Copyright 1997, 1999-2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This file is part of the GNU MP Library.

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    later version.

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This directory contains mpn functions for 64-bit V9 SPARC


  IANY = shift/add/sub/logical/sethi
  IADDLOG = add/sub/logical/sethi
  MEM = ld*/st*
  FA = fadd*/fsub*/f*to*/fmov*
  FM = fmul*

UltraSPARC can issue four instructions per cycle, with these restrictions:
* Two IANY instructions, but only one of these may be a shift.  If there is a
  shift and an IANY instruction, the shift must precede the IANY instruction.
* One FA.
* One FM.
* One branch.
* One MEM.
* IANY/IADDLOG/MEM must be insn 1, 2, or 3 in an issue bundle.  Taken branches
  should not be in slot 4, since that makes the delay insn come from separate
* If two IANY/IADDLOG instructions are to be executed in the same cycle and one
  of these is setting the condition codes, that instruction must be the second

To summarize, ignoring branches, these are the bundles that can reach the peak
execution speed:

insn1	iany	iany	mem	iany	iany	mem	iany	iany	mem
insn2	iaddlog	mem	iany	mem	iaddlog	iany	mem	iaddlog	iany
insn3	mem	iaddlog	iaddlog	fa	fa	fa	fm	fm	fm
insn4	fa/fm	fa/fm	fa/fm	fm	fm	fm	fa	fa	fa

The 64-bit integer multiply instruction mulx takes from 5 cycles to 35 cycles,
depending on the position of the most significant bit of the first source
operand.  When used for 32x32->64 multiplication, it needs 20 cycles.
Furthermore, it stalls the processor while executing.  We stay away from that
instruction, and instead use floating-point operations.

Floating-point add and multiply units are fully pipelined.  The latency for
UltraSPARC-1/2 is 3 cycles and for UltraSPARC-3 it is 4 cycles.

Integer conditional move instructions cannot dual-issue with other integer
instructions.  No conditional move can issue 1-5 cycles after a load.  (This
might have been fixed for UltraSPARC-3.)

The UltraSPARC-3 pipeline is very simular to the one of UltraSPARC-1/2 , but is
somewhat slower.  Branches execute slower, and there may be other new stalls.
But integer multiply doesn't stall the entire CPU and also has a much lower
latency.  But it's still not pipelined, and thus useless for our needs.


* mpn_lshift, mpn_rshift: The current code runs at 2.0 cycles/limb on
  UltraSPARC-1/2 and 2.65 on UltraSPARC-3.  For UltraSPARC-1/2, the IEU0
  functional unit is saturated with shifts.

* mpn_add_n, mpn_sub_n: The current code runs at 4 cycles/limb on
  UltraSPARC-1/2 and 4.5 cycles/limb on UltraSPARC-3.  The 4 instruction
  recurrency is the speed limiter.

* mpn_addmul_1: The current code runs at 14 cycles/limb asymptotically on
  UltraSPARC-1/2 and 17.5 cycles/limb on UltraSPARC-3.  On UltraSPARC-1/2, the
  code sustains 4 instructions/cycle.  It might be possible to invent a better
  way of summing the intermediate 49-bit operands, but it is unlikely that it
  will save enough instructions to save an entire cycle.

  The load-use of the u operand is not enough scheduled for good L2 cache
  performance.  The UltraSPARC-1/2 L1 cache is direct mapped, and since we use
  temporary stack slots that will conflict with the u and r operands, we miss
  to L2 very often.  The load-use of the std/ldx pairs via the stack are
  perhaps over-scheduled.

  It would be possible to save two instructions: (1) The mov could be avoided
  if the std/ldx were less scheduled.  (2) The ldx of the r operand could be
  split into two ld instructions, saving the shifts/masks.

  It should be possible to reach 14 cycles/limb for UltraSPARC-3 if the fp
  operations where rescheduled for this processor's 4-cycle latency.

* mpn_mul_1: The current code is a straightforward edit of the mpn_addmul_1
  code.  It would be possible to shave one or two cycles from it, with some

* mpn_submul_1: Simpleminded code just calling mpn_mul_1 + mpn_sub_n.  This
  means that it runs at 18 cycles/limb on UltraSPARC-1/2 and 23 cycles/limb on
  UltraSPARC-3.  It would be possible to either match the mpn_addmul_1
  performance, or in the worst case use one more instruction group.

* US1/US2 cache conflict resolving.  The direct mapped L1 date cache of US1/US2
  is a problem for mul_1, addmul_1 (and a prospective submul_1).  We should
  allocate a larger cache area, and put the stack temp area in a place that
  doesn't cause cache conflicts.