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.\" ========================================================================
.IX Title "nkf 1"
.TH nkf 1 "2015-12-12" "nkf 2.1.4" " "
.\" For nroff, turn off justification.  Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
.if n .ad l
nkf \- Network Kanji Filter
nkf \fB[\-butjnesliohrTVvwWJESZxXFfmMBOcdILg]\fR \fB[\fR\fIfile ...\fR\fB]\fR
\&\fBNkf\fR is a yet another kanji code converter among networks, hosts and terminals.
It converts input kanji code to designated kanji code
such as \s-1ISO\-2022\-JP,\s0 Shift_JIS, EUC-JP, \s-1UTF\-8, UTF\-16\s0 or \s-1UTF\-32.\s0
One of the most unique faculty of \fBnkf\fR is the guess of the input kanji encodings.
It currently recognizes \s-1ISO\-2022\-JP,\s0 Shift_JIS, EUC-JP, \s-1UTF\-8, UTF\-16\s0 and \s-1UTF\-32.\s0
So users needn't set the input kanji code explicitly.
By default, X0201 kana is converted into X0208 kana.
For X0201 kana, \s-1SO/SI, SSO\s0 and \s-1ESC\-\s0(\-I methods are supported.
For automatic code detection, nkf assumes no X0201 kana in Shift_JIS.
To accept X0201 in Shift_JIS, use \fB\-X\fR, \fB\-x\fR or \fB\-S\fR.
multiple options are specifed as seprate strings, such as
.Vb 1
\&  print nkf(\*(Aq\-\-ic=UTF8\-MAC\*(Aq, \*(Aq\-w\*(Aq, $string), "\en";
except the last arguments.
.IX Header "OPTIONS"
.IP "\fB\-J \-S \-E \-W \-W16 \-W32 \-j \-s \-e \-w \-w16 \-w32\fR" 4
.IX Item "-J -S -E -W -W16 -W32 -j -s -e -w -w16 -w32"
Specify input and output encodings. Upper case is input.
cf. \-\-ic and \-\-oc.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-J\fR" 4
.IX Item "-J"
\&\s-1ISO\-2022\-JP \s0(\s-1JIS\s0 code).
.IP "\fB\-S\fR" 4
.IX Item "-S"
Shift_JIS and \s-1JIS X 0201\s0 kana.
EUC-JP is recognized as X0201 kana. Without \fB\-x\fR flag,
\&\s-1JIS X 0201\s0 Katakana (a.k.a.halfwidth kana) is converted into \s-1JIS X 0208.\s0
If you use Windows, see Windows\-31J (\s-1CP932\s0).
.IP "\fB\-E\fR" 4
.IX Item "-E"
.IP "\fB\-W\fR" 4
.IX Item "-W"
.IP "\fB\-W16[\s-1BL\s0][0]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-W16[BL][0]"
B\s0 or L gives whether Big Endian or Little Endian.
0 gives whther put \s-1BOM\s0 or not.
.IP "\fB\-W32[\s-1BL\s0][0]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-W32[BL][0]"
B\s0 or L gives whether Big Endian or Little Endian.
0 gives whther put \s-1BOM\s0 or not.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-b \-u\fR" 4
.IX Item "-b -u"
Output is buffered (\s-1DEFAULT\s0), Output is unbuffered.
.IP "\fB\-t\fR" 4
.IX Item "-t"
No conversion.
.IP "\fB\-i[@B]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-i[@B]"
Specify the escape sequence for \s-1JIS X 0208.\s0
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-i@\fR" 4
.IX Item "-i@"
Use \s-1ESC \s0( @. (\s-1JIS X 0208\-1978\s0)
.IP "\fB\-iB\fR" 4
.IX Item "-iB"
Use \s-1ESC \s0( B. (\s-1JIS X 0208\-1983/1990 DEFAULT\s0)
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-o[\s-1BJ\s0]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-o[BJ]"
Specify the escape sequence for \s-1US\-ASCII/JIS X 0201\s0 Roman. (\s-1DEFAULT B\s0)
.IP "\fB\-r\fR" 4
.IX Item "-r"
{de/en}crypt \s-1ROT13/47\s0
.IP "\fB\-h[123] \-\-hiragana \-\-katakana \-\-katakana\-hiragana\fR" 4
.IX Item "-h[123] --hiragana --katakana --katakana-hiragana"
.RS 4
.PD 0
.IP "\fB\-h1 \-\-hiragana\fR" 4
.IX Item "-h1 --hiragana"
Katakana to Hiragana conversion.
.IP "\fB\-h2 \-\-katakana\fR" 4
.IX Item "-h2 --katakana"
Hiragana to Katakana conversion.
.IP "\fB\-h3 \-\-katakana\-hiragana\fR" 4
.IX Item "-h3 --katakana-hiragana"
Katakana to Hiragana and Hiragana to Katakana conversion.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-T\fR" 4
.IX Item "-T"
Text mode output (MS-DOS)
.IP "\fB\-f[\f(BIm\fB [\- \f(BIn\fB]]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-f[m [- n]]"
Folding on \fIm\fR length with \fIn\fR margin in a line.
Without this option, fold length is 60 and fold margin is 10.
.IP "\fB\-F\fR" 4
.IX Item "-F"
New line preserving line folding.
.IP "\fB\-Z[0\-3]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Z[0-3]"
Convert X0208 alphabet (Fullwidth Alphabets) to \s-1ASCII.\s0
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-Z \-Z0\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Z -Z0"
Convert X0208 alphabet to \s-1ASCII.\s0
.IP "\fB\-Z1\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Z1"
Convert X0208 kankaku to single \s-1ASCII\s0 space.
.IP "\fB\-Z2\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Z2"
Convert X0208 kankaku to double \s-1ASCII\s0 spaces.
.IP "\fB\-Z3\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Z3"
Replacing fullwidth >, <, ", & into '&gt;', '&lt;', '&quot;', '&amp;' as in \s-1HTML.\s0
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-X \-x\fR" 4
.IX Item "-X -x"
With \fB\-X\fR or without this option, X0201 is converted into X0208 Kana.
With \fB\-x\fR, try to preserve X0208 kana and do not convert X0201 kana to X0208.
In \s-1JIS\s0 output, \s-1ESC\-\s0(\-I is used. In \s-1EUC\s0 output, \s-1SS2\s0 is used.
.IP "\fB\-B[0\-2]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-B[0-2]"
Assume broken JIS-Kanji input, which lost \s-1ESC.\s0
Useful when your site is using old B\-News Nihongo patch.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-B1\fR" 4
.IX Item "-B1"
allows any chars after \s-1ESC\-\s0( or \s-1ESC\-$.\s0
.IP "\fB\-B2\fR" 4
.IX Item "-B2"
force \s-1ASCII\s0 after \s-1NL.\s0
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-I\fR" 4
.IX Item "-I"
Replacing non iso\-2022\-jp char into a geta character
(substitute character in Japanese).
.IP "\fB\-m[\s-1BQN0\s0]\fR" 4
.IX Item "-m[BQN0]"
\&\s-1MIME ISO\-2022\-JP/ISO8859\-1\s0 decode. (\s-1DEFAULT\s0)
To see \s-1ISO8859\-1 \s0(Latin\-1) \-l is necessary.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-mB\fR" 4
.IX Item "-mB"
Decode \s-1MIME\s0 base64 encoded stream. Remove header or other part before
.IP "\fB\-mQ\fR" 4
.IX Item "-mQ"
Decode \s-1MIME\s0 quoted stream. '_' in quoted stream is converted to space.
.IP "\fB\-mN\fR" 4
.IX Item "-mN"
Non-strict decoding.
It allows line break in the middle of the base64 encoding.
.IP "\fB\-m0\fR" 4
.IX Item "-m0"
No \s-1MIME\s0 decode.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-M\fR" 4
.IX Item "-M"
\&\s-1MIME\s0 encode. Header style. All \s-1ASCII\s0 code and control characters are intact.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-MB\fR" 4
.IX Item "-MB"
\&\s-1MIME\s0 encode Base64 stream.
Kanji conversion is performed before encoding, so this cannot be used as a picture encoder.
.IP "\fB\-MQ\fR" 4
.IX Item "-MQ"
Perform quoted encoding.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-l\fR" 4
.IX Item "-l"
Input and output code is \s-1ISO8859\-1 \s0(Latin\-1) and \s-1ISO\-2022\-JP.
\&\s0\fB\-s\fR, \fB\-e\fR and \fB\-x\fR are not compatible with this option.
.IP "\fB\-L[uwm] \-d \-c\fR" 4
.IX Item "-L[uwm] -d -c"
Convert line breaks.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-Lu \-d\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Lu -d"
unix (\s-1LF\s0)
.IP "\fB\-Lw \-c\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Lw -c"
windows (\s-1CRLF\s0)
.IP "\fB\-Lm\fR" 4
.IX Item "-Lm"
mac (\s-1CR\s0)
Without this option, nkf doesn't convert line breaks.
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-\-fj \-\-unix \-\-mac \-\-msdos \-\-windows\fR" 4
.IX Item "--fj --unix --mac --msdos --windows"
Convert for these systems.
.IP "\fB\-\-jis \-\-euc \-\-sjis \-\-mime \-\-base64\fR" 4
.IX Item "--jis --euc --sjis --mime --base64"
Convert to named code.
.IP "\fB\-\-jis\-input \-\-euc\-input \-\-sjis\-input \-\-mime\-input \-\-base64\-input\fR" 4
.IX Item "--jis-input --euc-input --sjis-input --mime-input --base64-input"
Assume input system
.IP "\fB\-\-ic=\f(BIinput codeset\fB \-\-oc=\f(BIoutput codeset\fB\fR" 4
.IX Item "--ic=input codeset --oc=output codeset"
Set the input or output codeset.
\&\s-1NKF\s0 supports following codesets and those codeset names are case insensitive.
.RS 4
.IP "\s-1ISO\-2022\-JP\s0" 4
.IX Item "ISO-2022-JP"
a.k.a. \s-1RFC1468,\s0 7bit \s-1JIS, JUNET\s0
.IP "EUC-JP (eucJP-nkf)" 4
.IX Item "EUC-JP (eucJP-nkf)"
a.k.a. \s-1AT&T JIS,\s0 Japanese \s-1EUC, UJIS\s0
.IP "eucJP-ascii" 4
.IX Item "eucJP-ascii"
.PD 0
.IP "eucJP-ms" 4
.IX Item "eucJP-ms"
.IP "\s-1CP51932\s0" 4
.IX Item "CP51932"
Microsoft Version of EUC-JP.
.IP "Shift_JIS" 4
.IX Item "Shift_JIS"
a.k.a. \s-1SJIS,\s0 MS_Kanji
.IP "Windows\-31J" 4
.IX Item "Windows-31J"
a.k.a. \s-1CP932\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-8\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-8"
same as \s-1UTF\-8N\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-8N\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-8N"
\&\s-1UTF\-8\s0 without \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-8\-BOM\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-8-BOM"
\&\s-1UTF\-8\s0 with \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF8\-MAC \s0(input only)" 4
.IX Item "UTF8-MAC (input only)"
decomposed \s-1UTF\-8\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-16\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-16"
same as \s-1UTF\-16BE\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-16BE\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-16BE"
\&\s-1UTF\-16\s0 Big Endian without \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-16BE\-BOM\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-16BE-BOM"
\&\s-1UTF\-16\s0 Big Endian with \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-16LE\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-16LE"
\&\s-1UTF\-16\s0 Little Endian without \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-16LE\-BOM\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-16LE-BOM"
\&\s-1UTF\-16\s0 Little Endian with \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-32\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-32"
same as \s-1UTF\-32BE\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-32BE\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-32BE"
\&\s-1UTF\-32\s0 Big Endian without \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-32BE\-BOM\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-32BE-BOM"
\&\s-1UTF\-32\s0 Big Endian with \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-32LE\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-32LE"
\&\s-1UTF\-32\s0 Little Endian without \s-1BOM\s0
.IP "\s-1UTF\-32LE\-BOM\s0" 4
.IX Item "UTF-32LE-BOM"
\&\s-1UTF\-32\s0 Little Endian with \s-1BOM\s0
.RS 4
.IP "\fB\-\-fb\-{skip, html, xml, perl, java, subchar}\fR" 4
.IX Item "--fb-{skip, html, xml, perl, java, subchar}"
Specify the way that nkf handles unassigned characters.
Without this option, \-\-fb\-skip is assumed.
.IP "\fB\-\-prefix=\f(BIescape character\fB\f(BItarget character\fB..\fR" 4
.IX Item "--prefix=escape charactertarget character.."
When nkf converts to Shift_JIS,
nkf adds a specified escape character to specified 2nd byte of Shift_JIS characters.
1st byte of argument is the escape character and following bytes are target characters.
.IP "\fB\-\-no\-cp932ext\fR" 4
.IX Item "--no-cp932ext"
Handle the characters extended in \s-1CP932\s0 as unassigned characters.
.IP "\fB\-\-no\-best\-fit\-chars\fR" 4
.IX Item "--no-best-fit-chars"
When Unicode to Encoded byte conversion,
don't convert characters which is not round trip safe.
When Unicode to Unicode conversion,
with this and \-x option, nkf can be used as \s-1UTF\s0 converter.
(In other words, without this and \-x option, nkf doesn't save some characters)
When nkf converts strings that related to path, you should use this opion.
.IP "\fB\-\-cap\-input\fR" 4
.IX Item "--cap-input"
Decode hex encoded characters.
.IP "\fB\-\-url\-input\fR" 4
.IX Item "--url-input"
Unescape percent escaped characters.
.IP "\fB\-\-numchar\-input\fR" 4
.IX Item "--numchar-input"
Decode character reference, such as \*(L"&#....;\*(R".
.IP "\fB\-\-in\-place[=\fR\fI\s-1SUFFIX\s0\fR\fB]\fR  \fB\-\-overwrite[=\fR\fI\s-1SUFFIX\s0\fR\fB]\fR" 4
.IX Item "--in-place[=SUFFIX] --overwrite[=SUFFIX]"
Overwrite \fBoriginal\fR listed files by filtered result.
\&\fBNote\fR \-\-overwrite preserves timestamps of original files.
.IP "\fB\-\-guess=[12]\fR" 4
.IX Item "--guess=[12]"
Print guessed encoding and newline. (2 is default, 1 is only encoding)
.IP "\fB\-\-help\fR" 4
.IX Item "--help"
Print nkf's help.
.IP "\fB\-\-version\fR" 4
.IX Item "--version"
Print nkf's version.
.IP "\fB\-\-\fR" 4
.IX Item "--"
Ignore rest of \-option.
.IX Header "AUTHOR"
Copyright (c) 1987, Fujitsu \s-1LTD. \s0(Itaru \s-1ICHIKAWA\s0).
Copyright (c) 1996\-2015, The nkf Project.