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Slingshot sanity checking rules for GNU Make.


Copyright (C) 2001-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Originally by Jim Meyering, Simon Josefsson, Eric Blake,

Akim Demaille, Gary V. Vaughan, and others.

This version by Gary V. Vaughan, 2013.

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify

it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by

the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or

(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,

but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of


GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License

along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.


VC_LIST = $(GIT) ls-files

You can override this variable in cfg.mk to set your own regexp

matching files to ignore.


This is to preprocess robustly the output of $(VC_LIST), so that even

when $(srcdir) is a pathological name like "....", the leading sed command

removes only the intended prefix.

_dot_escaped_srcdir = $(subst .,.,$(srcdir))

Post-process $(VC_LIST) output, prepending $(srcdir)/, but only

when $(srcdir) is not ".".

ifeq ($(srcdir),.) _prepend_srcdir_prefix = else _prepend_srcdir_prefix = | sed 's|^|$(srcdir)/|' endif

In order to be able to consistently filter "."-relative names,

(i.e., with no $(srcdir) prefix), this definition is careful to

remove any $(srcdir) prefix, and to restore what it removes.

_sc_excl = \ $(or $(exclude_file_name_regexp--$@),^build-aux/sanity.mk$$|gnulib$$|^slingshot$$) VC_LIST_EXCEPT = \ $(VC_LIST) | sed 's|^$(_dot_escaped_srcdir)/||' \ | if test -f $(srcdir)/.x-$@; then grep -vEf $(srcdir)/.x-$@; \ else grep -Ev -e "$${VC_LIST_EXCEPT_DEFAULT-ChangeLog}"; fi \ | grep -Ev -e '($(VC_LIST_ALWAYS_EXCLUDE_REGEX)|$(_sc_excl))' \ $(_prepend_srcdir_prefix)


Sanity checks.


-include $(srcdir)/$(_build-aux)/sanity-cfg.mk

_cfg_mk := $(wildcard $(srcdir)/cfg.mk)

Collect the names of rules starting with 'sc_'.

syntax-check-rules := $(sort $(shell sed -n 's/^(sc_[a-zA-Z0-9_-]):./\1/p' \ $(srcdir)/$(ME) $(_cfg_mk) $(srcdir)/$(_build-aux)/*.mk)) .PHONY: $(syntax-check-rules)

ifeq ($(shell $(VC_LIST) >/dev/null 2>&1; echo $$?),0) local-checks-available += $(syntax-check-rules) else local-checks-available += no-vc-detected no-vc-detected: @echo "No version control files detected; skipping syntax check" endif .PHONY: $(local-checks-available)

Arrange to print the name of each syntax-checking rule just before running it.

$(syntax-check-rules): %: %.m sc_m_rules_ = $(patsubst %, %.m, $(syntax-check-rules)) .PHONY: $(sc_m_rules_) $(sc_m_rules_): @echo $(patsubst sc_%.m, %, $@) @date +%s.%N > .sc-start-$(basename $@)

Compute and print the elapsed time for each syntax-check rule.

sc_z_rules_ = $(patsubst %, %.z, $(syntax-check-rules)) .PHONY: $(sc_z_rules_) $(sc_z_rules_): %.z: % @end=$$(date +%s.%N); \ start=$$(cat .sc-start-$); \ rm -f .sc-start-$; \ awk -v s=$$start -v e=$$end \ 'END {printf "%.2f $(patsubst sc_%,%,$*)\n", e - s}' < /dev/null

The patsubst here is to replace each sc_% rule with its sc_%.z wrapper

that computes and prints elapsed time.

local-check := \ $(patsubst sc_%, sc_%.z, \ $(filter-out $(local-checks-to-skip), $(local-checks-available)))

syntax-check: $(local-check)


This macro searches for a given construct in the selected files and

then takes some action.

Parameters (shell variables):

prohibit | require

Regular expression (ERE) denoting either a forbidden construct

or a required construct. Those arguments are exclusive.


Regular expression (ERE) denoting lines to ignore that matched

a prohibit construct. For example, this can be used to exclude

comments that mention why the nearby code uses an alternative

construct instead of the simpler prohibited construct.

in_vc_files | in_files

grep-E-style regexp selecting the files to check. For in_vc_files,

the regexp is used to select matching files from the list of all

version-controlled files; for in_files, it's from the names printed

by "find $(srcdir)". When neither is specified, use all files that

are under version control.

containing | non_containing

Select the files (non) containing strings matching this regexp.

If both arguments are specified then CONTAINING takes



Extra options for grep.


Ignore case.


Message to display before to halting execution.

Finally, you may exempt files based on an ERE matching file names.

For example, to exempt from the sc_space_tab check all files with the

.diff suffix, set this Make variable:

exclude_file_name_regexp--sc_space_tab = .diff$

Note that while this functionality is mostly inherited via VC_LIST_EXCEPT,

when filtering by name via in_files, we explicitly filter out matching

names here as well.

Initialize each, so that envvar settings cannot interfere.

export require = export prohibit = export exclude = export in_vc_files = export in_files = export containing = export non_containing = export halt = export with_grep_options =

By default, _sc_search_regexp does not ignore case.

export ignore_case = _ignore_case = $$(test -n "$$ignore_case" && printf %s -i || :)

define _sc_say_and_exit dummy=; : so we do not need a semicolon before each use; \ { printf '%s\n' "$(ME): $$msg" 1>&2; exit 1; }; endef

define _sc_search_regexp
dummy=; : so we do not need a semicolon before each use; \
Check arguments; \
test -n "$$prohibit" && test -n "$$require" \
&& { msg='Cannot specify both prohibit and require' \
$(_sc_say_and_exit) } || :; \
test -z "$$prohibit" && test -z "$$require" \
&& { msg='Should specify either prohibit or require' \
$(_sc_say_and_exit) } || :; \
test -z "$$prohibit" && test -n "$$exclude" \
&& { msg='Use of exclude requires a prohibit pattern' \
$(_sc_say_and_exit) } || :; \
test -n "$$in_vc_files" && test -n "$$in_files" \
&& { msg='Cannot specify both in_vc_files and in_files' \
$(_sc_say_and_exit) } || :; \
test "x$$halt" != x \
|| { msg='halt not defined' $(_sc_say_and_exit) }; \
Filter by file name; \
if test -n "$$in_files"; then \
files=$$(find $(srcdir) | grep -E "$$in_files" \
| grep -Ev '$(_sc_excl)'); \
else \
files=$$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)); \
if test -n "$$in_vc_files"; then \
files=$$(echo "$$files" | grep -E "$$in_vc_files"); \
fi; \
fi; \
Filter by content; \
test -n "$$files" && test -n "$$containing" \
&& { files=$$(grep -l "$$containing" $$files); } || :; \
test -n "$$files" && test -n "$$non_containing" \
&& { files=$$(grep -vl "$$non_containing" $$files); } || :; \
Check for the construct; \ if test -n "$$files"; then \ if test -n "$$prohibit"; then \ grep $$with_grep_options $(_ignore_case) -nE "$$prohibit" $$files \ | grep -vE "$${exclude:-^$$}" \ && { msg="$$halt" $(_sc_say_and_exit) } || :; \ else \ grep $$with_grep_options $(_ignore_case) -LE "$$require" $$files \ | grep . \ && { msg="$$halt" $(_sc_say_and_exit) } || :; \ fi \ else :; \ fi || :; endef

sc_avoid_if_before_free: @test -f $(srcdir)/$(_build-aux)/useless-if-before-free && \ $(srcdir)/$(_build-aux)/useless-if-before-free \ $(useless_free_options) \ $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT) | grep -v useless-if-before-free) && \ { echo '$(ME): found useless "if" before "free" above' 1>&2; \ exit 1; } || :

sc_cast_of_argument_to_free: @prohibit='\<free ( (' halt="don't cast free argument" \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_cast_of_x_alloc_return_value: @prohibit='*) x(m|c|re)alloc>' \ halt="don't cast xalloc return value" \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_cast_of_alloca_return_value: @prohibit='*) *alloca>' \ halt="don't cast alloca return value" \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_space_tab: @prohibit='[ ] ' \ halt='found SPACE-TAB sequence; remove the SPACE' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Don't use scanf or the old ato functions in "real" code.

They provide no error checking mechanism.

Instead, use strto* functions.

sc_prohibit_atoi_atof: @prohibit='\<([fs]?scanf|ato([filq]|ll)) (' \ halt='do not use scan''f, ato''f, ato''i, ato''l, ato''ll or ato''q' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Use STREQ rather than comparing strcmp == 0, or != 0.

sp_ = strcmp (.+) sc_prohibit_strcmp: @prohibit='! strcmp (|\<$(sp_) [!=]=|[!=]= $(sp_)' \ exclude='# define STRN?EQ(' \ halt='replace strcmp calls above with STREQ/STRNEQ' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Really. You don't want to use this function.

It may fail to NUL-terminate the destination,

and always NUL-pads out to the specified length.

sc_prohibit_strncpy: @prohibit='\<strncpy ( [^)]' \ halt='do not use strncpy, period' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Pass EXIT_*, not number, to usage, exit, and error (when exiting)

Convert all uses automatically, via these two commands:

git grep -l '\<exit *(1)' \

| grep -vEf .x-sc_prohibit_magic_number_exit \

| xargs --no-run-if-empty \

perl -pi -e 's/(^|[^.])\b(exit ?)(1)/$1$2(EXIT_FAILURE)/'

git grep -l '\<exit *(0)' \

| grep -vEf .x-sc_prohibit_magic_number_exit \

| xargs --no-run-if-empty \

perl -pi -e 's/(^|[^.])\b(exit ?)(0)/$1$2(EXIT_SUCCESS)/'

sc_prohibit_magic_number_exit: @prohibit='(^|[^.])\<(usage|exit|error) ?(-?[0-9]+[,)]' \ exclude='exit (77)|error ?(((0|77),|[^,])' \ halt='use EXIT_ values rather than magic number' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Using EXIT_SUCCESS as the first argument to error is misleading,

since when that parameter is 0, error does not exit. Use '0' instead.

sc_error_exit_success: @prohibit='error *(EXIT_SUCCESS,' \ in_vc_files='.[chly]$$' \ halt='found error (EXIT_SUCCESS' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

"FATAL:" should be fully upper-cased in error messages

"WARNING:" should be fully upper-cased, or fully lower-cased

sc_error_message_warn_fatal: @grep -nEA2 '[^rp]error *(' $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) \ | grep -E '"Warning|"Fatal|"fatal' && \ { echo '$(ME): use FATAL, WARNING or warning' 1>&2; \ exit 1; } || :

Error messages should not start with a capital letter

sc_error_message_uppercase: @grep -nEA2 '[^rp]error *(' $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) \ | grep -E '"[A-Z]' \ | grep -vE '"FATAL|"WARNING|"Java|"C#|PRIuMAX' && \ { echo '$(ME): found capitalized error message' 1>&2; \ exit 1; } || :

Error messages should not end with a period

sc_error_message_period: @grep -nEA2 '[^rp]error *(' $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) \ | grep -E '[^."]."' && \ { echo '$(ME): found error message ending in period' 1>&2; \ exit 1; } || :

sc_file_system: @prohibit=file''system \ ignore_case=1 \ halt='found use of "file''system"; spell it "file system"' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_makefile: @prohibit=make''flie \ ignore_case=1 \ halt='found misspelled "make''flie"; use "makefile" instead' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Don't use cpp tests of this symbol. All code assumes config.h is included.

sc_prohibit_have_config_h: @prohibit='^# if.HAVE''_CONFIG_H' \ halt='found use of HAVE''_CONFIG_H; remove' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Nearly all .c files must include <config.h>. However, we also permit this

via inclusion of a package-specific header, if cfg.mk specified one.

config_h_header must be suitable for grep -E.

config_h_header ?= <config\.h> sc_require_config_h: @require='^# *include $(config_h_header)' \ in_vc_files='.c$$' \ halt='the above files do not include <config.h>' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

You must include <config.h> before including any other header file.

This can possibly be via a package-specific header, if given by cfg.mk.

sc_require_config_h_first: @if $(VC_LIST_EXCEPT) | grep -l '.c$$' > /dev/null; then \ fail=0; \ for i in $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT) | grep '.c$$'); do \ grep '^# include>' $$i | sed 1q \ | grep -E '^# include $(config_h_header)' > /dev/null \ || { echo $$i; fail=1; }; \ done; \ test $$fail = 1 && \ { echo '$(ME): the above files include some other header' \ 'before <config.h>' 1>&2; exit 1; } || :; \ else :; \ fi

sc_prohibit_HAVE_MBRTOWC: @prohibit='\bHAVE_MBRTOWC\b' \ halt="do not use $$prohibit; it is always defined" \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

To use this "command" macro, you must first define two shell variables:

h: the header name, with no enclosing <> or ""

re: a regular expression that matches IFF something provided by $h is used.

define _sc_header_without_use dummy=; : so we do not need a semicolon before each use; \ h_esc=echo '[<"]'"$$h"'[">]'|sed 's/\./\\\\./g'; \ if $(VC_LIST_EXCEPT) | grep -l '.c$$' > /dev/null; then \ files=$$(grep -l '^# *include '"$$h_esc" \ $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT) | grep '.c$$')) && \ grep -LE "$$re" $$files | grep . && \ { echo "$(ME): the above files include $$h but don't use it" \ 1>&2; exit 1; } || :; \ else :; \ fi endef

Prohibit the inclusion of assert.h without an actual use of assert.

sc_prohibit_assert_without_use: @h='assert.h' re='\<assert *(' $(_sc_header_without_use)

Prohibit the inclusion of close-stream.h without an actual use.

sc_prohibit_close_stream_without_use: @h='close-stream.h' re='\<close_stream *(' $(_sc_header_without_use)

Prohibit the inclusion of getopt.h without an actual use.

sc_prohibit_getopt_without_use: @h='getopt.h' re='\<getopt(_long)? *(' $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include quotearg.h unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_quotearg_without_use: @h='quotearg.h' re='\<quotearg(_[^ ]+)? *(' $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include quote.h unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_quote_without_use: @h='quote.h' re='\<quote((_n)? *(|_quoting_options>)' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include this header unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_long_options_without_use: @h='long-options.h' re='\<parse_long_options *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include this header unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_inttostr_without_use: @h='inttostr.h' re='\<(off|[iu]max|uint)tostr *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include this header unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_ignore_value_without_use: @h='ignore-value.h' re='\<ignore_(value|ptr) *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include this header unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_error_without_use: @h='error.h' \ re='\<error(_at_line|_print_progname|_one_per_line|_message_count)? *('\ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include xalloc.h unless you use one of its functions.

Consider these symbols:

perl -lne '/^# *define (\w+)(/ and print $1' lib/xalloc.h|grep -v '^__';

perl -lne '/^(?:extern )?(?:void|char) *?(\w+) *(/ and print $1' lib/xalloc.h

Divide into two sets on case, and filter each through this:

| sort | perl -MRegexp::Assemble -le \

'print Regexp::Assemble->new(file => "/dev/stdin")->as_string'|sed 's/\?://g'

Note this was produced by the above:

_xa1 = \


But we can do better, in at least two ways:

1) take advantage of two "dup"-suffixed strings:


2) notice that "c(har)?|[mz]" is equivalent to the shorter and more readable



xa1 = x(((2n?)?re|char|n(re|m)|[cmz])alloc|alloc(oversized|die)|(mem|str)dup) _xa2 = X([CZ]|N?M)ALLOC sc_prohibit_xalloc_without_use: @h='xalloc.h' \ re='\<($(_xa1)|$(_xa2)) *('\ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Extract function names:

perl -lne '/^(?:extern )?(?:void|char) *?(\w+) *(/ and print $1' lib/hash.h

hash_re = \ clear|delete|free|get(first|next)|insert|lookup|print_statistics|reset_tuning hash_fn = \<($(_hash_re)) *( _hash_struct = (struct )?\<[Hh]ash(table|tuning)> sc_prohibit_hash_without_use: @h='hash.h' \ re='$(_hash_fn)|$(_hash_struct)'\ $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_cloexec_without_use: @h='cloexec.h' re='\<(set_cloexec_flag|dup_cloexec) *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_posixver_without_use: @h='posixver.h' re='\<posix2_version *(' $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_same_without_use: @h='same.h' re='\<same_name *(' $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_hash_pjw_without_use: @h='hash-pjw.h' \ re='\<hash_pjw>' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_safe_read_without_use: @h='safe-read.h' re='(\<SAFE_READ_ERROR>|\<safe_read *()' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_argmatch_without_use: @h='argmatch.h' \ re='(\<(ARRAY_CARDINALITY|X?ARGMATCH(|TO_ARGUMENT|_VERIFY))>|\<(invalid_arg|argmatch(_exit_fn|(in)?valid)?) *()' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_canonicalize_without_use: @h='canonicalize.h' \ re='CAN_(EXISTING|ALL_BUT_LAST|MISSING)|canonicalize_(mode_t|filename_mode|file_name)' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_root_dev_ino_without_use: @h='root-dev-ino.h' \ re='(\<ROOT_DEV_INO_(CHECK|WARN)>|\<get_root_dev_ino *()' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_prohibit_openat_without_use: @h='openat.h' \ re='\<(openat_(permissive|needs_fchdir|(save|restore)_fail)|l?(stat|ch(own|mod))at|(euid)?accessat)>' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Prohibit the inclusion of c-ctype.h without an actual use.

ctype_re = isalnum|isalpha|isascii|isblank|iscntrl|isdigit|isgraph|islower\ |isprint|ispunct|isspace|isupper|isxdigit|tolower|toupper sc_prohibit_c_ctype_without_use: @h='c-ctype.h' re='\<c_($(ctype_re)) *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

The following list was generated by running:

man signal.h|col -b|perl -ne '/bsd_signal.;/.../sigwaitinfo.;/ and print' \

| perl -lne '/^\s+(?:int|void).?(\w+)./ and print $1' | fmt

_sig_functions = \ bsd_signal kill killpg pthread_kill pthread_sigmask raise sigaction \ sigaddset sigaltstack sigdelset sigemptyset sigfillset sighold sigignore \ siginterrupt sigismember signal sigpause sigpending sigprocmask sigqueue \ sigrelse sigset sigsuspend sigtimedwait sigwait sigwaitinfo _sig_function_re = $(subst $(_sp),|,$(strip $(_sig_functions)))

The following were extracted from "man signal.h" manually.


generated via this:

perl -lne '/^#ifdef (SIG\w+)/ and print $1' lib/sig2str.c|sort -u|fmt -70


Prohibit the inclusion of signal.h without an actual use.

sc_prohibit_signal_without_use: @h='signal.h' \ re='\<($(_sig_function_re)) *(|\<($(_sig_syms_re))>' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include stdio--.h unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_stdio--_without_use: @h='stdio--.h' re='\<((f(re)?|p)open|tmpfile) *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include stdio-safer.h unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_stdio-safer_without_use: @h='stdio-safer.h' re='\<((f(re)?|p)open|tmpfile)_safer *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Prohibit the inclusion of strings.h without a sensible use.

Using the likes of bcmp, bcopy, bzero, index or rindex is not sensible.

sc_prohibit_strings_without_use: @h='strings.h' \ re='\<(strn?casecmp|ffs(ll)?)>' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Get the list of symbol names with this:

perl -lne '/^# *define ([A-Z]\w+)(/ and print $1' lib/intprops.h|fmt


Prohibit the inclusion of intprops.h without an actual use.

sc_prohibit_intprops_without_use: @h='intprops.h' \ re='\<($(_intprops_syms_re)) *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

_stddef_syms_re = NULL|offsetof|ptrdiff_t|size_t|wchar_t

Prohibit the inclusion of stddef.h without an actual use.

sc_prohibit_stddef_without_use: @h='stddef.h' \ re='\<($(_stddef_syms_re))>' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

_de1 = dirfd|(close|(fd)?open|read|rewind|seek|tell)dir(64)?(_r)? _de2 = (versionsort|struct dirent|getdirentries|alphasort|scandir(at)?)(64)? _de3 = MAXNAMLEN|DIR|ino_t|d_ino|d_fileno|d_namlen _dirent_syms_re = $(_de1)|$(_de2)|$(_de3)

Prohibit the inclusion of dirent.h without an actual use.

sc_prohibit_dirent_without_use: @h='dirent.h' \ re='\<($(_dirent_syms_re))>' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Prohibit the inclusion of verify.h without an actual use.

sc_prohibit_verify_without_use: @h='verify.h' \ re='\<(verify(true|expr)?|static_assert) *(' \ $(_sc_header_without_use)

Don't include xfreopen.h unless you use one of its functions.

sc_prohibit_xfreopen_without_use: @h='xfreopen.h' re='\<xfreopen *(' $(_sc_header_without_use)

sc_obsolete_symbols: @prohibit='\<(HAVE''_FCNTL_H|O''_NDELAY)>' \ halt='do not use HAVE''_FCNTL_H or O'_NDELAY \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

FIXME: warn about definitions of EXIT_FAILURE, EXIT_SUCCESS, STREQ

Each nonempty ChangeLog line must start with a year number, or a TAB.

sc_changelog: @prohibit='^[^12 ]' \ in_vc_files='^ChangeLog$$' \ halt='found unexpected prefix in a ChangeLog' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Ensure that each .c file containing a "main" function also

calls set_program_name.

sc_program_name: @require='set_program_name (m?argv[0]);' \ in_vc_files='.c$$' \ containing='\<main (' \ halt='the above files do not call set_program_name' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Ensure that each .c file containing a "main" function also

calls bindtextdomain.

sc_bindtextdomain: @require='bindtextdomain (' \ in_vc_files='.c$$' \ containing='\<main (' \ halt='the above files do not call bindtextdomain' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Require that the final line of each test-lib.sh-using test be this one:

Exit $fail

Note: this test requires GNU grep's --label= option.

Exit_witness_file ?= tests/test-lib.sh Exit_base := $(notdir $(Exit_witness_file)) sc_require_test_exit_idiom: @if test -f $(srcdir)/$(Exit_witness_file); then \ die=0; \ for i in $$(grep -l -F 'srcdir/$(Exit_base)' \ $$($(VC_LIST) tests)); do \ tail -n1 $$i | grep '^Exit .' > /dev/null \ && : || { die=1; echo $$i; } \ done; \ test $$die = 1 && \ { echo 1>&2 '$(ME): the final line in each of the above is not:'; \ echo 1>&2 'Exit something'; \ exit 1; } || :; \ fi

sc_trailing_blank: @prohibit='[ ]$$' \ halt='found trailing blank(s)' \ exclude='^Binary file .* matches$$' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Match lines like the following, but where there is only one space

between the options and the description:

-D, --all-repeated[=delimit-method] print all duplicate lines\n

longopt_re = --[a-z][0-9A-Za-z-]([?=[0-9A-Za-z-]]?)? sc_two_space_separator_in_usage: @prohibit='^ (-[A-Za-z],)? $(longopt_re) [^ ].\$$' \ halt='help2man requires at least two spaces between an option and its description'\ $(_sc_search_regexp)

A regexp matching function names like "error_" that may be used

to emit translatable messages.

gl_translatable_diag_func_re ?= error

Look for diagnostics that aren't marked for translation.

This won't find any for which error's format string is on a separate line.

sc_unmarked_diagnostics: @prohibit='\<$(gl_translatable_diag_func_re) ([^"]"[^"]*[a-z]{3}' \ exclude='(|ngettext ?)(' \ halt='found unmarked diagnostic(s)' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Avoid useless parentheses like those in this example:

#if defined (SYMBOL) || defined (SYM2)

sc_useless_cpp_parens: @prohibit='^# if .defined *(' \ halt='found useless parentheses in cpp directive' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

List headers for which HAVE_HEADER_H is always true, assuming you are

using the appropriate gnulib module. CAUTION: for each "unnecessary"

#if HAVE_HEADER_H that you remove, be sure that your project explicitly

requires the gnulib module that guarantees the usability of that header.

gl_assured_headers_ = \ cd $(gnulib_dir)/lib && echo *.in.h|sed 's/.in.h//g'

Convert the list of names to upper case, and replace each space with "|".

az_ = abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz AZ_ = ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ gl_header_upper_case_or_ = \ $$($(gl_assured_headers_) \ | tr $(az_)/.- $(AZ_)___ \ | tr -s ' ' '|' \ ) sc_prohibit_always_true_header_tests: @or=$(gl_header_upper_case_or_); \ re="HAVE_($$or)H"; \ prohibit='\<'"$$re"'>' \ halt=$$(printf '%s\n' \ 'do not test the above HAVE<header>_H symbol(s);' \ ' with the corresponding gnulib module, they are always true') \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_prohibit_defined_have_decl_tests: @prohibit='#[ ]if(n?def|.\<defined)>[ (]+HAVE_DECL_' \ halt='HAVE_DECL macros are always defined' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)


gl_other_headers_ ?= \ intprops.h \ openat.h \ stat-macros.h

Perl -lne code to extract "significant" cpp-defined symbols from a

gnulib header file, eliminating a few common false-positives.

The exempted names below are defined only conditionally in gnulib,

and hence sometimes must/may be defined in application code.

gl_extract_significant_defines_ = \ /^# define ([^_ (][^ (])(\s*(|\s+\w+)/\ && $$2 !~ /(?:rpl_|used_without)/\ && $$1 !~ /^(?:NSIG|ENODATA)$$/\ && $$1 !~ /^(?:SA_RESETHAND|SA_RESTART)$$/\ and print $$1

Create a list of regular expressions matching the names

of macros that are guaranteed to be defined by parts of gnulib.

define def_sym_regex gen_h=$(gl_generated_headers_); \ (cd $(gnulib_dir)/lib; \ for f in .in.h $(gl_other_headers_); do \ test -f $$f \ && perl -lne '$(gl_extract_significant_defines_)' $$f; \ done; \ ) | sort -u \ | sed 's/^/^ # (define|undef) /;s/$$/\>/' endef

Don't define macros that we already get from gnulib header files.

sc_prohibit_always-defined_macros: @if test -d $(gnulib_dir); then \ case $$(echo all: | grep -l -f - Makefile) in Makefile);; *) \ echo '$(ME): skipping $@: you lack GNU grep' 1>&2; exit 0;; \ esac; \ $(def_sym_regex) | grep -E -f - $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) \ && { echo '$(ME): define the above via some gnulib .h file' \ 1>&2; exit 1; } || :; \ fi


Prohibit checked in backup files.

sc_prohibit_backup_files: @$(VC_LIST) | grep '~$$' && \ { echo '$(ME): found version controlled backup file' 1>&2; \ exit 1; } || :

Require the latest GPL.

sc_GPL_version: @prohibit='either ''version [^3]' \ halt='GPL vN, N!=3' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Require the latest GFDL. Two regexp, since some .texi files end up

line wrapping between 'Free Documentation License,' and 'Version'.

_GFDL_regexp = (Free ''Documentation.*Version 1.[^3]|Version 1.[^3] or any) sc_GFDL_version: @prohibit='$(_GFDL_regexp)' \ halt='GFDL vN, N!=3' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Don't use Texinfo's @acronym{}.


texinfo_suffix_re_ ?= .(txi|texi(nfo)?)$$ sc_texinfo_acronym: @prohibit='@acronym{' \ in_vc_files='$(texinfo_suffix_re_)' \ halt='found use of Texinfo @acronym{}' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

cvs_keywords = \ Author|Date|Header|Id|Name|Locker|Log|RCSfile|Revision|Source|State

sc_prohibit_cvs_keyword: @prohibit='\$$($(cvs_keywords))\$$' \ halt='do not use CVS keyword expansion' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

This Perl code is slightly obfuscated. Not only is each "$" doubled

because it's in a Makefile, but the $$c's are comments; we cannot

use "#" due to the way the script ends up concatenated onto one line.

It would be much more concise, and would produce better output (including

counts) if written as:

perl -ln -0777 -e '/\n(\n+)$/ and print "$ARGV: ".length $1' ...

but that would be far less efficient, reading the entire contents

of each file, rather than just the last two bytes of each.

In addition, while the code below detects both blank lines and a missing

newline at EOF, the above detects only the former.

This is a perl script that is expected to be the single-quoted argument

to a command-line "-le". The remaining arguments are file names.

Print the name of each file that does not end in exactly one newline byte.

I.e., warn if there are blank lines (2 or more newlines), or if the

last byte is not a newline. However, currently we don't complain

about any file that contains exactly one byte.

Exit nonzero if at least one such file is found, otherwise, exit 0.

Warn about, but otherwise ignore open failure. Ignore seek/read failure.

Use this if you want to remove trailing empty lines from selected files:

perl -pi -0777 -e 's/\n\n+$/\n/' files...

require_exactly_one_NL_at_EOF_ = \ foreach my $$f (@ARGV) \ { \ open F, "<", $$f or (warn "failed to open $$f: $$!\n"), next; \ my $$p = sysseek (F, -2, 2); \ my $$c = "seek failure probably means file has < 2 bytes; ignore"; \ my $$last_two_bytes; \ defined $$p and $$p = sysread F, $$last_two_bytes, 2; \ close F; \ $$c = "ignore read failure"; \ $$p && ($$last_two_bytes eq "\n\n" \ || substr ($$last_two_bytes,1) ne "\n") \ and (print $$f), $$fail=1; \ } \ END { exit defined $$fail } sc_prohibit_empty_lines_at_EOF: @perl -le '$(require_exactly_one_NL_at_EOF_)' $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) \ || { echo '$(ME): empty line(s) or no newline at EOF' \ 1>&2; exit 1; } || :

Make sure we don't use st_blocks. Use ST_NBLOCKS instead.

This is a bit of a kludge, since it prevents use of the string

even in comments, but for now it does the job with no false positives.

sc_prohibit_stat_st_blocks: @prohibit='[.>]st_blocks' \ halt='do not use st_blocks; use ST_NBLOCKS' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Make sure we don't define any S_IS macros in src/.c files.

They're already defined via gnulib's sys/stat.h replacement.

sc_prohibit_S_IS_definition: @prohibit='^ # define S_IS' \ halt='do not define S_IS macros; include <sys/stat.h>' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Perl block to convert a match to FILE_NAME:LINENO:TEST,

that is shared by two definitions below.

perl_filename_lineno_text_ = \ -e ' {' \ -e ' $$n = ($$` =~ tr/\n/\n/ + 1);' \ -e ' ($$v = $$&) =~ s/\n/\n/g;' \ -e ' print "$$ARGV:$$n:$$v\n";' \ -e ' }'

prohibit_doubled_word_RE_ ?= \ /\b(then?|[iao]n|i[fst]|but|f?or|at|and|[dt]o)\s+\1\b/gims prohibit_doubled_word_ = \ -e 'while ($(prohibit_doubled_word_RE_))' \ $(perl_filename_lineno_text_)

Define this to a regular expression that matches

any filename:dd:match lines you want to ignore.

The default is to ignore no matches.

ignore_doubled_word_match_RE_ ?= ^$$

sc_prohibit_doubled_word: @perl -n -0777 $(prohibit_doubled_word_) $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) \ | grep -vE '$(ignore_doubled_word_match_RE_)' \ | grep . && { echo '$(ME): doubled words' 1>&2; exit 1; } || :

A regular expression matching undesirable combinations of words like

"can not"; this matches them even when the two words appear on different

lines, but not when there is an intervening delimiter like "#" or "*".

Similarly undesirable, "See @xref{...}", since an @xref should start

a sentence. Explicitly prohibit any prefix of "see" or "also".

Also prohibit a prefix matching "\w+ +".

@pxref gets the same see/also treatment and should be parenthesized;

presume it must not start a sentence.

bad_xref_re_ ?= (?:[\w,:;] +|(?:see|also)\s+)\@xref{ bad_pxref_re_ ?= (?:[.!?]|(?:see|also))\s+\@pxref{ prohibit_undesirable_word_seq_RE_ ?= \ /(?:\bcan\s+not\b|$(bad_xref_re_)|$(bad_pxref_re_))/gims prohibit_undesirable_word_seq_ = \ -e 'while ($(prohibit_undesirable_word_seq_RE_))' \ $(perl_filename_lineno_text_)

Define this to a regular expression that matches

any filename:dd:match lines you want to ignore.

The default is to ignore no matches.

ignore_undesirable_word_sequence_RE_ ?= ^$$

sc_prohibit_undesirable_word_seq: @perl -n -0777 $(prohibit_undesirable_word_seq_) \ $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) \ | grep -vE '$(ignore_undesirable_word_sequence_RE_)' | grep . \ && { echo '$(ME): undesirable word sequence' >&2; exit 1; } || :

_ptm1 = use "test C1 && test C2", not "test C1 -''a C2" _ptm2 = use "test C1 || test C2", not "test C1 -''o C2"

Using test's -a and -o operators is not portable.

We prefer test over [, since the latter is spelled [[ in configure.ac.

sc_prohibit_test_minus_ao: @prohibit='(\<test| [+) .+ -[ao] ' \ halt='$(_ptm1); $(_ptm2)' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Avoid a test bashism.

sc_prohibit_test_double_equal: @prohibit='(\<test| [+) .+ == ' \ containing='#! /bin/[a-z]sh' \ halt='use "test x = x", not "test x =''= x"' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Each program that uses proper_name_utf8 must link with one of the

ICONV libraries. Otherwise, some ICONV library must appear in LDADD.

The perl -0777 invocation below extracts the possibly-multi-line

definition of LDADD from the appropriate Makefile.am and exits 0

when it contains "ICONV".

sc_proper_name_utf8_requires_ICONV: @progs=$$(grep -l 'proper_name_utf8 ''("' $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)));\ if test "x$$progs" != x; then \ fail=0; \ for p in $$progs; do \ dir=$$(dirname "$$p"); \ perl -0777 \ -ne 'exit !(/^LDADD =(.+?[^\]\n)/ms && $$1 =~ /ICONV/)' \ $$dir/Makefile.am && continue; \ base=$$(basename "$$p" .c); \ grep "$${base}_LDADD.*ICONV)" $$dir/Makefile.am > /dev/null \ || { fail=1; echo 1>&2 "$(ME): $$p uses proper_name_utf8"; }; \ done; \ test $$fail = 1 && \ { echo 1>&2 '$(ME): the above do not link with any ICONV library'; \ exit 1; } || :; \ fi

Warn about "c0nst struct Foo const foo[]",

but not about "char const *const foo" or "#define const const".

sc_redundant_const: @prohibit='\bconst\b[[:space:][:alnum:]]{2,}\bconst\b' \ halt='redundant "const" in declarations' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_const_long_option: @prohibit='^ static.struct option ' \ exclude='const struct option|struct option const' \ halt='add "const" to the above declarations' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Ensure that we don't accidentally insert an entry into an old NEWS block.

sc_immutable_NEWS: @if test -f $(srcdir)/NEWS; then \ test "$(NEWS_hash)" = '$(old_NEWS_hash)' && : || \ { echo '$(ME): you have modified old NEWS' 1>&2; exit 1; }; \ fi

Ensure that we use only the standard $(VAR) notation,

not @...@ in Makefile.am, now that we can rely on automake

to emit a definition for each substituted variable.

However, there is still one case in which @VAR@ use is not just

legitimate, but actually required: when augmenting an automake-defined

variable with a prefix. For example, gettext uses this:


otherwise, makeinfo would put German or French (current locale)

navigation hints in the otherwise-English documentation.

Allow the package to add exceptions via a hook in cfg.mk;

for example, @PRAGMA_SYSTEM_HEADER@ can be permitted by

setting this to ' && !/PRAGMA_SYSTEM_HEADER/'.

makefile_at_at_check_exceptions ?= sc_makefile_at_at_check: @perl -ne '/\@\w+\@/' \ -e ' && !/(\w+)\s+=.*\@\1\@$$/' \ -e ''$(_makefile_at_at_check_exceptions) \ -e 'and (print "$$ARGV:$$.: $$"), $$m=1; END {exit !$$m}' \ $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT) | grep -E '(^|/)(Makefile.am|[^/]+.mk)$$') \ && { echo '$(ME): use $$(...), not @...@' 1>&2; exit 1; } || :

sc_makefile_TAB_only_indentation: @prohibit='^ [ ]{8}' \ in_vc_files='akefile|.mk$$' \ halt='found TAB-8-space indentation' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_m4_quote_check: @prohibit='(AC_DEFINE(_UNQUOTED)?|AC_DEFUN)([^[]' \ in_vc_files='(^configure.ac|.m4)$$' \ halt='quote the first arg to AC_DEF*' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

fix_po_file_diag = \ 'you have changed the set of files with translatable diagnostics;\n\ apply the above patch\n'

Verify that all source files using _() (more specifically, files that

match $(_gl_translatable_string_re)) are listed in po/POTFILES.in.

po_file ?= $(srcdir)/po/POTFILES.in generated_files ?= $(srcdir)/lib/.[ch] gl_translatable_string_re ?= \b(N?|gettext )([^)"]("|$$) sc_po_check: @if test -f $(po_file); then \ grep -E -v '^(#|$$)' $(po_file) \ | grep -v '^src/false.c$$' | sort > $@-1; \ files=; \ for file in $$($(VC_LIST_EXCEPT)) $(generated_files); do \ test -r $$file || continue; \ case $$file in \ .m4|.mk) continue ;; \ .?|.??) ;; \ ) continue;; \ esac; \ case $$file in \ *.[ch]) \ base=expr " $$file" : ' \(.*\)\..'; \ { test -f $$base.l || test -f $$base.y; } && continue;; \ esac; \ files="$$files $$file"; \ done; \ grep -E -l '$(_gl_translatable_string_re)' $$files \ | sed 's|^$(_dot_escaped_srcdir)/||' | sort -u > $@-2; \ diff -u -L $(po_file) -L $(po_file) $@-1 $@-2 \ || { printf '$(ME): '$(fix_po_file_diag) 1>&2; exit 1; }; \ rm -f $@-1 $@-2; \ fi

Sometimes it is useful to change the PATH environment variable

in Makefiles. When doing so, it's better not to use the Unix-centric

path separator of ':', but rather the automake-provided '$(PATH_SEPARATOR)'.

msg = 'Do not use ":" above; use $$(PATH_SEPARATOR) instead' sc_makefile_path_separator_check: @prohibit='PATH[=].*:' \ in_vc_files='akefile|.mk$$' \ halt=$(msg) \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

v_etc_file = $(gnulib_dir)/lib/version-etc.c sample-test = tests/sample-test texi = doc/$(PACKAGE).texi

Make sure that the copyright date in $(v_etc_file) is up to date.

Do the same for the $(sample-test) and the main doc/.texi file.

sc_copyright_check: @require='enum { COPYRIGHT_YEAR = '$$(date +%Y)' };' \ in_files=$(v_etc_file) \ halt='out of date copyright in $(v_etc_file); update it' \ $(_sc_search_regexp) @require='# Copyright (C) '$$(date +%Y)' Free' \ in_vc_files=$(sample-test) \ halt='out of date copyright in $(sample-test); update it' \ $(_sc_search_regexp) @require='Copyright @copyright{} .*'$$(date +%Y)' Free' \ in_vc_files=$(texi) \ halt='out of date copyright in $(texi); update it' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

#if HAVE_... will evaluate to false for any non numeric string.

That would be flagged by using -Wundef, however gnulib currently

tests many undefined macros, and so we can't enable that option.

So at least preclude common boolean strings as macro values.

sc_Wundef_boolean: @prohibit='^#define.*(yes|no|true|false)$$' \ in_files='$(CONFIG_INCLUDE)' \ halt='Use 0 or 1 for macro values' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

Even if you use pathmax.h to guarantee that PATH_MAX is defined, it might

not be constant, or might overflow a stack. In general, use PATH_MAX as

a limit, not an array or alloca size.

sc_prohibit_path_max_allocation: @prohibit='(\balloca ([^)]|[[^]]*)\bPATH_MAX' \ halt='Avoid stack allocations of size PATH_MAX' \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_vulnerable_makefile_CVE-2009-4029: @prohibit='perm -777 -exec chmod a+rwx|chmod 777 \$$(distdir)' \ in_files='(^|/)Makefile.in$$' \ halt=$$(printf '%s\n' \ 'the above files are vulnerable; beware of running' \ ' "make dist*" rules, and upgrade to fixed automake' \ ' see http://bugzilla.redhat.com/542609 for details') \ $(_sc_search_regexp)

sc_vulnerable_makefile_CVE-2012-3386: @prohibit='chmod a+w \$$(distdir)' \ in_files='(^|/)Makefile.in$$' \ halt=$$(printf '%s\n' \ 'the above files are vulnerable; beware of running' \ ' "make distcheck", and upgrade to fixed automake' \ ' see http://bugzilla.redhat.com/CVE-2012-3386 for details') \ $(_sc_search_regexp)




EXTRA_DIST += \ $(_build-aux)/sanity.mk \ $(NOTHING_ELSE)