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This is ../../doc/dc.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.8 from


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../../doc/dc.texi.


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STARTINFODIRENTRY


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* dc: (dc). Arbitrary precision RPN "Desktop Calculator".


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ENDINFODIRENTRY


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This manual documents version 1.4.1 of GNU `dc', an arbitrary


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precision calculator.


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Copyright (C) 1984, 1994, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2013,


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2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.


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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this


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document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,


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Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software


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Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no FrontCover Texts,


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and with no BackCover Texts. A copy of the license can be found


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at `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.html' .


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Top, Next: Introduction, Up: (dir)


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GNU dc


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******


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This manual documents version 1.4.1 of GNU `dc', an arbitrary precision


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calculator.


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Copyright (C) 1984, 1994, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2013,


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2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.


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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this


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document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,


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Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software


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Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no FrontCover Texts,


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and with no BackCover Texts. A copy of the license can be found


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at `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.html' .


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* Menu:


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* Introduction:: Introduction


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* Invocation:: Invocation


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* Printing Commands:: Printing Commands


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* Arithmetic:: Arithmetic


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* Stack Control:: Stack Control


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* Registers:: Registers


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* Parameters:: Parameters


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* Strings:: Strings


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* Status Inquiry:: Status Inquiry


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* Miscellaneous:: Other commands


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* Reporting bugs:: Reporting bugs


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Introduction, Next: Invocation, Prev: Top, Up: Top


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1 Introduction


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**************


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`dc' is a reversepolish desk calculator which supports unlimited


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precision arithmetic. It also allows you to define and call macros.


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Normally `dc' reads from the standard input; if any command arguments


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are given to it, they are filenames, and `dc' reads and executes the


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contents of the files instead of reading from standard input. All


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normal output is to standard output; all error messages are written to


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standard error.


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To exit, use `q'. `Cc' (or whatever other keystroke your system


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uses to generate a `SIGINT') does not exit; it is used to abort macros


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that are looping, etc.


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A reversepolish calculator stores numbers on a stack. Entering a


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number pushes it on the stack. Arithmetic operations pop arguments off


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the stack and push the results.


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To enter a number in `dc', type the digits (using upper case letters


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`A' through `F' as "digits" when working with input bases greater than


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ten), with an optional decimal point. Exponential notation is not


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supported. To enter a negative number, begin the number with `_'. `'


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cannot be used for this, as it is a binary operator for subtraction


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instead. To enter two numbers in succession, separate them with spaces


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or newlines; these have no meaning as commands.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Invocation, Next: Printing Commands, Prev: Introduction, Up: Top


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2 Invocation


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************


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`dc' may be invoked with the following commandline options:


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`e EXPR'


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`expression=EXPR'


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Evaluate EXPR as `dc' commands.


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`f FILE'


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`file=FILE'


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Read and evaluate `dc' commands from FILE.


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`h'


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`help'


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Print a usage message summarizing the commandline options, then


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exit.


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`V'


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`version'


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Print the version information for this program, then exit.


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If any commandline parameters remain after processing the options,


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these parameters are interpreted as additional FILEs whose contents are


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read and evaluated. A file name of `' refers to the standard input


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stream. If no `e' option was specified, and no files were specified,


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then the standard input will be read for commands to evaluate.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Printing Commands, Next: Arithmetic, Prev: Invocation, Up: Top


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3 Printing Commands


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*******************


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`p'


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Prints the value on the top of the stack, without altering the


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stack. A newline is printed after the value.


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`n'


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Prints the value on the top of the stack, popping it off, and does


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not print a newline after. (This command is a GNU extension.)


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`P'


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Pops off the value on top of the stack. If it it a string, it is


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simply printed without a trailing newline. Otherwise it is a


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number, and the integer portion of its absolute value is printed


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out as a "base (UCHAR_MAX+1)" byte stream. Assuming that


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(UCHAR_MAX+1) is 256 (as it is on most machines with 8bit bytes),


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the sequence `KSK0k1/ _1Ss[ls*]Sxd0>x [256~Ssd0


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sx[q]Sq[Lsd0>qaPlxx]dsxx sx0sqLqsxLxLK+k' could also accomplish


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this function. (Much of the complexity of the above nativedc


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code is due to the ~ computing the characters backwards, and the


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desire to ensure that all registers wind up back in their original


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states.) (Details of the behavior with a number are a GNU


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extension. Traditional `dc' happened to "support" similar


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functionality for a limited range of inputs as an accidental


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sideeffect of its internal representation of numbers.)


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`f'


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Prints the entire contents of the stack without altering anything.


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This is a good command to use if you are lost or want to figure


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out what the effect of some command has been.


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All numeric output is split to fit within 70 columns, by default.


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When a number is broken up in this way, the split is indicated by a "\"


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at the end of the tobecontinued output lines. The column width at


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which output is split can be overridden by setting the DC_LINE_LENGTH


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environment variable to the desired width. A DC_LINE_LENGTH of 0


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(zero) disables the linesplit feature altogether. Invalid values of


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DC_LINE_LENGTH are silently ignored. (The DC_LINE_LENGTH variable is a


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GNU extension.)


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Arithmetic, Next: Stack Control, Prev: Printing Commands, Up: Top


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4 Arithmetic


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************


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`+'


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Pops two values off the stack, adds them, and pushes the result.


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The precision of the result is determined only by the values of


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the arguments, and is enough to be exact.


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`'


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Pops two values, subtracts the first one popped from the second


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one popped, and pushes the result.


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`*'


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Pops two values, multiplies them, and pushes the result. The


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number of fraction digits in the result is the largest of the


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precision value, the number of fraction digits in the multiplier,


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or the number of fraction digits in the multiplicand; but in no


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event exceeding the number of digits required for an exact result.


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`/'


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Pops two values, divides the second one popped from the first one


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popped, and pushes the result. The number of fraction digits is


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specified by the precision value.


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`%'


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Pops two values, computes the remainder of the division that the


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`/' command would do, and pushes that. The value computed is the


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same as that computed by the sequence `Sd dld/ Ld*' .


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`~'


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Pops two values, divides the second one popped from the first one


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popped. The quotient is pushed first, and the remainder is pushed


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next. The number of fraction digits used in the division is


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specified by the precision value. (The sequence `SdSn lnld/


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LnLd%' could also accomplish this function, with slightly


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different error checking.) (This command is a GNU extension.)


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`^'


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Pops two values and exponentiates, using the first value popped as


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the exponent and the second popped as the base. The fraction part


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of the exponent is ignored. The precision value specifies the


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number of fraction digits in the result.


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`'


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Pops three values and computes a modular exponentiation. The


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first value popped is used as the reduction modulus; this value


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must be a nonzero number, and the result may not be accurate if


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the modulus is not an integer. The second popped is used as the


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exponent; this value must be a nonnegative number, and any


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fractional part of this exponent will be ignored. The third value


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popped is the base which gets exponentiated, which should be an


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integer. For small integers this is like the sequence `Sm^Lm%',


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but, unlike `^', this command will work with arbitrarily large


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exponents. (This command is a GNU extension.)


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`v'


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Pops one value, computes its square root, and pushes that. The


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maximum of the precision value and the precision of the argument


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is used to determine the number of fraction digits in the result.


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Most arithmetic operations are affected by the _precision value_,


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which you can set with the `k' command. The default precision value is


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zero, which means that all arithmetic except for addition and


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subtraction produces integer results.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Stack Control, Next: Registers, Prev: Arithmetic, Up: Top


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5 Stack Control


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***************


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`c'


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Clears the stack, rendering it empty.


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`d'


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Duplicates the value on the top of the stack, pushing another copy


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of it. Thus, `4d*p' computes 4 squared and prints it.


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`r'


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Reverses the order of (swaps) the top two values on the stack.


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(This can also be accomplished with the sequence `SaSbLaLb'.)


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(This command is a GNU extension.)


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`R'


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Pops the topofstack as an integer N. Cyclically rotates the top


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N items on the updated stack. If N is positive, then the rotation


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direction will make the topmost element the secondfrom top; if N


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is negative, then the rotation will make the topmost element the


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Nth element from the top. If the stack depth is less than N then


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the entire stack is rotated (in the appropriate direction),


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without any error being reported. (This command is a GNU


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extension.)


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Registers, Next: Parameters, Prev: Stack Control, Up: Top


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6 Registers


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***********


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`dc' provides at least 256 memory registers(1), each named by a single


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character. You can store a number in a register and retrieve it later.


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`sR'


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Pop the value off the top of the stack and store it into register


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R.


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`lR'


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Copy the value in register R, and push it onto the stack. The


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value `0' is retrieved if the register is uninitialized or its


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stack has become empty. This does not alter the contents of R.


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Each register also contains its own stack. The current register


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value is the top of the register's stack.


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`SR'


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Pop the value off the top of the (main) stack and push it onto the


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stack of register R. The previous value of the register becomes


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inaccessible.


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`LR'


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Pop the value off the top of register R's stack and push it onto


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the main stack. The previous value in register R's stack, if any,


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is now accessible via the `lR' command.


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 Footnotes 


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(1) The exact number of registers provided by `dc' depends on the


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range of an `unsigned char' in the C compiler used to create the `dc'


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executable.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Parameters, Next: Strings, Prev: Registers, Up: Top


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7 Parameters


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************


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`dc' has three parameters that control its operation: the precision,


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the input radix, and the output radix. The precision specifies the


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number of fraction digits to keep in the result of most arithmetic


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operations. The input radix controls the interpretation of numbers


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typed in; _all_ numbers typed in use this radix. The output radix is


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used for printing numbers.


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The input and output radices are separate parameters; you can make


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them unequal, which can be useful or confusing. The input radix must


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be between 2 and 16 inclusive. The output radix must be at least 2.


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The precision must be zero or greater. The precision is always


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measured in decimal digits, regardless of the current input or output


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radix.


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`i'


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Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the


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input radix.


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`o'


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Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the


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output radix.


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`k'


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Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the


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precision.


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`I'


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Pushes the current input radix on the stack.


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`O'


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Pushes the current output radix on the stack.


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`K'


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Pushes the current precision on the stack.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Strings, Next: Status Inquiry, Prev: Parameters, Up: Top


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8 Strings


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*********


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`dc' has a limited ability to operate on strings as well as on numbers;


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the only things you can do with strings are print them and execute them


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as macros (which means that the contents of the string are processed as


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`dc' commands). Both registers and the stack can hold strings, and


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`dc' always knows whether any given object is a string or a number.


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Some commands such as arithmetic operations demand numbers as arguments


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and print errors if given strings. Other commands can accept either a


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number or a string; for example, the `p' command can accept either and


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prints the object according to its type.


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`[CHARACTERS]'


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Makes a string containing CHARACTERS and pushes it on the stack.


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For example, `[foo]P' prints the characters `foo' (with no


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newline). Note that all square brackets (`['s and `]'s) must be


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balanced; there is no mechanism provided for handling unbalanced


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square brackets.


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`a'


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The mnemonic for this is somewhat erroneous: asciify. The


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topofstack is popped. If it was a number, then the loworder


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byte of this number is converted into a 1character string and


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pushed onto the stack. Otherwise the topofstack was a string,


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and the first character of that string is pushed back. (This


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command is a GNU extension.)


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`x'


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Pops a value off the stack and executes it as a macro. Normally


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it should be a string; if it is a number, it is simply pushed back


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onto the stack. For example, `[1p]x' executes the macro `1p',


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which pushes 1 on the stack and prints `1' on a separate line.


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Macros are most often stored in registers; `[1p]sa' stores a macro


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to print `1' into register `a', and `lax' invokes the macro.


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`>R'


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Pops two values off the stack and compares them assuming they are


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numbers, executing the contents of register R as a macro if the


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original topofstack is greater. Thus, `1 2>a' will invoke


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register `a''s contents and `2 1>a' will not.


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`!>R'


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Similar but invokes the macro if the original topofstack is not


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greater (is less than or equal to) what was the secondtotop.


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`


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Similar but invokes the macro if the original topofstack is less.


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`!


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Similar but invokes the macro if the original topofstack is not


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less (is greater than or equal to) what was the secondtotop.


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`=R'


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Similar but invokes the macro if the two numbers popped are equal.


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`!=R'


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Similar but invokes the macro if the two numbers popped are not


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equal.


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`?'


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Reads a line from the terminal and executes it. This command


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allows a macro to request input from the user.


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`q'


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During the execution of a macro, this command exits from the macro


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and also from the macro which invoked it. If called from the top


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level, or from a macro which was called directly from the top


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level, the `q' command will cause `dc' to exit.


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`Q'


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Pops a value off the stack and uses it as a count of levels of


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macro execution to be exited. Thus, `3Q' exits three levels.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Status Inquiry, Next: Miscellaneous, Prev: Strings, Up: Top


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9 Status Inquiry


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****************


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`Z'


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Pops a value off the stack, calculates the number of decimal


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digits it has (or number of characters, if it is a string) and


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pushes that number.


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Note that the digit count for a number does _not_ include any


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leading zeros, even if those appear to the right of the radix


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point. This may seem a bit strange at first, but it is compatible


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with historical implementations of `dc', and can be argued to be


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useful for computing the magnitude of a value: `dSaXLaZ' will


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compute the poweroften multiplier which would be needed to shift


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the decimal point to be immediately before the leftmost nonzero


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digit.


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`X'


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Pops a value off the stack, calculates the number of fraction


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digits it has, and pushes that number. For a string, the value


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pushed is 0.


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`z'


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Pushes the current stack depth: the number of objects on the stack


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before the execution of the `z' command.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Miscellaneous, Next: Reporting bugs, Prev: Status Inquiry, Up: Top


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10 Miscellaneous


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****************


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`!'


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Will run the rest of the line as a system command. Note that


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parsing of the !<, !=, and !> commands take precedence, so if you


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want to run a command starting with <, =, or > you will need to


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add a space after the !.


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`#'


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Will interpret the rest of the line as a comment. (This command


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is a GNU extension.)


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`:R'


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Will pop the top two values off of the stack. The old


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secondtotop value will be stored in the array R, indexed by the


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old topofstack value.


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`;R'


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Pops the topofstack and uses it as an index into the array R.


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The selected value is then pushed onto the stack.


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Note that each stacked instance of a register has its own array


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associated with it. Thus `1 0:A 0SA 2 0:A LA 0;Ap' will print 1,


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because the 2 was stored in an instance of 0:A that was later popped.


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?


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File: dc.info, Node: Reporting bugs, Prev: Miscellaneous, Up: Top


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11 Reporting bugs


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*****************


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Email bug reports to <bugdc@gnu.org>.


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?


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Tag Table:


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Node: Top795


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Node: Introduction1965


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Node: Invocation3314


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Node: Printing Commands4165


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Node: Arithmetic6210


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Node: Stack Control9186


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Node: Registers10177


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Ref: RegistersFootnote111242


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Node: Parameters11394


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Node: Strings12659


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Node: Status Inquiry15816


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Node: Miscellaneous16884


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Node: Reporting bugs17857


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?


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End Tag Table
