os.h can define a
     DEFAULT_HOME, which will be used if $HOME is not set.
     For Windows, we use "C:"; on other platforms, we still require
     environment variables.

  *) Move 'if (!initialized) RAND_poll()' into regions protected by
     CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND.  This is not strictly necessary, but avoids
     having multiple threads call RAND_poll() concurrently.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/rand/md_rand.c, replace 'add_do_not_lock' flag by a
     combination of a flag and a thread ID variable.
     Otherwise while one thread is in ssleay_rand_bytes (which sets the
     flag), *other* threads can enter ssleay_add_bytes without obeying
     the CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND lock (and may even illegally release the lock
     that they do not hold after the first thread unsets add_do_not_lock).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change bctest again: '-x' expressions are not available in all
     versions of 'test'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.6 and 0.9.6a  [5 Apr 2001]

  *) Fix a couple of memory leaks in PKCS7_dataDecode()
     [Steve Henson, reported by Heyun Zheng <>]

  *) Change Configure and Makefiles to provide EXE_EXT, which will contain
     the default extension for executables, if any.  Also, make the perl
     scripts that use symlink() to test if it really exists and use "cp"
     if it doesn't.  All this made OpenSSL compilable and installable in
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix for asn1_GetSequence() for indefinite length constructed data.
     If SEQUENCE is length is indefinite just set c->slen to the total
     amount of data available.
     [Steve Henson, reported by]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Change bctest to avoid here-documents inside command substitution
     (workaround for FreeBSD /bin/sh bug).
     For compatibility with Ultrix, avoid shell functions (introduced
     in the bctest version that searches along $PATH).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rename 'des_encrypt' to 'des_encrypt1'.  This avoids the clashes
     with des_encrypt() defined on some operating systems, like Solaris
     and UnixWare.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Check the result of RSA-CRT (see D. Boneh, R. DeMillo, R. Lipton:
     On the Importance of Eliminating Errors in Cryptographic
     Computations, J. Cryptology 14 (2001) 2, 101-119,
     [Ulf Moeller]

  *) MIPS assembler BIGNUM division bug fix.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Disabled incorrect Alpha assembler code.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix PKCS#7 decode routines so they correctly update the length
     after reading an EOC for the EXPLICIT tag.
     [Steve Henson]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Fix bug in PKCS#12 key generation routines. This was triggered
     if a 3DES key was generated with a 0 initial byte. Include
     PKCS12_BROKEN_KEYGEN compilation option to retain the old
     (but broken) behaviour.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance bctest to search for a working bc along $PATH and print
     it when found.
     [Tim Rice <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix memory leaks in err.c: free err_data string if necessary;
     don't write to the wrong index in ERR_set_error_data.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Implement ssl23_peek (analogous to ssl23_read), which previously
     did not exist.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Replace rdtsc with _emit statements for VC++ version 5.
     [Jeremy Cooper <>]

  *) Make it possible to reuse SSLv2 sessions.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) In copy_email() check for >= 0 as a return value for
     X509_NAME_get_index_by_NID() since 0 is a valid index.
     [Steve Henson reported by Massimiliano Pala <>]

  *) Avoid coredump with unsupported or invalid public keys by checking if
     X509_get_pubkey() fails in PKCS7_verify(). Fix memory leak when
     PKCS7_verify() fails with non detached data.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Don't use getenv in library functions when run as setuid/setgid.
     New function OPENSSL_issetugid().
     [Ulf Moeller]

  *) Avoid false positives in memory leak detection code (crypto/mem_dbg.c)
     due to incorrect handling of multi-threading:

     1. Fix timing glitch in the MemCheck_off() portion of CRYPTO_mem_ctrl().

     2. Fix logical glitch in is_MemCheck_on() aka CRYPTO_is_mem_check_on().

     3. Count how many times MemCheck_off() has been called so that
        nested use can be treated correctly.  This also avoids
        inband-signalling in the previous code (which relied on the
        assumption that thread ID 0 is impossible).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add "-rand" option also to s_client and s_server.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix CPU detection on Irix 6.x.
     [Kurt Hockenbury <> and
      "Bruce W. Forsberg" <>]

  *) Fix X509_NAME bug which produced incorrect encoding if X509_NAME
     was empty.
     [Steve Henson]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Use the cached encoding of an X509_NAME structure rather than
     copying it. This is apparently the reason for the libsafe "errors"
     but the code is actually correct.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new function BN_rand_range(), and fix DSA_sign_setup() to prevent
     Bleichenbacher's DSA attack.
     Extend BN_[pseudo_]rand: As before, top=1 forces the highest two bits
     to be set and top=0 forces the highest bit to be set; top=-1 is new
     and leaves the highest bit random.
     [Ulf Moeller, Bodo Moeller]

  *) In the NCONF_...-based implementations for CONF_... queries
     (crypto/conf/conf_lib.c), if the input LHASH is NULL, avoid using
     a temporary CONF structure with the data component set to NULL
     (which gives segmentation faults in lh_retrieve).
     Instead, use NULL for the CONF pointer in CONF_get_string and
     CONF_get_number (which may use environment variables) and directly
     return NULL from CONF_get_section.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix potential buffer overrun for EBCDIC.
     [Ulf Moeller]

  *) Tolerate nonRepudiation as being valid for S/MIME signing and certSign
     keyUsage if basicConstraints absent for a CA.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make SMIME_write_PKCS7() write mail header values with a format that
     is more generally accepted (no spaces before the semicolon), since
     some programs can't parse those values properly otherwise.  Also make
     sure BIO's that break lines after each write do not create invalid
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make the CRL encoding routines work with empty SEQUENCE OF. The
     macros previously used would not encode an empty SEQUENCE OF
     and break the signature.
     [Steve Henson]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Zero the premaster secret after deriving the master secret in
     DH ciphersuites.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add some EVP_add_digest_alias registrations (as found in
     OpenSSL_add_all_digests()) to SSL_library_init()
     aka OpenSSL_add_ssl_algorithms().  This provides improved
     compatibility with peers using X.509 certificates
     with unconventional AlgorithmIdentifier OIDs.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for Irix with NO_ASM.
     ["Bruce W. Forsberg" <>]

  *) ./config script fixes.
     [Ulf Moeller, Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix 'openssl passwd -1'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change PKCS12_key_gen_asc() so it can cope with non null
     terminated strings whose length is passed in the passlen
     parameter, for example from PEM callbacks. This was done
     by adding an extra length parameter to asc2uni().
     [Steve Henson, reported by <>]

  *) Fix C code generated by 'openssl dsaparam -C': If a BN_bin2bn
     call failed, free the DSA structure.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix to uni2asc() to cope with zero length Unicode strings.
     These are present in some PKCS#12 files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Increase s2->wbuf allocation by one byte in ssl2_new (ssl/s2_lib.c).
     Otherwise do_ssl_write (ssl/s2_pkt.c) will write beyond buffer limits
     when writing a 32767 byte record.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem reported by Eric Day <>]

  *) In RSA_eay_public_{en,ed}crypt and RSA_eay_mod_exp (rsa_eay.c),
     obtain lock CRYPTO_LOCK_RSA before setting rsa->_method_mod_{n,p,q}.

     (RSA objects have a reference count access to which is protected
     by CRYPTO_LOCK_RSA [see rsa_lib.c, s3_srvr.c, ssl_cert.c, ssl_rsa.c],
     so they are meant to be shared between threads.)
     [Bodo Moeller, Geoff Thorpe; original patch submitted by
     "Reddie, Steven" <>]

  *) Fix a deadlock in CRYPTO_mem_leaks().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Use better test patterns in bntest.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) rand_win.c fix for Borland C.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) BN_rshift bugfix for n == 0.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add a 'bctest' script that checks for some known 'bc' bugs
     so that 'make test' does not abort just because 'bc' is broken.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Store verify_result within SSL_SESSION also for client side to
     avoid potential security hole. (Re-used sessions on the client side
     always resulted in verify_result==X509_V_OK, not using the original
     result of the server certificate verification.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix ssl3_pending: If the record in s->s3->rrec is not of type
     SSL3_RT_APPLICATION_DATA, return 0.
     Similarly, change ssl2_pending to return 0 if SSL_in_init(s) is true.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix SSL_peek:
     Both ssl2_peek and ssl3_peek, which were totally broken in earlier
     releases, have been re-implemented by renaming the previous
     implementations of ssl2_read and ssl3_read to ssl2_read_internal
     and ssl3_read_internal, respectively, and adding 'peek' parameters
     to them.  The new ssl[23]_{read,peek} functions are calls to
     ssl[23]_read_internal with the 'peek' flag set appropriately.
     A 'peek' parameter has also been added to ssl3_read_bytes, which
     does the actual work for ssl3_read_internal.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Initialise "ex_data" member of RSA/DSA/DH structures prior to calling
     the method-specific "init()" handler. Also clean up ex_data after
     calling the method-specific "finish()" handler. Previously, this was
     happening the other way round.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Increase BN_CTX_NUM (the number of BIGNUMs in a BN_CTX) to 16.
     The previous value, 12, was not always sufficient for BN_mod_exp().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Make sure that shared libraries get the internal name engine with
     the full version number and not just 0.  This should mark the
     shared libraries as not backward compatible.  Of course, this should
     be changed again when we can guarantee backward binary compatibility.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix typo in get_cert_by_subject() in by_dir.c
     [Jean-Marc Desperrier <>]

  *) Rework the system to generate shared libraries:

     - Make note of the expected extension for the shared libraries and
       if there is a need for symbolic links from for example
       to  There is extended info in Configure for

     - Make as few rebuilds of the shared libraries as possible.

     - Still avoid linking the OpenSSL programs with the shared libraries.

     - When installing, install the shared libraries separately from the
       static ones.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix SSL_CTX_set_read_ahead macro to actually use its argument.

     Copy SSL_CTX's read_ahead flag to SSL object directly in SSL_new
     and not in SSL_clear because the latter is also used by the
     accept/connect functions; previously, the settings made by
     SSL_set_read_ahead would be lost during the handshake.
     [Bodo Moeller; problems reported by Anders Gertz <>]

  *) Correct util/ to be selective about disabled algorithms.
     Previously, it would create entries for disabled algorithms no
     matter what.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added several new manual pages for SSL_* function.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

 Changes between 0.9.5a and 0.9.6  [24 Sep 2000]

  *) In ssl23_get_client_hello, generate an error message when faced
     with an initial SSL 3.0/TLS record that is too small to contain the
     first two bytes of the ClientHello message, i.e. client_version.
     (Note that this is a pathologic case that probably has never happened
     in real life.)  The previous approach was to use the version number
     from the record header as a substitute; but our protocol choice
     should not depend on that one because it is not authenticated
     by the Finished messages.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) More robust randomness gathering functions for Windows.
     [Jeffrey Altman <>]

  *) For compatibility reasons if the flag X509_V_FLAG_ISSUER_CHECK is
     not set then we don't setup the error code for issuer check errors
     to avoid possibly overwriting other errors which the callback does
     handle. If an application does set the flag then we assume it knows
     what it is doing and can handle the new informational codes
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix for a nasty bug in ASN1_TYPE handling. ASN1_TYPE is used for
     a general "ANY" type, as such it should be able to decode anything
     including tagged types. However it didn't check the class so it would
     wrongly interpret tagged types in the same way as their universal
     counterpart and unknown types were just rejected. Changed so that the
     tagged and unknown types are handled in the same way as a SEQUENCE:
     that is the encoding is stored intact. There is also a new type
     "V_ASN1_OTHER" which is used when the class is not universal, in this
     case we have no idea what the actual type is so we just lump them all
     [Steve Henson]

  *) On VMS, stdout may very well lead to a file that is written to
     in a record-oriented fashion.  That means that every write() will
     write a separate record, which will be read separately by the
     programs trying to read from it.  This can be very confusing.

     The solution is to put a BIO filter in the way that will buffer
     text until a linefeed is reached, and then write everything a
     line at a time, so every record written will be an actual line,
     not chunks of lines and not (usually doesn't happen, but I've
     seen it once) several lines in one record.  BIO_f_linebuffer() is
     the answer.

     Currently, it's a VMS-only method, because that's where it has
     been tested well enough.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove 'optimized' squaring variant in BN_mod_mul_montgomery,
     it can return incorrect results.
     (Note: The buggy variant was not enabled in OpenSSL 0.9.5a,
     but it was in 0.9.6-beta[12].)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Disable the check for content being present when verifying detached
     signatures in pk7_smime.c. Some versions of Netscape (wrongly)
     include zero length content when signing messages.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New BIO_shutdown_wr macro, which invokes the BIO_C_SHUTDOWN_WR
     BIO_ctrl (for BIO pairs).
     [Bodo Möller]

  *) Add DSO method for VMS.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Bug fix: Montgomery multiplication could produce results with the
     wrong sign.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add RPM specification openssl.spec and modify it to build three
     packages.  The default package contains applications, application
     documentation and run-time libraries.  The devel package contains
     include files, static libraries and function documentation.  The
     doc package contains the contents of the doc directory.  The original
     openssl.spec was provided by Damien Miller <>.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add a large number of documentation files for many SSL routines.
     [Lutz Jaenicke <Lutz.Jaenicke@aet.TU-Cottbus.DE>]

  *) Add a configuration entry for Sony News 4.
     [NAKAJI Hiroyuki <>]

  *) Don't set the two most significant bits to one when generating a
     random number < q in the DSA library.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) New SSL API mode 'SSL_MODE_AUTO_RETRY'.  This disables the default
     behaviour that SSL_read may result in SSL_ERROR_WANT_READ (even if
     the underlying transport is blocking) if a handshake took place.
     (The default behaviour is needed by applications such as s_client
     and s_server that use select() to determine when to use SSL_read;
     but for applications that know in advance when to expect data, it
     just makes things more complicated.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add RAND_egd_bytes(), which gives control over the number of bytes read
     from EGD.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add a few more EBCDIC conditionals that make `req' and `x509'
     work better on such systems.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>]

  *) Add two demo programs for PKCS12_parse() and PKCS12_create().
     Update PKCS12_parse() so it copies the friendlyName and the
     keyid to the certificates aux info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix bug in PKCS7_verify() which caused an infinite loop
     if there was more than one signature.
     [Sven Uszpelkat <>]

  *) Major change in util/ to include extra information
     about each symbol, as well as presenting variables as well
     as functions.  This change means that there's n more need
     to rebuild the .num files when some algorithms are excluded.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Allow the verify time to be set by an application,
     rather than always using the current time.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Phase 2 verify code reorganisation. The certificate
     verify code now looks up an issuer certificate by a
     number of criteria: subject name, authority key id
     and key usage. It also verifies self signed certificates
     by the same criteria. The main comparison function is
     X509_check_issued() which performs these checks.

     Lot of changes were necessary in order to support this
     without completely rewriting the lookup code.

     Authority and subject key identifier are now cached.

     The LHASH 'certs' is X509_STORE has now been replaced
     by a STACK_OF(X509_OBJECT). This is mainly because an
     LHASH can't store or retrieve multiple objects with
     the same hash value.

     As a result various functions (which were all internal
     use only) have changed to handle the new X509_STORE
     structure. This will break anything that messed round
     with X509_STORE internally.

     The functions X509_STORE_add_cert() now checks for an
     exact match, rather than just subject name.

     The X509_STORE API doesn't directly support the retrieval
     of multiple certificates matching a given criteria, however
     this can be worked round by performing a lookup first
     (which will fill the cache with candidate certificates)
     and then examining the cache for matches. This is probably
     the best we can do without throwing out X509_LOOKUP
     entirely (maybe later...).

     The X509_VERIFY_CTX structure has been enhanced considerably.

     All certificate lookup operations now go via a get_issuer()
     callback. Although this currently uses an X509_STORE it
     can be replaced by custom lookups. This is a simple way
     to bypass the X509_STORE hackery necessary to make this
     work and makes it possible to use more efficient techniques
     in future. A very simple version which uses a simple
     STACK for its trusted certificate store is also provided
     using X509_STORE_CTX_trusted_stack().

     The verify_cb() and verify() callbacks now have equivalents
     in the X509_STORE_CTX structure.

     X509_STORE_CTX also has a 'flags' field which can be used
     to customise the verify behaviour.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new PKCS#7 signing option PKCS7_NOSMIMECAP which
     excludes S/MIME capabilities.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) When a certificate request is read in keep a copy of the
     original encoding of the signed data and use it when outputting
     again. Signatures then use the original encoding rather than
     a decoded, encoded version which may cause problems if the
     request is improperly encoded.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) For consistency with other BIO_puts implementations, call
     buffer_write(b, ...) directly in buffer_puts instead of calling
     BIO_write(b, ...).

     In BIO_puts, increment b->num_write as in BIO_write.

  *) Fix BN_mul_word for the case where the word is 0. (We have to use
     BN_zero, we may not return a BIGNUM with an array consisting of
     words set to zero.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid calling abort() from within the library when problems are
     detected, except if preprocessor symbols have been defined
     (such as REF_CHECK, BN_DEBUG etc.).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New openssl application 'rsautl'. This utility can be
     used for low level RSA operations. DER public key
     BIO/fp routines also added.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New Configure entry and patches for compiling on QNX 4.
     [Andreas Schneider <>]

  *) A demo state-machine implementation was sponsored by
     Nuron ( and is now available in
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) New options added to the 'dgst' utility for signature
     generation and verification.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Unrecognized PKCS#7 content types are now handled via a
     catch all ASN1_TYPE structure. This allows unsupported
     types to be stored as a "blob" and an application can
     encode and decode it manually.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix various signed/unsigned issues to make a_strex.c
     compile under VC++.
     [Oscar Jacobsson <>]

  *) ASN1 fixes. i2d_ASN1_OBJECT was not returning the correct
     length if passed a buffer. ASN1_INTEGER_to_BN failed
     if passed a NULL BN and its argument was negative.
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Sven Heiberg <>]

  *) Modification to PKCS#7 encoding routines to output definite
     length encoding. Since currently the whole structures are in
     memory there's not real point in using indefinite length
     constructed encoding. However if OpenSSL is compiled with
     the flag PKCS7_INDEFINITE_ENCODING the old form is used.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added BIO_vprintf() and BIO_vsnprintf().
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added more prefixes to parse for in the strings written
     through a logging bio, to cover all the levels that are available
     through syslog.  The prefixes are now:

        PANIC, EMERG, EMR       =>      LOG_EMERG
        ALERT, ALR              =>      LOG_ALERT
        CRIT, CRI               =>      LOG_CRIT
        ERROR, ERR              =>      LOG_ERR
        WARNING, WARN, WAR      =>      LOG_WARNING
        NOTICE, NOTE, NOT       =>      LOG_NOTICE
        INFO, INF               =>      LOG_INFO
        DEBUG, DBG              =>      LOG_DEBUG

     and as before, if none of those prefixes are present at the
     beginning of the string, LOG_ERR is chosen.

     On Win32, the LOG_* levels are mapped according to this:

        LOG_WARNING                             => EVENTLOG_WARNING_TYPE

     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Made it possible to reconfigure with just the configuration
     argument "reconf" or "reconfigure".  The command line arguments
     are stored in Makefile.ssl in the variable CONFIGURE_ARGS,
     and are retrieved from there when reconfiguring.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) MD4 implemented.
     [Assar Westerlund <>, Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the arguments -CAfile and -CApath to the pkcs12 utility.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) The script was messing up the sorting of object
     names. The reason was that it compared the quoted version
     of strings as a result "OCSP" > "OCSP Signing" because
     " > SPACE. Changed script to store unquoted versions of
     names and add quotes on output. It was also omitting some
     names from the lookup table if they were given a default
     value (that is if SN is missing it is given the same
     value as LN and vice versa), these are now added on the
     grounds that if an object has a name we should be able to
     look it up. Finally added warning output when duplicate
     short or long names are found.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Changes needed for Tandem NSK.
     [Scott Uroff <>]

  *) Fix SSL 2.0 rollback checking: Due to an off-by-one error in
     RSA_padding_check_SSLv23(), special padding was never detected
     and thus the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 countermeasure against protocol
     version rollback attacks was not effective.

     In s23_clnt.c, don't use special rollback-attack detection padding
     (RSA_SSLV23_PADDING) if SSL 2.0 is the only protocol enabled in the
     client; similarly, in s23_srvr.c, don't do the rollback check if
     SSL 2.0 is the only protocol enabled in the server.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Make it possible to get hexdumps of unprintable data with 'openssl
     asn1parse'.  By implication, the functions ASN1_parse_dump() and
     BIO_dump_indent() are added.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New functions ASN1_STRING_print_ex() and X509_NAME_print_ex()
     these print out strings and name structures based on various
     flags including RFC2253 support and proper handling of
     multibyte characters. Added options to the 'x509' utility
     to allow the various flags to be set.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Various fixes to use ASN1_TIME instead of ASN1_UTCTIME.
     Also change the functions X509_cmp_current_time() and
     X509_gmtime_adj() work with an ASN1_TIME structure,
     this will enable certificates using GeneralizedTime in validity
     dates to be checked.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make the NEG_PUBKEY_BUG code (which tolerates invalid
     negative public key encodings) on by default,
     NO_NEG_PUBKEY_BUG can be set to disable it.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function c2i_ASN1_OBJECT() which acts on ASN1_OBJECT
     content octets. An i2c_ASN1_OBJECT is unnecessary because
     the encoding can be trivially obtained from the structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) crypto/err.c locking bugfix: Use write locks (CRYPTO_w_[un]lock),
     not read locks (CRYPTO_r_[un]lock).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) A first attempt at creating official support for shared
     libraries through configuration.  I've kept it so the
     default is static libraries only, and the OpenSSL programs
     are always statically linked for now, but there are
     preparations for dynamic linking in place.
     This has been tested on Linux and Tru64.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Randomness polling function for Win9x, as described in:
     Peter Gutmann, Software Generation of Practically Strong
     Random Numbers.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix so PRNG is seeded in req if using an already existing
     DSA key.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New options to smime application. -inform and -outform
     allow alternative formats for the S/MIME message including
     PEM and DER. The -content option allows the content to be
     specified separately. This should allow things like Netscape
     form signing output easier to verify.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the ASN1 encoding of tags using the 'long form'.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New ASN1 functions, i2c_* and c2i_* for INTEGER and BIT
     STRING types. These convert content octets to and from the
     underlying type. The actual tag and length octets are
     already assumed to have been read in and checked. These
     are needed because all other string types have virtually
     identical handling apart from the tag. By having versions
     of the ASN1 functions that just operate on content octets
     IMPLICIT tagging can be handled properly. It also allows
     the ASN1_ENUMERATED code to be cut down because ASN1_ENUMERATED
     and ASN1_INTEGER are identical apart from the tag.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the handling of OID objects as follows:

     - New object identifiers are inserted in objects.txt, following
       the syntax given in objects.README.
     - is used to process obj_mac.num and create a new
     - is used to create a new obj_dat.h, using the data in

     This is currently kind of a hack, and the perl code in
     isn't very elegant, but it works as I intended.  The simplest way
     to check that it worked correctly is to look in obj_dat.h and
     check the array nid_objs and make sure the objects haven't moved
     around (this is important!).  Additions are OK, as well as
     consistent name changes.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add BSD-style MD5-based passwords to 'openssl passwd' (option '-1').
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Addition of the command line parameter '-rand file' to 'openssl req'.
     The given file adds to whatever has already been seeded into the
     random pool through the RANDFILE configuration file option or
     environment variable, or the default random state file.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) now sorts each macro group into lexical order.
     Previously the output order depended on the order the files
     appeared in the directory, resulting in needless rewriting
     of safestack.h .
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Patches to make OpenSSL compile under Win32 again. Mostly
     work arounds for the VC++ problem that it treats func() as
     func(void). Also stripped out the parts of that
     added extra typesafe functions: these no longer exist.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reorganisation of the stack code. The macros are now all
     collected in safestack.h . Each macro is defined in terms of
     a "stack macro" of the form SKM_<name>(type, a, b). The
     DEBUG_SAFESTACK is now handled in terms of function casts,
     this has the advantage of retaining type safety without the
     use of additional functions. If DEBUG_SAFESTACK is not defined
     then the non typesafe macros are used instead. Also modified the script to handle the new form. Needs testing to see
     if which (if any) compilers it chokes and maybe make DEBUG_SAFESTACK
     the default if no major problems. Similar behaviour for ASN1_SET_OF
     and PKCS12_STACK_OF.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) When some versions of IIS use the 'NET' form of private key the
     key derivation algorithm is different. Normally MD5(password) is
     used as a 128 bit RC4 key. In the modified case
     MD5(MD5(password) + "SGCKEYSALT")  is used instead. Added some
     new functions i2d_RSA_NET(), d2i_RSA_NET() etc which are the same
     as the old Netscape_RSA functions except they have an additional
     'sgckey' parameter which uses the modified algorithm. Also added
     an -sgckey command line option to the rsa utility. Thanks to
     Adrian Peck <> for posting details of the modified
     algorithm to openssl-dev.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) The evp_local.h macros were using 'c.##kname' which resulted in
     invalid expansion on some systems (SCO 5.0.5 for example).
     Corrected to 'c.kname'.
     [Phillip Porch <>]

  *) New X509_get1_email() and X509_REQ_get1_email() functions that return
     a STACK of email addresses from a certificate or request, these look
     in the subject name and the subject alternative name extensions and
     omit any duplicate addresses.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Re-implement BN_mod_exp2_mont using independent (and larger) windows.
     This makes DSA verification about 2 % faster.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Increase maximum window size in BN_mod_exp_... to 6 bits instead of 5
     (meaning that now 2^5 values will be precomputed, which is only 4 KB
     plus overhead for 1024 bit moduli).
     This makes exponentiations about 0.5 % faster for 1024 bit
     exponents (as measured by "openssl speed rsa2048").
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rename memory handling macros to avoid conflicts with other
          Malloc         =>  OPENSSL_malloc
          Malloc_locked  =>  OPENSSL_malloc_locked
          Realloc        =>  OPENSSL_realloc
          Free           =>  OPENSSL_free
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New function BN_mod_exp_mont_word for small bases (roughly 15%
     faster than BN_mod_exp_mont, i.e. 7% for a full DH exchange).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) CygWin32 support.
     [John Jarvie <>]

  *) The type-safe stack code has been rejigged. It is now only compiled
     in when OpenSSL is configured with the DEBUG_SAFESTACK option and
     by default all type-specific stack functions are "#define"d back to
     standard stack functions. This results in more streamlined output
     but retains the type-safety checking possibilities of the original
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) The STACK code has been cleaned up, and certain type declarations
     that didn't make a lot of sense have been brought in line. This has
     also involved a cleanup of sorts in safestack.h to more correctly
     map type-safe stack functions onto their plain stack counterparts.
     This work has also resulted in a variety of "const"ifications of
     lots of the code, especially "_cmp" operations which should normally
     be prototyped with "const" parameters anyway.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) When generating bytes for the first time in md_rand.c, 'stir the pool'
     by seeding with STATE_SIZE dummy bytes (with zero entropy count).
     (The PRNG state consists of two parts, the large pool 'state' and 'md',
     where all of 'md' is used each time the PRNG is used, but 'state'
     is used only indexed by a cyclic counter. As entropy may not be
     well distributed from the beginning, 'md' is important as a
     chaining variable. However, the output function chains only half
     of 'md', i.e. 80 bits.  ssleay_rand_add, on the other hand, chains
     all of 'md', and seeding with STATE_SIZE dummy bytes will result
     in all of 'state' being rewritten, with the new values depending
     on virtually all of 'md'.  This overcomes the 80 bit limitation.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In ssl/s2_clnt.c and ssl/s3_clnt.c, call ERR_clear_error() when
     the handshake is continued after ssl_verify_cert_chain();
     otherwise, if SSL_VERIFY_NONE is set, remaining error codes
     can lead to 'unexplainable' connection aborts later.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem tracked down by Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Major EVP API cipher revision.
     Add hooks for extra EVP features. This allows various cipher
     parameters to be set in the EVP interface. Support added for variable
     key length ciphers via the EVP_CIPHER_CTX_set_key_length() function and
     setting of RC2 and RC5 parameters.

     Modify EVP_OpenInit() and EVP_SealInit() to cope with variable key length

     Remove lots of duplicated code from the EVP library. For example *every*
     cipher init() function handles the 'iv' in the same way according to the
     cipher mode. They also all do nothing if the 'key' parameter is NULL and
     for CFB and OFB modes they zero ctx->num.

     New functionality allows removal of S/MIME code RC2 hack.

     Most of the routines have the same form and so can be declared in terms
     of macros.

     By shifting this to the top level EVP_CipherInit() it can be removed from
     all individual ciphers. If the cipher wants to handle IVs or keys
     differently it can set the EVP_CIPH_CUSTOM_IV or EVP_CIPH_ALWAYS_CALL_INIT

     Change lots of functions like EVP_EncryptUpdate() to now return a
     value: although software versions of the algorithms cannot fail
     any installed hardware versions can.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement SSL_OP_TLS_ROLLBACK_BUG: In ssl3_get_client_key_exchange, if
     this option is set, tolerate broken clients that send the negotiated
     protocol version number instead of the requested protocol version
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Call dh_tmp_cb (set by ..._TMP_DH_CB) with correct 'is_export' flag;
     i.e. non-zero for export ciphersuites, zero otherwise.
     Previous versions had this flag inverted, inconsistent with
     rsa_tmp_cb (..._TMP_RSA_CB).
     [Bodo Moeller; problem reported by Amit Chopra]

  *) Add missing DSA library text string. Work around for some IIS
     key files with invalid SEQUENCE encoding.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a document (doc/standards.txt) that list all kinds of standards
     and so on that are implemented in OpenSSL.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Enhance c_rehash script. Old version would mishandle certificates
     with the same subject name hash and wouldn't handle CRLs at all.
     Added -fingerprint option to crl utility, to support new c_rehash
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Eliminate non-ANSI declarations in crypto.h and stack.h.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix for SSL server purpose checking. Server checking was
     rejecting certificates which had extended key usage present
     but no ssl client purpose.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Rene Grosser <>]

  *) Make PKCS#12 code work with no password. The PKCS#12 spec
     is a little unclear about how a blank password is handled.
     Since the password in encoded as a BMPString with terminating
     double NULL a zero length password would end up as just the
     double NULL. However no password at all is different and is
     handled differently in the PKCS#12 key generation code. NS
     treats a blank password as zero length. MSIE treats it as no
     password on export: but it will try both on import. We now do
     the same: PKCS12_parse() tries zero length and no password if
     the password is set to "" or NULL (NULL is now a valid password:
     it wasn't before) as does the pkcs12 application.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Bugfixes in apps/x509.c: Avoid a memory leak; and don't use
     perror when PEM_read_bio_X509_REQ fails, the error message must
     be obtained from the error queue.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid 'thread_hash' memory leak in crypto/err/err.c by freeing
     it in ERR_remove_state if appropriate, and change ERR_get_state
     accordingly to avoid race conditions (this is necessary because
     thread_hash is no longer constant once set).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix for linux-elf
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) RSA_get_default_method() will now cause a default
     RSA_METHOD to be chosen if one doesn't exist already.
     Previously this was only set during a call to RSA_new()
     or RSA_new_method(NULL) meaning it was possible for
     RSA_get_default_method() to return NULL.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Added native name translation to the existing DSO code
     that will convert (if the flag to do so is set) filenames
     that are sufficiently small and have no path information
     into a canonical native form. Eg. "blah" converted to
     "" or "blah.dll" etc.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) New function ERR_error_string_n(e, buf, len) which is like
     ERR_error_string(e, buf), but writes at most 'len' bytes
     including the 0 terminator.  For ERR_error_string_n, 'buf'
     may not be NULL.
     [Damien Miller <>, Bodo Moeller]

  *) CONF library reworked to become more general.  A new CONF
     configuration file reader "class" is implemented as well as a
     new functions (NCONF_*, for "New CONF") to handle it.  The now
     old CONF_* functions are still there, but are reimplemented to
     work in terms of the new functions.  Also, a set of functions
     to handle the internal storage of the configuration data is
     provided to make it easier to write new configuration file
     reader "classes" (I can definitely see something reading a
     configuration file in XML format, for example), called _CONF_*,
     or "the configuration storage API"...

     The new configuration file reading functions are:

        NCONF_new, NCONF_free, NCONF_load, NCONF_load_fp, NCONF_load_bio,
        NCONF_get_section, NCONF_get_string, NCONF_get_numbre

        NCONF_default, NCONF_WIN32

        NCONF_dump_fp, NCONF_dump_bio

     NCONF_default and NCONF_WIN32 are method (or "class") choosers,
     NCONF_new creates a new CONF object.  This works in the same way
     as other interfaces in OpenSSL, like the BIO interface.
     NCONF_dump_* dump the internal storage of the configuration file,
     which is useful for debugging.  All other functions take the same
     arguments as the old CONF_* functions with the exception of the
     first that must be a `CONF *' instead of a `LHASH *'.

     To make it easier to use the new classes with the old CONF_* functions,
     the function CONF_set_default_method is provided.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add '-tls1' option to 'openssl ciphers', which was already
     mentioned in the documentation but had not been implemented.
     (This option is not yet really useful because even the additional
     experimental TLS 1.0 ciphers are currently treated as SSL 3.0 ciphers.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Initial DSO code added into libcrypto for letting OpenSSL (and
     OpenSSL-based applications) load shared libraries and bind to
     them in a portable way.
     [Geoff Thorpe, with contributions from Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.5 and 0.9.5a  [1 Apr 2000]

  *) Make sure _lrotl and _lrotr are only used with MSVC.

  *) Use lock CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND correctly in ssleay_rand_status
     (the default implementation of RAND_status).

  *) Rename openssl x509 option '-crlext', which was added in 0.9.5,
     to '-clrext' (= clear extensions), as intended and documented.
     [Bodo Moeller; inconsistency pointed out by Michael Attili

  *) Fix for HMAC. It wasn't zeroing the rest of the block if the key length
     was larger than the MD block size.
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Yost William <>]

  *) Modernise PKCS12_parse() so it uses STACK_OF(X509) for its ca argument
     fix a leak when the ca argument was passed as NULL. Stop X509_PUBKEY_set()
     using the passed key: if the passed key was a private key the result
     of X509_print(), for example, would be to print out all the private key
     [Steve Henson]

  *) des_quad_cksum() byte order bug fix.
     [Ulf Möller, using the problem description in krb4-0.9.7, where
      the solution is attributed to Derrick J Brashear <shadow@DEMENTIA.ORG>]

  *) Fix so V_ASN1_APP_CHOOSE works again: however its use is strongly
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Brian Korver <>]

  *) For easily testing in shell scripts whether some command
     'openssl XXX' exists, the new pseudo-command 'openssl no-XXX'
     returns with exit code 0 iff no command of the given name is available.
     'no-XXX' is printed in this case, 'XXX' otherwise.  In both cases,
     the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.
     Additional arguments are always ignored.

     Since for each cipher there is a command of the same name,
     the 'no-cipher' compilation switches can be tested this way.

     ('openssl no-XXX' is not able to detect pseudo-commands such
     as 'quit', 'list-XXX-commands', or 'no-XXX' itself.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Update test suite so that 'make test' succeeds in 'no-rsa' configuration.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) For SSL_[CTX_]set_tmp_dh, don't create a DH key if SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE
     is set; it will be thrown away anyway because each handshake creates
     its own key.
     ssl_cert_dup, which is used by SSL_new, now copies DH keys in addition
     to parameters -- in previous versions (since OpenSSL 0.9.3) the
     'default key' from SSL_CTX_set_tmp_dh would always be lost, meaning
     you effectively got SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE when using this macro.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New s_client option -ign_eof: EOF at stdin is ignored, and
     'Q' and 'R' lose their special meanings (quit/renegotiate).
     This is part of what -quiet does; unlike -quiet, -ign_eof
     does not suppress any output.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add compatibility options to the purpose and trust code. The
     purpose X509_PURPOSE_ANY is "any purpose" which automatically
     accepts a certificate or CA, this was the previous behaviour,
     with all the associated security issues.

     X509_TRUST_COMPAT is the old trust behaviour: only and
     automatically trust self signed roots in certificate store. A
     new trust setting X509_TRUST_DEFAULT is used to specify that
     a purpose has no associated trust setting and it should instead
     use the value in the default purpose.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the PKCS#8 DSA private key code so it decodes keys again
     and fix a memory leak.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In util/ (which implements 'make errors'), preserve
     reason strings from the previous version of the .c file, as
     the default to have only downcase letters (and digits) in
     automatically generated reasons codes is not always appropriate.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In ERR_load_ERR_strings(), build an ERR_LIB_SYS error reason table
     using strerror.  Previously, ERR_reason_error_string() returned
     library names as reason strings for SYSerr; but SYSerr is a special
     case where small numbers are errno values, not library numbers.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add '-dsaparam' option to 'openssl dhparam' application.  This
     converts DSA parameters into DH parameters. (When creating parameters,
     DSA_generate_parameters is used.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Include 'length' (recommended exponent length) in C code generated
     by 'openssl dhparam -C'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) The second argument to set_label in perlasm was already being used
     so couldn't be used as a "file scope" flag. Moved to third argument
     which was free.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In PEM_ASN1_write_bio and some other functions, use RAND_pseudo_bytes
     instead of RAND_bytes for encryption IVs and salts.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Include RAND_status() into RAND_METHOD instead of implementing
     it only for md_rand.c  Otherwise replacing the PRNG by calling
     RAND_set_rand_method would be impossible.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Don't let DSA_generate_key() enter an infinite loop if the random
     number generation fails.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New 'rand' application for creating pseudo-random output.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Added configuration support for Linux/IA64
     [Rolf Haberrecker <>]

  *) Assembler module support for Mingw32.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Shared library support for HPUX (in shlib/).
     [Lutz Jaenicke <Lutz.Jaenicke@aet.TU-Cottbus.DE> and Anonymous]

  *) Shared library support for Solaris gcc.
     [Lutz Behnke <>]

 Changes between 0.9.4 and 0.9.5  [28 Feb 2000]

  *) PKCS7_encrypt() was adding text MIME headers twice because they
     were added manually and by SMIME_crlf_copy().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In bntest.c don't call BN_rand with zero bits argument.
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Andrew W. Gray <>]

  *) BN_mul bugfix: In bn_mul_part_recursion() only the a>a[n] && b>b[n]
     case was implemented. This caused BN_div_recp() to fail occasionally.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add an optional second argument to the set_label() in the perl
     assembly language builder. If this argument exists and is set
     to 1 it signals that the assembler should use a symbol whose
     scope is the entire file, not just the current function. This
     is needed with MASM which uses the format label:: for this scope.
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Peter Runestig <>]

  *) Change the ASN1 types so they are typedefs by default. Before
     almost all types were #define'd to ASN1_STRING which was causing
     STACK_OF() problems: you couldn't declare STACK_OF(ASN1_UTF8STRING)
     for example.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change names of new functions to the new get1/get0 naming
     convention: After 'get1', the caller owns a reference count
     and has to call ..._free; 'get0' returns a pointer to some
     data structure without incrementing reference counters.
     (Some of the existing 'get' functions increment a reference
     counter, some don't.)
     Similarly, 'set1' and 'add1' functions increase reference
     counters or duplicate objects.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow for the possibility of temp RSA key generation failure:
     the code used to assume it always worked and crashed on failure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix potential buffer overrun problem in BIO_printf().
     [Ulf Möller, using public domain code by Patrick Powell; problem
      pointed out by David Sacerdote <>]

  *) Support EGD <>.  New functions
     RAND_egd() and RAND_status().  In the command line application,
     the EGD socket can be specified like a seed file using RANDFILE
     or -rand.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Allow the string CERTIFICATE to be tolerated in PKCS#7 structures.
     Some CAs (e.g. Verisign) distribute certificates in this form.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove the SSL_ALLOW_ADH compile option and set the default cipher
     list to exclude them. This means that no special compilation option
     is needed to use anonymous DH: it just needs to be included in the
     cipher list.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the EVP_MD_CTX_type macro so its meaning consistent with
     EVP_MD_type. The old functionality is available in a new macro called
     EVP_MD_md(). Change code that uses it and update docs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) ..._ctrl functions now have corresponding ..._callback_ctrl functions
     where the 'void *' argument is replaced by a function pointer argument.
     Previously 'void *' was abused to point to functions, which works on
     many platforms, but is not correct.  As these functions are usually
     called by macros defined in OpenSSL header files, most source code
     should work without changes.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) <openssl/opensslconf.h> (which is created by Configure) now contains
     sections with information on -D... compiler switches used for
     compiling the library so that applications can see them.  To enable
     one of these sections, a pre-processor symbol OPENSSL_..._DEFINES
     must be defined.  E.g.,
        #include <openssl/opensslconf.h>
     defines all pertinent NO_<algo> symbols, such as NO_IDEA, NO_RSA, etc.
     [Richard Levitte, Ulf and Bodo Möller]

  *) Bugfix: Tolerate fragmentation and interleaving in the SSL 3/TLS
     record layer.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change the 'other' type in certificate aux info to a STACK_OF
     X509_ALGOR. Although not an AlgorithmIdentifier as such it has
     the required ASN1 format: arbitrary types determined by an OID.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add some PEM_write_X509_REQ_NEW() functions and a command line
     argument to 'req'. This is not because the function is newer or
     better than others it just uses the work 'NEW' in the certificate
     request header lines. Some software needs this.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reorganise password command line arguments: now passwords can be
     obtained from various sources. Delete the PEM_cb function and make
     it the default behaviour: i.e. if the callback is NULL and the
     usrdata argument is not NULL interpret it as a null terminated pass
     phrase. If usrdata and the callback are NULL then the pass phrase
     is prompted for as usual.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for the Compaq Atalla crypto accelerator. If it is installed,
     the support is automatically enabled. The resulting binaries will
     autodetect the card and use it if present.
     [Ben Laurie and Compaq Inc.]

  *) Work around for Netscape hang bug. This sends certificate request
     and server done in one record. Since this is perfectly legal in the
     SSL/TLS protocol it isn't a "bug" option and is on by default. See
     the bugs/SSLv3 entry for more info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) HP-UX tune-up: new unified configs, HP C compiler bug workaround.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add -rand argument to smime and pkcs12 applications and read/write
     of seed file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New 'passwd' tool for crypt(3) and apr1 password hashes.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add command line password options to the remaining applications.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Bug fix for BN_div_recp() for numerators with an even number of
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) More tests in bntest.c, and changed test_bn output.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) ./config recognizes MacOS X now.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Bug fix for BN_div() when the first words of num and divisor are
     equal (it gave wrong results if (rem=(n1-q*d0)&BN_MASK2) < d0).
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add support for various broken PKCS#8 formats, and command line
     options to produce them.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions BN_CTX_start(), BN_CTX_get() and BT_CTX_end() to
     get temporary BIGNUMs from a BN_CTX.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Correct return values in BN_mod_exp_mont() and BN_mod_exp2_mont()
     for p == 0.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Change the SSLeay_add_all_*() functions to OpenSSL_add_all_*() and
     include a #define from the old name to the new. The original intent
     was that statically linked binaries could for example just call
     SSLeay_add_all_ciphers() to just add ciphers to the table and not
     link with digests. This never worked because SSLeay_add_all_digests()
     and SSLeay_add_all_ciphers() were in the same source file so calling
     one would link with the other. They are now in separate source files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new -notext option to 'ca' and a -pubkey option to 'spkac'.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Use a less unusual form of the Miller-Rabin primality test (it used
     a binary algorithm for exponentiation integrated into the Miller-Rabin
     loop, our standard modexp algorithms are faster).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Support for the EBCDIC character set completed.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@Mch.SNI.De>]

  *) Source code cleanups: use const where appropriate, eliminate casts,
     use void * instead of char * in lhash.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Bugfix: ssl3_send_server_key_exchange was not restartable
     (the state was not changed to SSL3_ST_SW_KEY_EXCH_B, and because of
     this the server could overwrite ephemeral keys that the client
     has already seen).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Turn DSA_is_prime into a macro that calls BN_is_prime,
     using 50 iterations of the Rabin-Miller test.

     DSA_generate_parameters now uses BN_is_prime_fasttest (with 50
     iterations of the Rabin-Miller test as required by the appendix
     to FIPS PUB 186[-1]) instead of DSA_is_prime.
     As BN_is_prime_fasttest includes trial division, DSA parameter
     generation becomes much faster.

     This implies a change for the callback functions in DSA_is_prime
     and DSA_generate_parameters: The callback function is called once
     for each positive witness in the Rabin-Miller test, not just
     occasionally in the inner loop; and the parameters to the
     callback function now provide an iteration count for the outer
     loop rather than for the current invocation of the inner loop.
     DSA_generate_parameters additionally can call the callback
     function with an 'iteration count' of -1, meaning that a
     candidate has passed the trial division test (when q is generated
     from an application-provided seed, trial division is skipped).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function BN_is_prime_fasttest that optionally does trial
     division before starting the Rabin-Miller test and has
     an additional BN_CTX * argument (whereas BN_is_prime always
     has to allocate at least one BN_CTX).
     'callback(1, -1, cb_arg)' is called when a number has passed the
     trial division stage.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for bug in CRL encoding. The validity dates weren't being handled
     as ASN1_TIME.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New -pkcs12 option to script to write out a PKCS#12 file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function BN_pseudo_rand().
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Clean up BN_mod_mul_montgomery(): replace the broken (and unreadable)
     bignum version of BN_from_montgomery() with the working code from
     SSLeay 0.9.0 (the word based version is faster anyway), and clean up
     the comments.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Avoid a race condition in s2_clnt.c (function get_server_hello) that
     made it impossible to use the same SSL_SESSION data structure in
     SSL2 clients in multiple threads.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) The return value of RAND_load_file() no longer counts bytes obtained
     by stat().  RAND_load_file(..., -1) is new and uses the complete file
     to seed the PRNG (previously an explicit byte count was required).
     [Ulf Möller, Bodo Möller]

  *) Clean up CRYPTO_EX_DATA functions, some of these didn't have prototypes
     used (char *) instead of (void *) and had casts all over the place.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make BN_generate_prime() return NULL on error if ret!=NULL.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Retain source code compatibility for BN_prime_checks macro:
     BN_is_prime(..., BN_prime_checks, ...) now uses
     BN_prime_checks_for_size to determine the appropriate number of
     Rabin-Miller iterations.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Diffie-Hellman uses "safe" primes: DH_check() return code renamed to
     (Check if this is true? OpenPGP calls them "strong".)
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Merge the functionality of "dh" and "gendh" programs into a new program
     "dhparam". The old programs are retained for now but will handle DH keys
     (instead of parameters) in future.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make the ciphers, s_server and s_client programs check the return values
     when a new cipher list is set.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance the SSL/TLS cipher mechanism to correctly handle the TLS 56bit
     ciphers. Before when the 56bit ciphers were enabled the sorting was

     The syntax for the cipher sorting has been extended to support sorting by
     cipher-strength (using the strength_bits hard coded in the tables).
     The new command is "@STRENGTH" (see also doc/apps/ciphers.pod).

     Fix a bug in the cipher-command parser: when supplying a cipher command
     string with an "undefined" symbol (neither command nor alphanumeric
     [A-Za-z0-9], ssl_set_cipher_list used to hang in an endless loop. Now
     an error is flagged.

     Due to the strength-sorting extension, the code of the
     ssl_create_cipher_list() function was completely rearranged. I hope that
     the readability was also increased :-)
     [Lutz Jaenicke <Lutz.Jaenicke@aet.TU-Cottbus.DE>]

  *) Minor change to 'x509' utility. The -CAcreateserial option now uses 1
     for the first serial number and places 2 in the serial number file. This
     avoids problems when the root CA is created with serial number zero and
     the first user certificate has the same issuer name and serial number
     as the root CA.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to X509_ATTRIBUTE utilities, change the 'req' program so it uses
     the new code. Add documentation for this stuff.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Changes to X509_ATTRIBUTE utilities. These have been renamed from
     X509_*() to X509at_*() on the grounds that they don't handle X509
     structures and behave in an analogous way to the X509v3 functions:
     they shouldn't be called directly but wrapper functions should be used

     So we also now have some wrapper functions that call the X509at functions
     when passed certificate requests. (TO DO: similar things can be done with
     PKCS#7 signed and unsigned attributes, PKCS#12 attributes and a few other
     things. Some of these need some d2i or i2d and print functionality
     because they handle more complex structures.)
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add missing #ifndefs that caused missing symbols when building libssl
     as a shared library without RSA.  Use #ifndef NO_SSL2 instead of
     NO_RSA in ssl/s2*.c.
     [Kris Kennaway <>, modified by Ulf Möller]

  *) Precautions against using the PRNG uninitialized: RAND_bytes() now
     has a return value which indicates the quality of the random data
     (1 = ok, 0 = not seeded).  Also an error is recorded on the thread's
     error queue. New function RAND_pseudo_bytes() generates output that is
     guaranteed to be unique but not unpredictable. RAND_add is like
     RAND_seed, but takes an extra argument for an entropy estimate
     (RAND_seed always assumes full entropy).
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Do more iterations of Rabin-Miller probable prime test (specifically,
     3 for 1024-bit primes, 6 for 512-bit primes, 12 for 256-bit primes
     instead of only 2 for all lengths; see BN_prime_checks_for_size definition
     in crypto/bn/bn_prime.c for the complete table).  This guarantees a
     false-positive rate of at most 2^-80 for random input.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rewrite ssl3_read_n (ssl/s3_pkt.c) avoiding a couple of bugs.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function X509_CTX_rget_chain() (renamed to X509_CTX_get1_chain
     in the 0.9.5 release), this returns the chain
     from an X509_CTX structure with a dup of the stack and all
     the X509 reference counts upped: so the stack will exist
     after X509_CTX_cleanup() has been called. Modify pkcs12.c
     to use this.

     Also make SSL_SESSION_print() print out the verify return
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add manpage for the pkcs12 command. Also change the default
     behaviour so MAC iteration counts are used unless the new
     -nomaciter option is used. This improves file security and
     only older versions of MSIE (4.0 for example) need it.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Honor the no-xxx Configure options when creating .DEF files.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add PKCS#10 attributes to field table: challengePassword,
     unstructuredName and unstructuredAddress. These are taken from
     draft PKCS#9 v2.0 but are compatible with v1.2 provided no
     international characters are used.

     More changes to X509_ATTRIBUTE code: allow the setting of types
     based on strings. Remove the 'loc' parameter when adding
     attributes because these will be a SET OF encoding which is sorted
     in ASN1 order.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial changes to the 'req' utility to allow request generation
     automation. This will allow an application to just generate a template
     file containing all the field values and have req construct the

     Initial support for X509_ATTRIBUTE handling. Stacks of these are
     used all over the place including certificate requests and PKCS#7
     structures. They are currently handled manually where necessary with
     some primitive wrappers for PKCS#7. The new functions behave in a
     manner analogous to the X509 extension functions: they allow
     attributes to be looked up by NID and added.

     Later something similar to the X509V3 code would be desirable to
     automatically handle the encoding, decoding and printing of the
     more complex types. The string types like challengePassword can
     be handled by the string table functions.

     Also modified the multi byte string table handling. Now there is
     a 'global mask' which masks out certain types. The table itself
     can use the flag STABLE_NO_MASK to ignore the mask setting: this
     is useful when for example there is only one permissible type
     (as in countryName) and using the mask might result in no valid
     types at all.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Clean up 'Finished' handling, and add functions SSL_get_finished and
     SSL_get_peer_finished to allow applications to obtain the latest
     Finished messages sent to the peer or expected from the peer,
     respectively.  (SSL_get_peer_finished is usually the Finished message
     actually received from the peer, otherwise the protocol will be aborted.)

     As the Finished message are message digests of the complete handshake
     (with a total of 192 bits for TLS 1.0 and more for SSL 3.0), they can
     be used for external authentication procedures when the authentication
     provided by SSL/TLS is not desired or is not enough.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Enhanced support for Alpha Linux is added. Now ./config checks if
     the host supports BWX extension and if Compaq C is present on the
     $PATH. Just exploiting of the BWX extension results in 20-30%
     performance kick for some algorithms, e.g. DES and RC4 to mention
     a couple. Compaq C in turn generates ~20% faster code for MD5 and
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add support for MS "fast SGC". This is arguably a violation of the
     SSL3/TLS protocol. Netscape SGC does two handshakes: the first with
     weak crypto and after checking the certificate is SGC a second one
     with strong crypto. MS SGC stops the first handshake after receiving
     the server certificate message and sends a second client hello. Since
     a server will typically do all the time consuming operations before
     expecting any further messages from the client (server key exchange
     is the most expensive) there is little difference between the two.

     To get OpenSSL to support MS SGC we have to permit a second client
     hello message after we have sent server done. In addition we have to
     reset the MAC if we do get this second client hello.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a function 'd2i_AutoPrivateKey()' this will automatically decide
     if a DER encoded private key is RSA or DSA traditional format. Changed
     d2i_PrivateKey_bio() to use it. This is only needed for the "traditional"
     format DER encoded private key. Newer code should use PKCS#8 format which
     has the key type encoded in the ASN1 structure. Added DER private key
     support to pkcs8 application.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) SSL 3/TLS 1 servers now don't request certificates when an anonymous
     ciphersuites has been selected (as required by the SSL 3/TLS 1
     specifications).  Exception: When SSL_VERIFY_FAIL_IF_NO_PEER_CERT
     is set, we interpret this as a request to violate the specification
     (the worst that can happen is a handshake failure, and 'correct'
     behaviour would result in a handshake failure anyway).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In SSL_CTX_add_session, take into account that there might be multiple
     SSL_SESSION structures with the same session ID (e.g. when two threads
     concurrently obtain them from an external cache).
     The internal cache can handle only one SSL_SESSION with a given ID,
     so if there's a conflict, we now throw out the old one to achieve
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add OIDs for idea and blowfish in CBC mode. This will allow both
     to be used in PKCS#5 v2.0 and S/MIME.  Also add checking to
     some routines that use cipher OIDs: some ciphers do not have OIDs
     defined and so they cannot be used for S/MIME and PKCS#5 v2.0 for
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Simplify the trust setting structure and code. Now we just have
     two sequences of OIDs for trusted and rejected settings. These will
     typically have values the same as the extended key usage extension
     and any application specific purposes.

     The trust checking code now has a default behaviour: it will just
     check for an object with the same NID as the passed id. Functions can
     be provided to override either the default behaviour or the behaviour
     for a given id. SSL client, server and email already have functions
     in place for compatibility: they check the NID and also return "trusted"
     if the certificate is self signed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add d2i,i2d bio/fp functions for PrivateKey: these convert the
     traditional format into an EVP_PKEY structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a password callback function PEM_cb() which either prompts for
     a password if usr_data is NULL or otherwise assumes it is a null
     terminated password. Allow passwords to be passed on command line
     environment or config files in a few more utilities.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a bunch of DER and PEM functions to handle PKCS#8 format private
     keys. Add some short names for PKCS#8 PBE algorithms and allow them
     to be specified on the command line for the pkcs8 and pkcs12 utilities.
     Update documentation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for ASN1 "NULL" type. This could be handled before by using
     ASN1_TYPE but there wasn't any function that would try to read a NULL
     and produce an error if it couldn't. For compatibility we also have
     ASN1_NULL_new() and ASN1_NULL_free() functions but these are faked and
     don't allocate anything because they don't need to.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for MacOS is now provided. Examine INSTALL.MacOS
     for details.
     [Andy Polyakov, Roy Woods <>]

  *) Rebuild of the memory allocation routines used by OpenSSL code and
     possibly others as well.  The purpose is to make an interface that
     provide hooks so anyone can build a separate set of allocation and
     deallocation routines to be used by OpenSSL, for example memory
     pool implementations, or something else, which was previously hard
     since Malloc(), Realloc() and Free() were defined as macros having
     the values malloc, realloc and free, respectively (except for Win32
     compilations).  The same is provided for memory debugging code.
     OpenSSL already comes with functionality to find memory leaks, but
     this gives people a chance to debug other memory problems.

     With these changes, a new set of functions and macros have appeared:

       CRYPTO_set_mem_debug_functions()         [F]
       CRYPTO_get_mem_debug_functions()         [F]
       CRYPTO_dbg_set_options()                 [F]
       CRYPTO_dbg_get_options()                 [F]
       CRYPTO_malloc_debug_init()               [M]

     The memory debug functions are NULL by default, unless the library
     is compiled with CRYPTO_MDEBUG or friends is defined.  If someone
     wants to debug memory anyway, CRYPTO_malloc_debug_init() (which
     gives the standard debugging functions that come with OpenSSL) or
     CRYPTO_set_mem_debug_functions() (tells OpenSSL to use functions
     provided by the library user) must be used.  When the standard
     debugging functions are used, CRYPTO_dbg_set_options can be used to
     request additional information:
     CRYPTO_dbg_set_options(V_CYRPTO_MDEBUG_xxx) corresponds to setting
     the CRYPTO_MDEBUG_xxx macro when compiling the library.

     Also, things like CRYPTO_set_mem_functions will always give the
     expected result (the new set of functions is used for allocation
     and deallocation) at all times, regardless of platform and compiler

     To finish it up, some functions that were never use in any other
     way than through macros have a new API and new semantic:


     All macros of value have retained their old syntax.
     [Richard Levitte and Bodo Moeller]

  *) Some S/MIME fixes. The OID for SMIMECapabilities was wrong, the
     ordering of SMIMECapabilities wasn't in "strength order" and there
     was a missing NULL in the AlgorithmIdentifier for the SHA1 signature
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Some ASN1 types with illegal zero length encoding (INTEGER,
     ENUMERATED and OBJECT IDENTIFIER) choked the ASN1 routines.
     [Frans Heymans <>, modified by Steve Henson]

  *) Merge in my S/MIME library for OpenSSL. This provides a simple
     S/MIME API on top of the PKCS#7 code, a MIME parser (with enough
     functionality to handle multipart/signed properly) and a utility
     called 'smime' to call all this stuff. This is based on code I
     originally wrote for Celo who have kindly allowed it to be
     included in OpenSSL.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add variants des_set_key_checked and des_set_key_unchecked of
     des_set_key (aka des_key_sched).  Global variable des_check_key
     decides which of these is called by des_set_key; this way
     des_check_key behaves as it always did, but applications and
     the library itself, which was buggy for des_check_key == 1,
     have a cleaner way to pick the version they need.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function PKCS12_newpass() which changes the password of a
     PKCS12 structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify X509_TRUST and X509_PURPOSE so it also uses a static and
     dynamic mix. In both cases the ids can be used as an index into the
     table. Also modified the X509_TRUST_add() and X509_PURPOSE_add()
     functions so they accept a list of the field values and the
     application doesn't need to directly manipulate the X509_TRUST
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the ASN1_STRING_TABLE stuff so it also uses bsearch and doesn't
     need initialising.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the way the V3 extension code looks up extensions. This now
     works in a similar way to the object code: we have some "standard"
     extensions in a static table which is searched with OBJ_bsearch()
     and the application can add dynamic ones if needed. The file
     crypto/x509v3/ext_dat.h now has the info: this file needs to be
     updated whenever a new extension is added to the core code and kept
     in ext_nid order. There is a simple program 'tabtest.c' which checks
     this. New extensions are not added too often so this file can readily
     be maintained manually.

     There are two big advantages in doing things this way. The extensions
     can be looked up immediately and no longer need to be "added" using
     X509V3_add_standard_extensions(): this function now does nothing.
     [Side note: I get *lots* of email saying the extension code doesn't
      work because people forget to call this function]
     Also no dynamic allocation is done unless new extensions are added:
     so if we don't add custom extensions there is no need to call
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify enc utility's salting as follows: make salting the default. Add a
     magic header, so unsalted files fail gracefully instead of just decrypting
     to garbage. This is because not salting is a big security hole, so people
     should be discouraged from doing it.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fixes and enhancements to the 'x509' utility. It allowed a message
     digest to be passed on the command line but it only used this
     parameter when signing a certificate. Modified so all relevant
     operations are affected by the digest parameter including the
     -fingerprint and -x509toreq options. Also -x509toreq choked if a
     DSA key was used because it didn't fix the digest.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial certificate chain verify code. Currently tests the untrusted
     certificates for consistency with the verify purpose (which is set
     when the X509_STORE_CTX structure is set up) and checks the pathlength.

     There is a NO_CHAIN_VERIFY compilation option to keep the old behaviour:
     this is because it will reject chains with invalid extensions whereas
     every previous version of OpenSSL and SSLeay made no checks at all.

     Trust code: checks the root CA for the relevant trust settings. Trust
     settings have an initial value consistent with the verify purpose: e.g.
     if the verify purpose is for SSL client use it expects the CA to be
     trusted for SSL client use. However the default value can be changed to
     permit custom trust settings: one example of this would be to only trust
     certificates from a specific "secure" set of CAs.

     Also added X509_STORE_CTX_new() and X509_STORE_CTX_free() functions
     which should be used for version portability: especially since the
     verify structure is likely to change more often now.

     SSL integration. Add purpose and trust to SSL_CTX and SSL and functions
     to set them. If not set then assume SSL clients will verify SSL servers
     and vice versa.

     Two new options to the verify program: -untrusted allows a set of
     untrusted certificates to be passed in and -purpose which sets the
     intended purpose of the certificate. If a purpose is set then the
     new chain verify code is used to check extension consistency.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for the authority information access extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify RSA and DSA PEM read routines to transparently handle
     PKCS#8 format private keys. New *_PUBKEY_* functions that handle
     public keys in a format compatible with certificate
     SubjectPublicKeyInfo structures. Unfortunately there were already
     functions called *_PublicKey_* which used various odd formats so
     these are retained for compatibility: however the DSA variants were
     never in a public release so they have been deleted. Changed dsa/rsa
     utilities to handle the new format: note no releases ever handled public
     keys so we should be OK.

     The primary motivation for this change is to avoid the same fiasco
     that dogs private keys: there are several incompatible private key
     formats some of which are standard and some OpenSSL specific and
     require various evil hacks to allow partial transparent handling and
     even then it doesn't work with DER formats. Given the option anything
     other than PKCS#8 should be dumped: but the other formats have to
     stay in the name of compatibility.

     With public keys and the benefit of hindsight one standard format
     is used which works with EVP_PKEY, RSA or DSA structures: though
     it clearly returns an error if you try to read the wrong kind of key.

     Added a -pubkey option to the 'x509' utility to output the public key.
     Also rename the EVP_PKEY_get_*() to EVP_PKEY_rget_*()
     (renamed to EVP_PKEY_get1_*() in the OpenSSL 0.9.5 release) and add
     EVP_PKEY_rset_*() functions (renamed to EVP_PKEY_set1_*())
     that do the same as the EVP_PKEY_assign_*() except they up the
     reference count of the added key (they don't "swallow" the
     supplied key).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to crypto/x509/by_file.c the code to read in certificates and
     CRLs would fail if the file contained no certificates or no CRLs:
     added a new function to read in both types and return the number
     read: this means that if none are read it will be an error. The
     DER versions of the certificate and CRL reader would always fail
     because it isn't possible to mix certificates and CRLs in DER format
     without choking one or the other routine. Changed this to just read
     a certificate: this is the best we can do. Also modified the code
     in apps/verify.c to take notice of return codes: it was previously
     attempting to read in certificates from NULL pointers and ignoring
     any errors: this is one reason why the cert and CRL reader seemed
     to work. It doesn't check return codes from the default certificate
     routines: these may well fail if the certificates aren't installed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Code to support otherName option in GeneralName.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) First update to verify code. Change the verify utility
     so it warns if it is passed a self signed certificate:
     for consistency with the normal behaviour. X509_verify
     has been modified to it will now verify a self signed
     certificate if *exactly* the same certificate appears
     in the store: it was previously impossible to trust a
     single self signed certificate. This means that:
     openssl verify ss.pem
     now gives a warning about a self signed certificate but
     openssl verify -CAfile ss.pem ss.pem
     is OK.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) For servers, store verify_result in SSL_SESSION data structure
     (and add it to external session representation).
     This is needed when client certificate verifications fails,
     but an application-provided verification callback (set by
     SSL_CTX_set_cert_verify_callback) allows accepting the session
     anyway (i.e. leaves x509_store_ctx->error != X509_V_OK
     but returns 1): When the session is reused, we have to set
     ssl->verify_result to the appropriate error code to avoid
     security holes.
     [Bodo Moeller, problem pointed out by Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix a bug in the new PKCS#7 code: it didn't consider the
     case in PKCS7_dataInit() where the signed PKCS7 structure
     didn't contain any existing data because it was being created.
     [Po-Cheng Chen <>, slightly modified by Steve Henson]

  *) Add a salt to the key derivation routines in enc.c. This
     forms the first 8 bytes of the encrypted file. Also add a
     -S option to allow a salt to be input on the command line.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function X509_cmp(). Oddly enough there wasn't a function
     to compare two certificates. We do this by working out the SHA1
     hash and comparing that. X509_cmp() will be needed by the trust
     [Steve Henson]

  *) SSL_get1_session() is like SSL_get_session(), but increments
     the reference count in the SSL_SESSION returned.
     [Geoff Thorpe <>]

  *) Fix for 'req': it was adding a null to request attributes.
     Also change the X509_LOOKUP and X509_INFO code to handle
     certificate auxiliary information.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for 40 and 64 bit RC2 and RC4 algorithms: document
     the 'enc' command.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add the possibility to add extra information to the memory leak
     detecting output, to form tracebacks, showing from where each
     allocation was originated: CRYPTO_push_info("constant string") adds
     the string plus current file name and line number to a per-thread
     stack, CRYPTO_pop_info() does the obvious, CRYPTO_remove_all_info()
     is like calling CYRPTO_pop_info() until the stack is empty.
     Also updated memory leak detection code to be multi-thread-safe.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add options -text and -noout to pkcs7 utility and delete the
     encryption options which never did anything. Update docs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add options to some of the utilities to allow the pass phrase
     to be included on either the command line (not recommended on
     OSes like Unix) or read from the environment. Update the
     manpages and fix a few bugs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a few manpages for some of the openssl commands.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the -revoke option in ca. It was freeing up memory twice,
     leaking and not finding already revoked certificates.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extensive changes to support certificate auxiliary information.
     This involves the use of X509_CERT_AUX structure and X509_AUX
     functions. An X509_AUX function such as PEM_read_X509_AUX()
     can still read in a certificate file in the usual way but it
     will also read in any additional "auxiliary information". By
     doing things this way a fair degree of compatibility can be
     retained: existing certificates can have this information added
     using the new 'x509' options.

     Current auxiliary information includes an "alias" and some trust
     settings. The trust settings will ultimately be used in enhanced
     certificate chain verification routines: currently a certificate
     can only be trusted if it is self signed and then it is trusted
     for all purposes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix assembler for Alpha (tested only on DEC OSF not Linux or *BSD).
     The problem was that one of the replacement routines had not been working
     since SSLeay releases.  For now the offending routine has been replaced
     with non-optimised assembler.  Even so, this now gives around 95%
     performance improvement for 1024 bit RSA signs.
     [Mark Cox]

  *) Hack to fix PKCS#7 decryption when used with some unorthodox RC2
     handling. Most clients have the effective key size in bits equal to
     the key length in bits: so a 40 bit RC2 key uses a 40 bit (5 byte) key.
     A few however don't do this and instead use the size of the decrypted key
     to determine the RC2 key length and the AlgorithmIdentifier to determine
     the effective key length. In this case the effective key length can still
     be 40 bits but the key length can be 168 bits for example. This is fixed
     by manually forcing an RC2 key into the EVP_PKEY structure because the
     EVP code can't currently handle unusual RC2 key sizes: it always assumes
     the key length and effective key length are equal.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a bunch of functions that should simplify the creation of
     X509_NAME structures. Now you should be able to do:
     X509_NAME_add_entry_by_txt(nm, "CN", MBSTRING_ASC, "Steve", -1, -1, 0);
     and have it automatically work out the correct field type and fill in
     the structures. The more adventurous can try:
     X509_NAME_add_entry_by_txt(nm, field, MBSTRING_UTF8, str, -1, -1, 0);
     and it will (hopefully) work out the correct multibyte encoding.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the 'req' utility to use the new field handling and multibyte
     copy routines. Before the DN field creation was handled in an ad hoc
     way in req, ca, and x509 which was rather broken and didn't support
     BMPStrings or UTF8Strings. Since some software doesn't implement
     BMPStrings or UTF8Strings yet, they can be enabled using the config file
     using the dirstring_type option. See the new comment in the default
     openssl.cnf for more info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make crypto/rand/md_rand.c more robust:
     - Assure unique random numbers after fork().
     - Make sure that concurrent threads access the global counter and
       md serializably so that we never lose entropy in them
       or use exactly the same state in multiple threads.
       Access to the large state is not always serializable because
       the additional locking could be a performance killer, and
       md should be large enough anyway.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New file apps/app_rand.c with commonly needed functionality
     for handling the random seed file.

     Use the random seed file in some applications that previously did not:
          dsaparam -genkey (which also ignored its '-rand' option),
          x509 (when signing).
     Except on systems with /dev/urandom, it is crucial to have a random
     seed file at least for key creation, DSA signing, and for DH exchanges;
     for RSA signatures we could do without one.

     gendh and gendsa (unlike genrsa) used to read only the first byte
     of each file listed in the '-rand' option.  The function as previously
     found in genrsa is now in app_rand.c and is used by all programs
     that support '-rand'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In RAND_write_file, use mode 0600 for creating files;
     don't just chmod when it may be too late.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Report an error from X509_STORE_load_locations
     when X509_LOOKUP_load_file or X509_LOOKUP_add_dir failed.
     [Bill Perry]

  *) New function ASN1_mbstring_copy() this copies a string in either
     ASCII, Unicode, Universal (4 bytes per character) or UTF8 format
     into an ASN1_STRING type. A mask of permissible types is passed
     and it chooses the "minimal" type to use or an error if not type
     is suitable.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add function equivalents to the various macros in asn1.h. The old
     macros are retained with an M_ prefix. Code inside the library can
     use the M_ macros. External code (including the openssl utility)
     should *NOT* in order to be "shared library friendly".
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add various functions that can check a certificate's extensions
     to see if it usable for various purposes such as SSL client,
     server or S/MIME and CAs of these types. This is currently
     VERY EXPERIMENTAL but will ultimately be used for certificate chain
     verification. Also added a -purpose flag to x509 utility to
     print out all the purposes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a CRYPTO_EX_DATA to X509 certificate structure and associated
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New X509V3_{X509,CRL,REVOKED}_get_d2i() functions. These will search
     for, obtain and decode and extension and obtain its critical flag.
     This allows all the necessary extension code to be handled in a
     single function call.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) RC4 tune-up featuring 30-40% performance improvement on most RISC
     platforms. See crypto/rc4/rc4_enc.c for further details.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) New -noout option to asn1parse. This causes no output to be produced
     its main use is when combined with -strparse and -out to extract data
     from a file (which may not be in ASN.1 format).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix for pkcs12 program. It was hashing an invalid certificate pointer
     when producing the local key id.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) New option -dhparam in s_server. This allows a DH parameter file to be
     stated explicitly. If it is not stated then it tries the first server
     certificate file. The previous behaviour hard coded the filename
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add -pubin and -pubout options to the rsa and dsa commands. These allow
     a public key to be input or output. For example:
     openssl rsa -in key.pem -pubout -out pubkey.pem
     Also added necessary DSA public key functions to handle this.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix so PKCS7_dataVerify() doesn't crash if no certificates are contained
     in the message. This was handled by allowing
     X509_find_by_issuer_and_serial() to tolerate a NULL passed to it.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Sampo Kellomaki <>]

  *) Fix for bug in d2i_ASN1_bytes(): other ASN1 functions add an extra null
     to the end of the strings whereas this didn't. This would cause problems
     if strings read with d2i_ASN1_bytes() were later modified.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Fix for base64 decode bug. When a base64 bio reads only one line of
     data and it contains EOF it will end up returning an error. This is
     caused by input 46 bytes long. The cause is due to the way base64
     BIOs find the start of base64 encoded data. They do this by trying a
     trial decode on each line until they find one that works. When they
     do a flag is set and it starts again knowing it can pass all the
     data directly through the decoder. Unfortunately it doesn't reset
     the context it uses. This means that if EOF is reached an attempt
     is made to pass two EOFs through the context and this causes the
     resulting error. This can also cause other problems as well. As is
     usual with these problems it takes *ages* to find and the fix is
     trivial: move one line.
     [Steve Henson, reported by (Ivan Nejgebauer) ]

  *) Ugly workaround to get s_client and s_server working under Windows. The
     old code wouldn't work because it needed to select() on sockets and the
     tty (for keypresses and to see if data could be written). Win32 only
     supports select() on sockets so we select() with a 1s timeout on the
     sockets and then see if any characters are waiting to be read, if none
     are present then we retry, we also assume we can always write data to
     the tty. This isn't nice because the code then blocks until we've
     received a complete line of data and it is effectively polling the
     keyboard at 1s intervals: however it's quite a bit better than not
     working at all :-) A dedicated Windows application might handle this
     with an event loop for example.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance RSA_METHOD structure. Now there are two extra methods, rsa_sign
     and rsa_verify. When the RSA_FLAGS_SIGN_VER option is set these functions
     will be called when RSA_sign() and RSA_verify() are used. This is useful
     if rsa_pub_dec() and rsa_priv_enc() equivalents are not available.
     For this to work properly RSA_public_decrypt() and RSA_private_encrypt()
     should *not* be used: RSA_sign() and RSA_verify() must be used instead.
     This necessitated the support of an extra signature type NID_md5_sha1
     for SSL signatures and modifications to the SSL library to use it instead
     of calling RSA_public_decrypt() and RSA_private_encrypt().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new -verify -CAfile and -CApath options to the crl program, these
     will lookup a CRL issuers certificate and verify the signature in a
     similar way to the verify program. Tidy up the crl program so it
     no longer accesses structures directly. Make the ASN1 CRL parsing a bit
     less strict. It will now permit CRL extensions even if it is not
     a V2 CRL: this will allow it to tolerate some broken CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initialize all non-automatic variables each time one of the openssl
     sub-programs is started (this is necessary as they may be started
     multiple times from the "OpenSSL>" prompt).
     [Lennart Bang, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Preliminary compilation option RSA_NULL which disables RSA crypto without
     removing all other RSA functionality (this is what NO_RSA does). This
     is so (for example) those in the US can disable those operations covered
     by the RSA patent while allowing storage and parsing of RSA keys and RSA
     key generation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Non-copying interface to BIO pairs.
     (still largely untested)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function ANS1_tag2str() to convert an ASN1 tag to a descriptive
     ASCII string. This was handled independently in various places before.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions UTF8_getc() and UTF8_putc() that parse and generate
     UTF8 strings a character at a time.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Use client_version from client hello to select the protocol
     (s23_srvr.c) and for RSA client key exchange verification
     (s3_srvr.c), as required by the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 specifications.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add various utility functions to handle SPKACs, these were previously
     handled by poking round in the structure internals. Added new function
     NETSCAPE_SPKI_print() to print out SPKAC and a new utility 'spkac' to
     print, verify and generate SPKACs. Based on an original idea from
     Massimiliano Pala <> but extensively modified.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) RIPEMD160 is operational on all platforms and is back in 'make test'.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Allow the config file extension section to be overwritten on the
     command line. Based on an original idea from Massimiliano Pala
     <>. The new option is called -extensions
     and can be applied to ca, req and x509. Also -reqexts to override
     the request extensions in req and -crlexts to override the crl extensions
     in ca.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new feature to the SPKAC handling in ca.  Now you can include
     the same field multiple times by preceding it by "XXXX." for example:
     1.OU="Unit name 1"
     2.OU="Unit name 2"
     this is the same syntax as used in the req config file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow certificate extensions to be added to certificate requests. These
     are specified in a 'req_extensions' option of the req section of the
     config file. They can be printed out with the -text option to req but
     are otherwise ignored at present.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix a horrible bug in enc_read() in crypto/evp/bio_enc.c: if the first
     data read consists of only the final block it would not decrypted because
     EVP_CipherUpdate() would correctly report zero bytes had been decrypted.
     A misplaced 'break' also meant the decrypted final block might not be
     copied until the next read.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for DH_METHOD. Again based on RSA_METHOD. Also added
     a few extra parameters to the DH structure: these will be useful if
     for example we want the value of 'q' or implement X9.42 DH.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for DSA_METHOD. This is based on the RSA_METHOD and
     provides hooks that allow the default DSA functions or functions on a
     "per key" basis to be replaced. This allows hardware acceleration and
     hardware key storage to be handled without major modification to the
     library. Also added low level modexp hooks and CRYPTO_EX structure and
     associated functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new flag to memory BIOs, BIO_FLAG_MEM_RDONLY. This marks the BIO
     as "read only": it can't be written to and the buffer it points to will
     not be freed. Reading from a read only BIO is much more efficient than
     a normal memory BIO. This was added because there are several times when
     an area of memory needs to be read from a BIO. The previous method was
     to create a memory BIO and write the data to it, this results in two
     copies of the data and an O(n^2) reading algorithm. There is a new
     function BIO_new_mem_buf() which creates a read only memory BIO from
     an area of memory. Also modified the PKCS#7 routines to use read only
     memory BIOs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Bugfix: ssl23_get_client_hello did not work properly when called in
     state SSL23_ST_SR_CLNT_HELLO_B, i.e. when the first 7 bytes of
     a SSLv2-compatible client hello for SSLv3 or TLSv1 could be read,
     but a retry condition occurred while trying to read the rest.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) The PKCS7_ENC_CONTENT_new() function was setting the content type as
     NID_pkcs7_encrypted by default: this was wrong since this should almost
     always be NID_pkcs7_data. Also modified the PKCS7_set_type() to handle
     the encrypted data type: this is a more sensible place to put it and it
     allows the PKCS#12 code to be tidied up that duplicated this
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Changed script so it takes its input and output files on
     the command line. This should avoid shell escape redirection problems
     under Win32.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for certificate extension requests, these are included
     in things like Xenroll certificate requests. Included functions to allow
     extensions to be obtained and added.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) -crlf option to s_client and s_server for sending newlines as
     CRLF (as required by many protocols).
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.3a and 0.9.4  [09 Aug 1999]

  *) Install libRSAglue.a when OpenSSL is built with RSAref.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) A few more ``#ifndef NO_FP_API / #endif'' pairs for consistency.
     [Andrija Antonijevic <>]

  *) Fix -startdate and -enddate (which was missing) arguments to 'ca'
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function DSA_dup_DH, which duplicates DSA parameters/keys as
     DH parameters/keys (q is lost during that conversion, but the resulting
     DH parameters contain its length).

     For 1024-bit p, DSA_generate_parameters followed by DSA_dup_DH is
     much faster than DH_generate_parameters (which creates parameters
     where p = 2*q + 1), and also the smaller q makes DH computations
     much more efficient (160-bit exponentiation instead of 1024-bit
     exponentiation); so this provides a convenient way to support DHE
     ciphersuites in SSL/TLS servers (see ssl/ssltest.c).  It is of
     utter importance to use
         SSL_CTX_set_options(s_ctx, SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE);
         SSL_set_options(s_ctx, SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE);
     when such DH parameters are used, because otherwise small subgroup
     attacks may become possible!
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid memory leak in i2d_DHparams.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Allow the -k option to be used more than once in the enc program:
     this allows the same encrypted message to be read by multiple recipients.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function OBJ_obj2txt(buf, buf_len, a, no_name), this converts
     an ASN1_OBJECT to a text string. If the "no_name" parameter is set then
     it will always use the numerical form of the OID, even if it has a short
     or long name.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added an extra RSA flag: RSA_FLAG_EXT_PKEY. Previously the rsa_mod_exp
     method only got called if p,q,dmp1,dmq1,iqmp components were present,
     otherwise bn_mod_exp was called. In the case of hardware keys for example
     no private key components need be present and it might store extra data
     in the RSA structure, which cannot be accessed from bn_mod_exp.
     By setting RSA_FLAG_EXT_PKEY rsa_mod_exp will always be called for
     private key operations.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added support for SPARC Linux.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) pem_password_cb function type incompatibly changed from
          typedef int pem_password_cb(char *buf, int size, int rwflag);
          ....(char *buf, int size, int rwflag, void *userdata);
     so that applications can pass data to their callbacks:
     The PEM[_ASN1]_{read,write}... functions and macros now take an
     additional void * argument, which is just handed through whenever
     the password callback is called.
     [Damien Miller <>; tiny changes by Bodo Moeller]

     New function SSL_CTX_set_default_passwd_cb_userdata.

     Compatibility note: As many C implementations push function arguments
     onto the stack in reverse order, the new library version is likely to
     interoperate with programs that have been compiled with the old
     pem_password_cb definition (PEM_whatever takes some data that
     happens to be on the stack as its last argument, and the callback
     just ignores this garbage); but there is no guarantee whatsoever that
     this will work.

  *) The -DPLATFORM="\"$(PLATFORM)\"" definition and the similar -DCFLAGS=...
     (both in crypto/Makefile.ssl for use by crypto/cversion.c) caused
     problems not only on Windows, but also on some Unix platforms.
     To avoid problematic command lines, these definitions are now in an
     auto-generated file crypto/buildinf.h (created by crypto/Makefile.ssl
     for standard "make" builds, by util/ for "mk1mf" builds).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) MIPS III/IV assembler module is reimplemented.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) More DES library cleanups: remove references to srand/rand and
     delete an unused file.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add support for the free Netwide assembler (NASM) under Win32,
     since not many people have MASM (ml) and it can be hard to obtain.
     This is currently experimental but it seems to work OK and pass all
     the tests. Check out INSTALL.W32 for info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix memory leaks in s3_clnt.c: All non-anonymous SSL3/TLS1 connections
     without temporary keys kept an extra copy of the server key,
     and connections with temporary keys did not free everything in case
     of an error.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function RSA_check_key and new openssl rsa option -check
     for verifying the consistency of RSA keys.
     [Ulf Moeller, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Various changes to make Win32 compile work:
     1. Casts to avoid "loss of data" warnings in p5_crpt2.c
     2. Change unsigned int to int in b_dump.c to avoid "signed/unsigned
        comparison" warnings.
     3. Add sk_<TYPE>_sort to DEF file generator and do make update.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a debugging option to PKCS#5 v2 key generation function: when
     you #define DEBUG_PKCS5V2 passwords, salts, iteration counts and
     derived keys are printed to stderr.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Copy the flags in ASN1_STRING_dup().
     [Roman E. Pavlov <>]

  *) The x509 application mishandled signing requests containing DSA
     keys when the signing key was also DSA and the parameters didn't match.

     It was supposed to omit the parameters when they matched the signing key:
     the verifying software was then supposed to automatically use the CA's
     parameters if they were absent from the end user certificate.

     Omitting parameters is no longer recommended. The test was also
     the wrong way round! This was probably due to unusual behaviour in
     EVP_cmp_parameters() which returns 1 if the parameters match.
     This meant that parameters were omitted when they *didn't* match and
     the certificate was useless. Certificates signed with 'ca' didn't have
     this bug.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Doug Erickson <Doug.Erickson@Part.NET>]

  *) Memory leak checking (-DCRYPTO_MDEBUG) had some problems.
     The interface is as follows:
     Applications can use
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_ON) aka MemCheck_start(),
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_OFF) aka MemCheck_stop();
     "off" is now the default.
     The library internally uses
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_DISABLE) aka MemCheck_off(),
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_ENABLE) aka MemCheck_on()
     to disable memory-checking temporarily.

     Some inconsistent states that previously were possible (and were
     even the default) are now avoided.

     -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_TIME is new and additionally stores the current time
     with each memory chunk allocated; this is occasionally more helpful
     than just having a counter.

     -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_THREAD is also new and adds the thread ID.

     -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_ALL enables all of the above, plus any future
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Introduce "mode" for SSL structures (with defaults in SSL_CTX),
     which largely parallels "options", but is for changing API behaviour,
     whereas "options" are about protocol behaviour.
     Initial "mode" flags are:

     SSL_MODE_ENABLE_PARTIAL_WRITE   Allow SSL_write to report success when
                                     a single record has been written.
     SSL_MODE_ACCEPT_MOVING_WRITE_BUFFER  Don't insist that SSL_write
                                     retries use the same buffer location.
                                     (But all of the contents must be
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix: SSL_set_options ignored its parameter, only SSL_CTX_set_options

  *) Fix problems with no-hmac etc.
     [Ulf Möller, pointed out by Brian Wellington <>]

  *) New functions RSA_get_default_method(), RSA_set_method() and
     RSA_get_method(). These allows replacement of RSA_METHODs without having
     to mess around with the internals of an RSA structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix memory leaks in DSA_do_sign and DSA_is_prime.
     Also really enable memory leak checks in openssl.c and in some
     test programs.
     [Chad C. Mulligan, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix a bug in d2i_ASN1_INTEGER() and i2d_ASN1_INTEGER() which can mess
     up the length of negative integers. This has now been simplified to just
     store the length when it is first determined and use it later, rather
     than trying to keep track of where data is copied and updating it to
     point to the end.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Brien Wheeler

  *) Add a new function PKCS7_signatureVerify. This allows the verification
     of a PKCS#7 signature but with the signing certificate passed to the
     function itself. This contrasts with PKCS7_dataVerify which assumes the
     certificate is present in the PKCS#7 structure. This isn't always the
     case: certificates can be omitted from a PKCS#7 structure and be
     distributed by "out of band" means (such as a certificate database).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Complete the PEM_* macros with DECLARE_PEM versions to replace the
     function prototypes in pem.h, also change util/ to add the
     necessary function names.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) (used by Windows builds) did not properly read the
     options set by Configure in the top level Makefile, and Configure
     was not even able to write more than one option correctly.
     Fixed, now "no-idea no-rc5 -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG" etc. works as intended.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New functions CONF_load_bio() and CONF_load_fp() to allow a config
     file to be loaded from a BIO or FILE pointer. The BIO version will
     for example allow memory BIOs to contain config info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function "CRYPTO_num_locks" that returns CRYPTO_NUM_LOCKS.
     Whoever hopes to achieve shared-library compatibility across versions
     must use this, not the compile-time macro.
     (Exercise 0.9.4: Which is the minimum library version required by
     such programs?)
     Note: All this applies only to multi-threaded programs, others don't
     need locks.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add missing case to s3_clnt.c state machine -- one of the new SSL tests
     through a BIO pair triggered the default case, i.e.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New "BIO pair" concept (crypto/bio/bss_bio.c) so that applications
     can use the SSL library even if none of the specific BIOs is
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix a bug in i2d_DSAPublicKey() which meant it returned the wrong value
     for the encoded length.
     [Jeon KyoungHo <>]

  *) Add initial documentation of the X509V3 functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new pair of functions PEM_write_PKCS8PrivateKey() and
     PEM_write_bio_PKCS8PrivateKey() that are equivalent to
     PEM_write_PrivateKey() and PEM_write_bio_PrivateKey() but use the more
     secure PKCS#8 private key format with a high iteration count.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix determination of Perl interpreter: A perl or perl5
     _directory_ in $PATH was also accepted as the interpreter.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix demos/sign/sign.c: well there wasn't anything strictly speaking
     wrong with it but it was very old and did things like calling
     PEM_ASN1_read() directly and used MD5 for the hash not to mention some
     unusual formatting.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix demos/selfsign.c: it used obsolete and deleted functions, changed
     to use the new extension code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement the PEM_read/PEM_write functions in crypto/pem/pem_all.c
     with macros. This should make it easier to change their form, add extra
     arguments etc. Fix a few PEM prototypes which didn't have cipher as a
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add to configuration table a new entry that can specify an alternative
     name for unistd.h (for pre-POSIX systems); we need this for NeXTstep,
     according to Mark Crispin <MRC@Panda.COM>.
     [Bodo Moeller]

#if 0
  *) DES CBC did not update the IV. Weird.
     [Ben Laurie]
     des_cbc_encrypt does not update the IV, but des_ncbc_encrypt does.
     Changing the behaviour of the former might break existing programs --
     where IV updating is needed, des_ncbc_encrypt can be used.

  *) When bntest is run from "make test" it drives bc to check its
     calculations, as well as internally checking them. If an internal check
     fails, it needs to cause bc to give a non-zero result or make test carries
     on without noticing the failure. Fixed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) DES library cleanups.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add support for PKCS#5 v2.0 PBE algorithms. This will permit PKCS#8 to be
     used with any cipher unlike PKCS#5 v1.5 which can at most handle 64 bit
     ciphers. NOTE: although the key derivation function has been verified
     against some published test vectors it has not been extensively tested
     yet. Added a -v2 "cipher" option to pkcs8 application to allow the use
     of v2.0.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Instead of "mkdir -p", which is not fully portable, use new
     Perl script "util/".
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rewrite the way password based encryption (PBE) is handled. It used to
     assume that the ASN1 AlgorithmIdentifier parameter was a PBEParameter
     structure. This was true for the PKCS#5 v1.5 and PKCS#12 PBE algorithms
     but doesn't apply to PKCS#5 v2.0 where it can be something else. Now
     the 'parameter' field of the AlgorithmIdentifier is passed to the
     underlying key generation function so it must do its own ASN1 parsing.
     This has also changed the EVP_PBE_CipherInit() function which now has a
     'parameter' argument instead of literal salt and iteration count values
     and the function EVP_PBE_ALGOR_CipherInit() has been deleted.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for PKCS#5 v1.5 compatible password based encryption algorithms
     and PKCS#8 functionality. New 'pkcs8' application linked to openssl.
     Needed to change the PEM_STRING_EVP_PKEY value which was just "PRIVATE
     KEY" because this clashed with PKCS#8 unencrypted string. Since this
     value was just used as a "magic string" and not used directly its
     value doesn't matter.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Introduce some semblance of const correctness to BN. Shame C doesn't
     support mutable.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) "linux-sparc64" configuration (ultrapenguin).
     [Ray Miller <>]
     "linux-sparc" configuration.
     [Christian Forster <>]

  *) config now generates no-xxx options for missing ciphers.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Support the EBCDIC character set (work in progress).
     File ebcdic.c not yet included because it has a different license.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>]

  *) Support BS2000/OSD-POSIX.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>]

  *) Make callbacks for key generation use void * instead of char *.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Make S/MIME samples compile (not yet tested).
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Additional typesafe stacks.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) New configuration variants "bsdi-elf-gcc" (BSD/OS 4.x).
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.3 and 0.9.3a  [29 May 1999]

  *) New configuration variant "sco5-gcc".

  *) Updated some demos.
     [Sean O Riordain, Wade Scholine]

  *) Add missing BIO_free at exit of pkcs12 application.
     [Wu Zhigang]

  *) Fix memory leak in conf.c.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Updates for Win32 to assembler version of MD5.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Set #! path to perl in apps/der_chop to where we found it
     instead of using a fixed path.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) SHA library changes for irix64-mips4-cc.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Improvements for VMS support.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.2b and 0.9.3  [24 May 1999]

  *) Bignum library bug fix. IRIX 6 passes "make test" now!
     This also avoids the problems with SC4.2 and unpatched SC5.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) New functions sk_num, sk_value and sk_set to replace the previous macros.
     These are required because of the typesafe stack would otherwise break
     existing code. If old code used a structure member which used to be STACK
     and is now STACK_OF (for example cert in a PKCS7_SIGNED structure) with
     sk_num or sk_value it would produce an error because the num, data members
     are not present in STACK_OF. Now it just produces a warning. sk_set
     replaces the old method of assigning a value to sk_value
     (e.g. sk_value(x, i) = y) which the library used in a few cases. Any code
     that does this will no longer work (and should use sk_set instead) but
     this could be regarded as a "questionable" behaviour anyway.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix most of the other PKCS#7 bugs. The "experimental" code can now
     correctly handle encrypted S/MIME data.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change type of various DES function arguments from des_cblock
     (which means, in function argument declarations, pointer to char)
     to des_cblock * (meaning pointer to array with 8 char elements),
     which allows the compiler to do more typechecking; it was like
     that back in SSLeay, but with lots of ugly casts.

     Introduce new type const_des_cblock.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Reorganise the PKCS#7 library and get rid of some of the more obvious
     problems: find RecipientInfo structure that matches recipient certificate
     and initialise the ASN1 structures properly based on passed cipher.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Belatedly make the BN tests actually check the results.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix the encoding and decoding of negative ASN1 INTEGERS and conversion
     to and from BNs: it was completely broken. New compilation option
     NEG_PUBKEY_BUG to allow for some broken certificates that encode public
     key elements as negative integers.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reorganize and speed up MD5.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) VMS support.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) New option -out to asn1parse to allow the parsed structure to be
     output to a file. This is most useful when combined with the -strparse
     option to examine the output of things like OCTET STRINGS.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make SSL library a little more fool-proof by not requiring any longer
     that SSL_set_{accept,connect}_state be called before
     SSL_{accept,connect} may be used (SSL_set_..._state is omitted
     in many applications because usually everything *appeared* to work as
     intended anyway -- now it really works as intended).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Move openssl.cnf out of lib/.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix various things to let OpenSSL even pass ``egcc -pipe -O2 -Wall
     -Wshadow -Wpointer-arith -Wcast-align -Wmissing-prototypes
     -Wmissing-declarations -Wnested-externs -Winline'' with EGCS 1.1.2+
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Various fixes to the EVP and PKCS#7 code. It may now be able to
     handle PKCS#7 enveloped data properly.
     [Sebastian Akerman <>, modified by Steve]

  *) Create a duplicate of the SSL_CTX's CERT in SSL_new instead of
     copying pointers.  The cert_st handling is changed by this in
     various ways (and thus what used to be known as ctx->default_cert
     is now called ctx->cert, since we don't resort to s->ctx->[default_]cert
     any longer when s->cert does not give us what we need).
     ssl_cert_instantiate becomes obsolete by this change.
     As soon as we've got the new code right (possibly it already is?),
     we have solved a couple of bugs of the earlier code where s->cert
     was used as if it could not have been shared with other SSL structures.

     Note that using the SSL API in certain dirty ways now will result
     in different behaviour than observed with earlier library versions:
     Changing settings for an SSL_CTX *ctx after having done s = SSL_new(ctx)
     does not influence s as it used to.

     In order to clean up things more thoroughly, inside SSL_SESSION
     we don't use CERT any longer, but a new structure SESS_CERT
     that holds per-session data (if available); currently, this is
     the peer's certificate chain and, for clients, the server's certificate
     and temporary key.  CERT holds only those values that can have
     meaningful defaults in an SSL_CTX.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function X509V3_EXT_i2d() to create an X509_EXTENSION structure
     from the internal representation. Various PKCS#7 fixes: remove some
     evil casts and set the enc_dig_alg field properly based on the signing
     key type.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow PKCS#12 password to be set from the command line or the
     environment. Let 'ca' get its config file name from the environment
     variables "OPENSSL_CONF" or "SSLEAY_CONF" (for consistency with 'req'
     and 'x509').
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow certificate policies extension to use an IA5STRING for the
     organization field. This is contrary to the PKIX definition but
     VeriSign uses it and IE5 only recognises this form. Document 'x509'
     extension option.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add PEDANTIC compiler flag to allow compilation with gcc -pedantic,
     without disallowing inline assembler and the like for non-pedantic builds.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Support Borland C++ builder.
     [Janez Jere <>, modified by Ulf Möller]

  *) Support Mingw32.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) SHA-1 cleanups and performance enhancements.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Sparc v8plus assembler for the bignum library.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Accept any -xxx and +xxx compiler options in Configure.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Update HPUX configuration.

  *) Add missing sk_<type>_unshift() function to safestack.h
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) New function SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file that sets the
     "extra_cert"s in addition to the certificate.  (This makes sense
     only for "PEM" format files, as chains as a whole are not
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Support verify_depth from the SSL API.
     x509_vfy.c had what can be considered an off-by-one-error:
     Its depth (which was not part of the external interface)
     was actually counting the number of certificates in a chain;
     now it really counts the depth.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix in crypto/x509/x509_cmp.c: The SSLerr macro was used
     instead of X509err, which often resulted in confusing error
     messages since the error codes are not globally unique
     (e.g. an alleged error in ssl3_accept when a certificate
     didn't match the private key).

  *) New function SSL_CTX_set_session_id_context that allows to set a default
     value (so that you don't need SSL_set_session_id_context for each
     connection using the SSL_CTX).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) OAEP decoding bug fix.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Support INSTALL_PREFIX for package builders, as proposed by
     David Harris.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New Configure options "threads" and "no-threads".  For systems
     where the proper compiler options are known (currently Solaris
     and Linux), "threads" is the default.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New script util/ as a faster substitute for util/
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Install various scripts to $(OPENSSLDIR)/misc, not to
     $(INSTALLTOP)/bin -- they shouldn't clutter directories
     such as /usr/local/bin.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) "make linux-shared" to build shared libraries.
     [Niels Poppe <>]

  *) New Configure option no-<cipher> (rsa, idea, rc5, ...).
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add the PKCS#12 API documentation to openssl.txt. Preliminary support for
     extension adding in x509 utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove NOPROTO sections and error code comments.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Partial rewrite of the DEF file generator to now parse the ANSI
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New Configure options --prefix=DIR and --openssldir=DIR.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Complete rewrite of the error code script(s). It is all now handled
     by one script at the top level which handles error code gathering,
     header rewriting and C source file generation. It should be much better
     than the old method: it now uses a modified version of Ulf's parser to
     read the ANSI prototypes in all header files (thus the old K&R definitions
     aren't needed for error creation any more) and do a better job of
     translating function codes into names. The old 'ASN1 error code embedded
     in a comment' is no longer necessary and it doesn't use .err files which
     have now been deleted. Also the error code call doesn't have to appear all
     on one line (which resulted in some large lines...).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change #include filenames from <foo.h> to <openssl/foo.h>.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change behaviour of ssl2_read when facing length-0 packets: Don't return
     0 (which usually indicates a closed connection), but continue reading.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix some race conditions.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add support for CRL distribution points extension. Add Certificate
     Policies and CRL distribution points documentation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Move the autogenerated header file parts to crypto/opensslconf.h.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix new 56-bit DES export ciphersuites: they were using 7 bytes instead of
     8 of keying material. Merlin has also confirmed interop with this fix
     between OpenSSL and Baltimore C/SSL 2.0 and J/SSL 2.0.
     [Merlin Hughes <>]

  *) Fix lots of warnings.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) In add_cert_dir() in crypto/x509/by_dir.c, break out of the loop if
     the directory spec didn't end with a LIST_SEPARATOR_CHAR.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) Fix problems with sizeof(long) == 8.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Change functions to ANSI C.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix typos in error codes.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>, Ulf Möller]

  *) Remove defunct assembler files from Configure.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) SPARC v8 assembler BIGNUM implementation.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Support for Certificate Policies extension: both print and set.
     Various additions to support the r2i method this uses.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) A lot of constification, and fix a bug in X509_NAME_oneline() that could
     return a const string when you are expecting an allocated buffer.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add support for ASN1 types UTF8String and VISIBLESTRING, also the CHOICE
     types DirectoryString and DisplayText.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add code to allow r2i extensions to access the configuration database,
     add an LHASH database driver and add several ctx helper functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix an evil bug in bn_expand2() which caused various BN functions to
     fail when they extended the size of a BIGNUM.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Various utility functions to handle SXNet extension. Modify to
     support typesafe stack.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix typo in SSL_[gs]et_options().
     [Nils Frostberg <>]

  *) Delete various functions and files that belonged to the (now obsolete)
     old X509V3 handling code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New Configure option "rsaref".
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Don't auto-generate pem.h.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Introduce type-safe ASN.1 SETs.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Convert various additional casted stacks to type-safe STACK_OF() variants.
     [Ben Laurie, Ralf S. Engelschall, Steve Henson]

  *) Introduce type-safe STACKs. This will almost certainly break lots of code
     that links with OpenSSL (well at least cause lots of warnings), but fear
     not: the conversion is trivial, and it eliminates loads of evil casts. A
     few STACKed things have been converted already. Feel free to convert more.
     In the fullness of time, I'll do away with the STACK type altogether.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add `openssl ca -revoke <certfile>' facility which revokes a certificate
     specified in <certfile> by updating the entry in the index.txt file.
     This way one no longer has to edit the index.txt file manually for
     revoking a certificate. The -revoke option does the gory details now.
     [Massimiliano Pala <>, Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix `openssl crl -noout -text' combination where `-noout' killed the
     `-text' option at all and this way the `-noout -text' combination was
     inconsistent in `openssl crl' with the friends in `openssl x509|rsa|dsa'.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Make sure a corresponding plain text error message exists for the
     X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED/23 error number which can occur when a
     verify callback function determined that a certificate was revoked.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Bugfix: In test/testenc, don't test "openssl <cipher>" for
     ciphers that were excluded, e.g. by -DNO_IDEA.  Also, test
     all available ciphers including rc5, which was forgotten until now.
     In order to let the testing shell script know which algorithms
     are available, a new (up to now undocumented) command
     "openssl list-cipher-commands" is used.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix: s_client occasionally would sleep in select() when
     it should have checked SSL_pending() first.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New functions DSA_do_sign and DSA_do_verify to provide access to
     the raw DSA values prior to ASN.1 encoding.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Tweaks to Configure
     [Niels Poppe <>]

  *) Add support for PKCS#5 v2.0 ASN1 PBES2 structures. No other support,
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New variables $(RANLIB) and $(PERL) in the Makefiles.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) New config option to avoid instructions that are illegal on the 80386.
     The default code is faster, but requires at least a 486.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Got rid of old SSL2_CLIENT_VERSION (inconsistently used) and
     SSL2_SERVER_VERSION (not used at all) macros, which are now the
     same as SSL2_VERSION anyway.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New "-showcerts" option for s_client.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Still more PKCS#12 integration. Add pkcs12 application to openssl
     application. Various cleanups and fixes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) More PKCS#12 integration. Add new pkcs12 directory with Makefile.ssl and
     modify error routines to work internally. Add error codes and PBE init
     to library startup routines.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Further PKCS#12 integration. Added password based encryption, PKCS#8 and
     packing functions to asn1 and evp. Changed function names and error
     codes along the way.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) PKCS12 integration: and so it begins... First of several patches to
     slowly integrate PKCS#12 functionality into OpenSSL. Add PKCS#12
     objects to objects.h
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new 'indent' option to some X509V3 extension code. Initial ASN1
     and display support for Thawte strong extranet extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add LinuxPPC support.
     [Jeff Dubrule <>]

  *) Get rid of redundant BN file bn_mulw.c, and rename bn_div64 to
     bn_div_words in alpha.s.
     [Hannes Reinecke <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) Make sure the RSA OAEP test is skipped under -DRSAref because
     OAEP isn't supported when OpenSSL is built with RSAref.
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Move definitions of IS_SET/IS_SEQUENCE inside crypto/asn1/asn1.h
     so they no longer are missing under -DNOPROTO.
     [Soren S. Jorvang <>]

 Changes between 0.9.1c and 0.9.2b  [22 Mar 1999]

  *) Make SSL_get_peer_cert_chain() work in servers. Unfortunately, it still
     doesn't work when the session is reused. Coming soon!
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix a security hole, that allows sessions to be reused in the wrong
     context thus bypassing client cert protection! All software that uses
     client certs and session caches in multiple contexts NEEDS PATCHING to
     allow session reuse! A fuller solution is in the works.
     [Ben Laurie, problem pointed out by Holger Reif, Bodo Moeller (and ???)]

  *) Some more source tree cleanups (removed obsolete files
     crypto/bf/asm/, test/test.txt and crypto/sha/asm/f.s; changed
     permission on "config" script to be executable) and a fix for the INSTALL
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Remove some legacy and erroneous uses of malloc, free instead of
     Malloc, Free.
     [Lennart Bang <>, with minor changes by Steve]

  *) Make rsa_oaep_test return non-zero on error.
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Add support for native Solaris shared libraries. Configure
     solaris-sparc-sc4-pic, make, then run shlib/ It'd be nice
     if someone would make that last step automatic.
     [Matthias Loepfe <Matthias.Loepfe@AdNovum.CH>]

  *) ctx_size was not built with the right compiler during "make links". Fixed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Change the meaning of 'ALL' in the cipher list. It now means "everything
     except NULL ciphers". This means the default cipher list will no longer
     enable NULL ciphers. They need to be specifically enabled e.g. with
     the string "DEFAULT:eNULL".
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix to RSA private encryption routines: if p < q then it would
     occasionally produce an invalid result. This will only happen with
     externally generated keys because OpenSSL (and SSLeay) ensure p > q.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Be less restrictive and allow also `perl util/
     /path/to/bin/perl' in addition to `perl util/ /path/to/bin',
     because this way one can also use an interpreter named `perl5' (which is
     usually the name of Perl on platforms where an Perl 4.x is still
     installed as `perl').
     [Matthias Loepfe <>]

  *) Let util/ work also with older Perl 5.00x versions.
     [Matthias Loepfe <>]

  *) Fix so CC,CFLAG etc are passed to 'make links' add
     advapi32.lib to Win32 build and change the pem test comparison
     to fc.exe (thanks to Ulrich Kroener <> for the
     suggestion). Fix misplaced ASNI prototypes and declarations in evp.h
     and crypto/des/ede_cbcm_enc.c.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) DES quad checksum was broken on big-endian architectures. Fixed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Comment out two functions in bio.h that aren't implemented. Fix up the
     Win32 test batch file so it (might) work again. The Win32 test batch file
     is horrible: I feel ill....
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Move various #ifdefs around so NO_SYSLOG, NO_DIRENT etc are now selected
     in e_os.h. Audit of header files to check ANSI and non ANSI
     sections: 10 functions were absent from non ANSI section and not exported
     from Windows DLLs. Fixed up libeay.num for new functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make `openssl version' output lines consistent.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix Win32 symbol export lists for BIO functions: Added
     BIO_get_ex_new_index, BIO_get_ex_num, BIO_get_ex_data and BIO_set_ex_data
     to ms/libeay{16,32}.def.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Second round of fixing the OpenSSL perl/ stuff. It now at least compiled
     fine under Unix and passes some trivial tests I've now added. But the
     whole stuff is horribly incomplete, so a README.1ST with a disclaimer was
     added to make sure no one expects that this stuff really works in the
     OpenSSL 0.9.2 release.  Additionally I've started to clean the XS sources
     up and fixed a few little bugs and inconsistencies in OpenSSL.{pm,xs} and
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix the generation of two part addresses in perl.
     [Kenji Miyake <>, integrated by Ben Laurie]

  *) Add config entry for Linux on MIPS.
     [John Tobey <>]

  *) Make links whenever Configure is run, unless we are on Windoze.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Permit extensions to be added to CRLs using crl_section in openssl.cnf.
     Currently only issuerAltName and AuthorityKeyIdentifier make any sense
     in CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a useful kludge to allow package maintainers to specify compiler and
     other platforms details on the command line without having to patch the
     Configure script every time: One now can use ``perl Configure
     <id>:<details>'', i.e. platform ids are allowed to have details appended
     to them (separated by colons). This is treated as there would be a static
     pre-configured entry in Configure's %table under key <id> with value
     <details> and ``perl Configure <id>'' is called.  So, when you want to
     perform a quick test-compile under FreeBSD 3.1 with pgcc and without
     assembler stuff you can use ``perl Configure "FreeBSD-elf:pgcc:-O6:::"''
     now, which overrides the FreeBSD-elf entry on-the-fly.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Disable new TLS1 ciphersuites by default: they aren't official yet.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Allow DSO flags like -fpic, -fPIC, -KPIC etc. to be specified
     on the `perl Configure ...' command line. This way one can compile
     OpenSSL libraries with Position Independent Code (PIC) which is needed
     for linking it into DSOs.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Remarkably, export ciphers were totally broken and no-one had noticed!
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Cleaned up the LICENSE document: The official contact for any license
     questions now is the OpenSSL core team under
     And add a paragraph about the dual-license situation to make sure people
     recognize that _BOTH_ the OpenSSL license _AND_ the SSLeay license apply
     to the OpenSSL toolkit.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) General source tree makefile cleanups: Made `making xxx in yyy...'
     display consistent in the source tree and replaced `/bin/rm' by `rm'.
     Additionally cleaned up the `make links' target: Remove unnecessary
     semicolons, subsequent redundant removes, inline into
     to speed processing and no longer clutter the display with confusing
     stuff. Instead only the actually done links are displayed.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Permit null encryption ciphersuites, used for authentication only. It used
     to be necessary to set the preprocessor define SSL_ALLOW_ENULL to do this.
     It is now necessary to set SSL_FORBID_ENULL to prevent the use of null
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add a bunch of fixes to the PKCS#7 stuff. It used to sometimes reorder
     signed attributes when verifying signatures (this would break them),
     the detached data encoding was wrong and public keys obtained using
     X509_get_pubkey() weren't freed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add text documentation for the BUFFER functions. Also added a work around
     to a Win95 console bug. This was triggered by the password read stuff: the
     last character typed gets carried over to the next fread(). If you were
     generating a new cert request using 'req' for example then the last
     character of the passphrase would be CR which would then enter the first
     field as blank.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added the new `Includes OpenSSL Cryptography Software' button as
     doc/openssl_button.{gif,html} which is similar in style to the old SSLeay
     button and can be used by applications based on OpenSSL to show the
     relationship to the OpenSSL project.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Remove confusing variables in function signatures in files
     ssl/ssl_lib.c and ssl/ssl.h.
     [Lennart Bong <>]

  *) Don't install bss_file.c under PREFIX/include/
     [Lennart Bong <>]

  *) Get the Win32 compile working again. Modify so it can handle
     functions that return function pointers and has support for NT specific
     stuff. Fix and to support NT differences also. Various
     #ifdef WIN32 and WINNTs sprinkled about the place and some changes from
     unsigned to signed types: this was killing the Win32 compile.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new certificate file to stack functions,
     SSL_add_dir_cert_subjects_to_stack() and
     SSL_add_file_cert_subjects_to_stack().  These largely supplant
     SSL_load_client_CA_file(), and can be used to add multiple certs easily
     to a stack (usually this is then handed to SSL_CTX_set_client_CA_list()).
     This means that Apache-SSL and similar packages don't have to mess around
     to add as many CAs as they want to the preferred list.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Experiment with doxygen documentation. Currently only partially applied to
     See, and run doxygen with
     openssl.doxy as the configuration file.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Get rid of remaining C++-style comments which strict C compilers hate.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, pointed out by Carlos Amengual]

  *) Changed BN_RECURSION in bn_mont.c to BN_RECURSION_MONT so it is not
     compiled in by default: it has problems with large keys.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a bunch of SSL_xxx() functions for configuring the temporary RSA and
     DH private keys and/or callback functions which directly correspond to
     their SSL_CTX_xxx() counterparts but work on a per-connection basis. This
     is needed for applications which have to configure certificates on a
     per-connection basis (e.g. Apache+mod_ssl) instead of a per-context basis
     (e.g. s_server).
        For the RSA certificate situation is makes no difference, but
     for the DSA certificate situation this fixes the "no shared cipher"
     problem where the OpenSSL cipher selection procedure failed because the
     temporary keys were not overtaken from the context and the API provided
     no way to reconfigure them.
        The new functions now let applications reconfigure the stuff and they
     are in detail: SSL_need_tmp_RSA, SSL_set_tmp_rsa, SSL_set_tmp_dh,
     SSL_set_tmp_rsa_callback and SSL_set_tmp_dh_callback.  Additionally a new
     non-public-API function ssl_cert_instantiate() is used as a helper
     function and also to reduce code redundancy inside ssl_rsa.c.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Move s_server -dcert and -dkey options out of the undocumented feature
     area because they are useful for the DSA situation and should be
     recognized by the users.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix the cipher decision scheme for export ciphers: the export bits are
     *not* within SSL_MKEY_MASK or SSL_AUTH_MASK, they are within
     SSL_EXP_MASK.  So, the original variable has to be used instead of the
     already masked variable.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) Fix 'port' variable from `int' to `unsigned int' in crypto/bio/b_sock.c
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) Change type of another md_len variable in pk7_doit.c:PKCS7_dataFinal()
     from `int' to `unsigned int' because it's a length and initialized by
     EVP_DigestFinal() which expects an `unsigned int *'.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) Don't hard-code path to Perl interpreter on shebang line of Configure
     script. Instead use the usual Shell->Perl transition trick.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Make `openssl x509 -noout -modulus' functional also for DSA certificates
     (in addition to RSA certificates) to match the behaviour of `openssl dsa
     -noout -modulus' as it's already the case for `openssl rsa -noout
     -modulus'.  For RSA the -modulus is the real "modulus" while for DSA
     currently the public key is printed (a decision which was already done by
     `openssl dsa -modulus' in the past) which serves a similar purpose.
     Additionally the NO_RSA no longer completely removes the whole -modulus
     option; it now only avoids using the RSA stuff. Same applies to NO_DSA
     now, too.
     [Ralf S.  Engelschall]

  *) Add Arne Ansper's reliable BIO - this is an encrypted, block-digested
     BIO. See the source (crypto/evp/bio_ok.c) for more info.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Dump the old yucky req code that tried (and failed) to allow raw OIDs
     to be added. Now both 'req' and 'ca' can use new objects defined in the
     config file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add cool BIO that does syslog (or event log on NT).
     [Arne Ansper <>, integrated by Ben Laurie]

  *) Add support for new TLS ciphersuites, TLS_RSA_EXPORT56_WITH_RC4_56_MD5,
     TLS_RSA_EXPORT56_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA, as specified in "56-bit Export Cipher
     Suites For TLS", draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-00.txt.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add preliminary config info for new extension code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make RSA_NO_PADDING really use no padding.
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Generate errors when private/public key check is done.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Overhaul for 'crl' utility. New function X509_CRL_print. Partial support
     for some CRL extensions and new objects added.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Really fix the ASN1 IMPLICIT bug this time... Partial support for private
     key usage extension and fuller support for authority key id.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add OAEP encryption for the OpenSSL crypto library. OAEP is the improved
     padding method for RSA, which is recommended for new applications in PKCS
     #1 v2.0 (RFC 2437, October 1998).
     OAEP (Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding) has better theoretical
     foundations than the ad-hoc padding used in PKCS #1 v1.5. It is secure
     against Bleichbacher's attack on RSA.
     [Ulf Moeller <>, reformatted, corrected and integrated by
      Ben Laurie]

  *) Updates to the new SSL compression code
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Fix so that the version number in the master secret, when passed
     via RSA, checks that if TLS was proposed, but we roll back to SSLv3
     (because the server will not accept higher), that the version number
     is 0x03,0x01, not 0x03,0x00
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Run extensive memory leak checks on SSL apps. Fixed *lots* of memory
     leaks in ssl/ relating to new X509_get_pubkey() behaviour. Also fixes
     in apps/ and an unrelated leak in crypto/dsa/dsa_vrf.c
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for RAW extensions where an arbitrary extension can be
     created by including its DER encoding. See apps/openssl.cnf for
     an example.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make sure latest Perl versions don't interpret some generated C array
     code as Perl array code in the crypto/err/ script.
     [Lars Weber <>]

  *) Modify ms/do_ms.bat to not generate assembly language makefiles since
     not many people have the assembler. Various Win32 compilation fixes and
     update to the INSTALL.W32 file with (hopefully) more accurate Win32
     build instructions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify configure script 'Configure' to automatically create crypto/date.h
     file under Win32 and also build pem.h from New script
     util/ to create the MINFO file on environments that can't do a
     'make files': perl util/ >MINFO should work.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Major rework of DES function declarations, in the pursuit of correctness
     and purity. As a result, many evil casts evaporated, and some weirdness,
     too. You may find this causes warnings in your code. Zapping your evil
     casts will probably fix them. Mostly.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix for a typo in asn1.h. Bug fix to object creation script It considered a zero in an object definition to mean
     "end of object": none of the objects in objects.h have any zeros
     so it wasn't spotted.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Erwann ABALEA <>]

  *) Add support for Triple DES Cipher Block Chaining with Output Feedback
     Masking (CBCM). In the absence of test vectors, the best I have been able
     to do is check that the decrypt undoes the encrypt, so far. Send me test
     vectors if you have them.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Correct calculation of key length for export ciphers (too much space was
     allocated for null ciphers). This has not been tested!
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Modifications to the for Win32 DEF file creation. The usage
     message is now correct (it understands "crypto" and "ssl" on its
     command line). There is also now an "update" option. This will update
     the util/ssleay.num and util/libeay.num files with any new functions.
     If you do a:
     perl util/ crypto ssl update
     it will update them.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Overhauled the Perl interface (perl/*):
     - ported BN stuff to OpenSSL's different BN library
     - made the perl/ source tree CVS-aware
     - renamed the package from SSLeay to OpenSSL (the files still contain
       their history because I've copied them in the repository)
     - removed obsolete files (the test scripts will be replaced
       by better Test::Harness variants in the future)
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) First cut for a very conservative source tree cleanup:
     1. merge various obsolete readme texts into doc/ssleay.txt
     where we collect the old documents and readme texts.
     2. remove the first part of files where I'm already sure that we no
     longer need them because of three reasons: either they are just temporary
     files which were left by Eric or they are preserved original files where
     I've verified that the diff is also available in the CVS via "cvs diff
     -rSSLeay_0_8_1b" or they were renamed (as it was definitely the case for
     the crypto/md/ stuff).
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) More extension code. Incomplete support for subject and issuer alt
     name, issuer and authority key id. Change the i2v function parameters
     and add an extra 'crl' parameter in the X509V3_CTX structure: guess
     what that's for :-) Fix to ASN1 macro which messed up
     IMPLICIT tag and add f_enum.c which adds a2i, i2a for ENUMERATED.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Preliminary support for ENUMERATED type. This is largely copied from the
     INTEGER code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new function, EVP_MD_CTX_copy() to replace frequent use of memcpy.
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Make sure `make rehash' target really finds the `openssl' program.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, Matthias Loepfe <>]

  *) Squeeze another 7% of speed out of MD5 assembler, at least on a P2. I'd
     like to hear about it if this slows down other processors.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add CygWin32 platform information to Configure script.
     [Alan Batie <>]

  *) Fixed ms/32all.bat script: `no_asm' -> `no-asm'
     [Rainer W. Gerling <>]

  *) New program nseq to manipulate netscape certificate sequences
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify crl2pkcs7 so it supports multiple -certfile arguments. Fix a
     few typos.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to BN code.  Previously the default was to define BN_RECURSION
     but the BN code had some problems that would cause failures when
     doing certificate verification and some other functions.
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Add ASN1 and PEM code to support netscape certificate sequences.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add ASN1 and PEM code to support netscape certificate sequences.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add several PKIX and private extended key usage OIDs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the 'ca' program to handle the new extension code. Modify
     openssl.cnf for new extension format, add comments.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) More X509 V3 changes. Fix typo in v3_bitstr.c. Add support to 'req'
     and add a sample to openssl.cnf so req -x509 now adds appropriate
     CA extensions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Continued X509 V3 changes. Add to other makefiles, integrate with the
     error code, add initial support to X509_print() and x509 application.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Takes a deep breath and start adding X509 V3 extension support code. Add
     files in crypto/x509v3. Move original stuff to crypto/x509v3/old. All this
     stuff is currently isolated and isn't even compiled yet.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Continuing patches for GeneralizedTime. Fix up certificate and CRL
     ASN1 to use ASN1_TIME and modify print routines to use ASN1_TIME_print.
     Removed the versions check from X509 routines when loading extensions:
     this allows certain broken certificates that don't set the version
     properly to be processed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Deal with irritating shit to do with dependencies, in YAAHW (Yet Another
     Ad Hoc Way) - Makefile.ssls now all contain local dependencies, which
     can still be regenerated with "make depend".
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Spelling mistake in C version of CAST-128.
     [Ben Laurie, reported by Jeremy Hylton <>]

  *) Changes to the error generation code. The perl script
     now reads in the old error codes and retains the old numbers, only
     adding new ones if necessary. It also only changes the .err files if new
     codes are added. The makefiles have been modified to only insert errors
     when needed (to avoid needlessly modifying header files). This is done
     by only inserting errors if the .err file is newer than the auto generated
     C file. To rebuild all the error codes from scratch (the old behaviour)
     either modify crypto/Makefile.ssl to pass the -regen flag to
     or delete all the .err files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) CAST-128 was incorrectly implemented for short keys. The C version has
     been fixed, but is untested. The assembler versions are also fixed, but
     new assembler HAS NOT BEEN GENERATED FOR WIN32 - the Makefile needs fixing
     to regenerate it if needed.
     [Ben Laurie, reported (with fix for C version) by Jun-ichiro itojun
      Hagino <>]

  *) File was opened incorrectly in randfile.c.
     [Ulf Möller <>]

  *) Beginning of support for GeneralizedTime. d2i, i2d, check and print
     functions. Also ASN1_TIME suite which is a CHOICE of UTCTime or
     GeneralizedTime. ASN1_TIME is the proper type used in certificates et
     al: it's just almost always a UTCTime. Note this patch adds new error
     codes so do a "make errors" if there are problems.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Correct Linux 1 recognition in config.
     [Ulf Möller <>]

  *) Remove pointless MD5 hash when using DSA keys in ca.
     [Anonymous <>]

  *) Generate an error if given an empty string as a cert directory. Also
     generate an error if handed NULL (previously returned 0 to indicate an
     error, but didn't set one).
     [Ben Laurie, reported by Anonymous <>]

  *) Add prototypes to SSL methods. Make SSL_write's buffer const, at last.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix the dummy function BN_ref_mod_exp() in rsaref.c to have the correct
     parameters. This was causing a warning which killed off the Win32 compile.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove C++ style comments from crypto/bn/bn_local.h.
     [Neil Costigan <>]

  *) The function OBJ_txt2nid was broken. It was supposed to return a nid
     based on a text string, looking up short and long names and finally
     "dot" format. The "dot" format stuff didn't work. Added new function
     OBJ_txt2obj to do the same but return an ASN1_OBJECT and rewrote
     OBJ_txt2nid to use it. OBJ_txt2obj can also return objects even if the
     OID is not part of the table.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add prototypes to X509 lookup/verify methods, fixing a bug in
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Sort openssl functions by name.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Get the gendsa program working (hopefully) and add it to app list. Remove
     encryption from sample DSA keys (in case anyone is interested the password
     was "1234").
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make _all_ *_free functions accept a NULL pointer.
     [Frans Heymans <>]

  *) If a DH key is generated in s3_srvr.c, don't blow it by trying to use
     NULL pointers.
     [Anonymous <>]

  *) s_server should send the CAfile as acceptable CAs, not its own cert.
     [Bodo Moeller <>]

  *) Don't blow it for numeric -newkey arguments to apps/req.
     [Bodo Moeller <>]

  *) Temp key "for export" tests were wrong in s3_srvr.c.
     [Anonymous <>]

  *) Add prototype for temp key callback functions
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Make DH_free() tolerate being passed a NULL pointer (like RSA_free() and
     DSA_free()). Make X509_PUBKEY_set() check for errors in d2i_PublicKey().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) X509_name_add_entry() freed the wrong thing after an error.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) rsa_eay.c would attempt to free a NULL context.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) BIO_s_socket() had a broken should_retry() on Windoze.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) BIO_f_buffer() didn't pass on BIO_CTRL_FLUSH.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Make sure the already existing X509_STORE->depth variable is initialized
     in X509_STORE_new(), but document the fact that this variable is still
     unused in the certificate verification process.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix the various library and apps files to free up pkeys obtained from
     X509_PUBKEY_get() et al. Also allow x509.c to handle netscape extensions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix reference counting in X509_PUBKEY_get(). This makes
     demos/maurice/example2.c work, amongst others, probably.
     [Steve Henson and Ben Laurie]

  *) First cut of a cleanup for apps/. First the `ssleay' program is now named
     `openssl' and second, the shortcut symlinks for the `openssl <command>'
     are no longer created. This way we have a single and consistent command
     line interface `openssl <command>', similar to `cvs <command>'.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, Paul Sutton and Ben Laurie]

  *) ca.c: move test for DSA keys inside #ifndef NO_DSA. Make pubkey
     BIT STRING wrapper always have zero unused bits.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add, perl version of, add extended key usage OID.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make the top-level INSTALL documentation easier to understand.
     [Paul Sutton]

  *) Makefiles updated to exit if an error occurs in a sub-directory
     make (including if user presses ^C) [Paul Sutton]

  *) Make Montgomery context stuff explicit in RSA data structure.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix build order of pem and err to allow for generated pem.h.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix renumbering bug in X509_NAME_delete_entry().
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Enhanced the script so it makes the error library number
     global and can add a library name. This is needed for external ASN1 and
     other error libraries.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixed sk_insert which never worked properly.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix ASN1 macros so they can handle indefinite length constructed
     EXPLICIT tags. Some non standard certificates use these: they can now
     be read in.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Merged the various old/obsolete SSLeay documentation files (doc/xxx.doc)
     into a single doc/ssleay.txt bundle. This way the information is still
     preserved but no longer messes up this directory. Now it's new room for
     the new set of documentation files.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) SETs were incorrectly DER encoded. This was a major pain, because they
     shared code with SEQUENCEs, which aren't coded the same. This means that
     almost everything to do with SETs or SEQUENCEs has either changed name or
     number of arguments.
     [Ben Laurie, based on a partial fix by GP Jayan <>]

  *) Fix test data to work with the above.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix the RSA header declarations that hid a bug I fixed in 0.9.0b but
     was already fixed by Eric for 0.9.1 it seems.
     [Ben Laurie - pointed out by Ulf Möller <>]

  *) Autodetect FreeBSD3.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix various bugs in Configure. This affects the following platforms:
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Eliminate generated files from CVS. Reorder tests to regenerate files
     before they are needed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Generate Makefile.ssl from (to keep CVS happy).
     [Ben Laurie]

 Changes between 0.9.1b and 0.9.1c  [23-Dec-1998]

  *) Added OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER to crypto/crypto.h and
     changed SSLeay to OpenSSL in version strings.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Some fixups to the top-level documents.
     [Paul Sutton]

  *) Fixed the nasty bug where rsaref.h was not found under compile-time
     because the symlink to include/ was missing.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Incorporated the popular no-RSA/DSA-only patches
     which allow to compile a RSA-free SSLeay.
     [Andrew Cooke / Interrader Ldt., Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fixed nasty rehash problem under `make -f Makefile.ssl links'
     when "ssleay" is still not found.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Added more platforms to Configure: Cray T3E, HPUX 11,
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, Beckmann <>]

  *) Updated the README file.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Added various .cvsignore files in the CVS repository subdirs
     to make a "cvs update" really silent.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Recompiled the error-definition header files and added
     missing symbols to the Win32 linker tables.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Cleaned up the top-level documents;
     o new files: CHANGES and LICENSE
     o merged VERSION, HISTORY* and README* files a CHANGES.SSLeay
     o merged COPYRIGHT into LICENSE
     o removed obsolete TODO file
     o renamed MICROSOFT to INSTALL.W32
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Removed dummy files from the 0.9.1b source tree:
     crypto/asn1/x crypto/bio/cd crypto/bio/fg crypto/bio/grep crypto/bio/vi
     crypto/bn/asm/......add.c crypto/bn/asm/a.out crypto/dsa/f crypto/md5/f
     crypto/pem/gmon.out crypto/perlasm/f crypto/pkcs7/build crypto/rsa/f
     crypto/sha/asm/f crypto/threads/f ms/zzz ssl/f ssl/f.mak test/f
     util/f.mak util/pl/f util/pl/f.mak crypto/bf/bf_locl.old apps/f
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Added various platform portability fixes.
     [Mark J. Cox]

  *) The Genesis of the OpenSSL rpject:
     We start with the latest (unreleased) SSLeay version 0.9.1b which Eric A.
     Young and Tim J. Hudson created while they were working for C2Net until
     summer 1998.
     [The OpenSSL Project]

 Changes between 0.9.0b and 0.9.1b  [not released]

  *) Updated a few CA certificates under certs/
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Changed some BIGNUM api stuff.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Various platform ports: OpenBSD, Ultrix, IRIX 64bit, NetBSD,
     DGUX x86, Linux Alpha, etc.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) New COMP library [crypto/comp/] for SSL Record Layer Compression:
     RLE (dummy implemented) and ZLIB (really implemented when ZLIB is
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Add -strparse option to asn1pars program which parses nested
     binary structures
     [Dr Stephen Henson <>]

  *) Added "oid_file" to ssleay.cnf for "ca" and "req" programs.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) DSA fix for "ca" program.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added "-genkey" option to "dsaparam" program.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added RIPE MD160 (rmd160) message digest.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added -a (all) option to "ssleay version" command.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added PLATFORM define which is the id given to Configure.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added MemCheck_XXXX functions to crypto/mem.c for memory checking.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Extended the ASN.1 parser routines.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Extended BIO routines to support REUSEADDR, seek, tell, etc.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added a BN_CTX to the BN library.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Fixed the weak key values in DES library
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Changed API in EVP library for cipher aliases.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added support for RC2/64bit cipher.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Converted the lhash library to the crypto/mem.c functions.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added more recognized ASN.1 object ids.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added more RSA padding checks for SSL/TLS.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added BIO proxy/filter functionality.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added extra_certs to SSL_CTX which can be used
     send extra CA certificates to the client in the CA cert chain sending
     process. It can be configured with SSL_CTX_add_extra_chain_cert().
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Now Fortezza is denied in the authentication phase because
     this is key exchange mechanism is not supported by SSLeay at all.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Additional PKCS1 checks.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Support the string "TLSv1" for all TLS v1 ciphers.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added function SSL_get_ex_data_X509_STORE_CTX_idx() which gives the
     ex_data index of the SSL context in the X509_STORE_CTX ex_data.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Fixed a few memory leaks.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Fixed various code and comment typos.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) A minor bug in ssl/s3_clnt.c where there would always be 4 0
     bytes sent in the client random.
     [Edward Bishop <>]